The most popular techno-fix for global warming is green energy. If energy companies would only deploy wind, hydro, solar, geothermal or nuclear, then emission-intensive fossil fuels will eventually disappear. But will that actually work?
A new study by Richard York of the University of Oregon shows that it isnâ€™t that simple. Rather than displacing fossil fuels, green energy sources have proven to be mostly additive.
â€œDo alternative energy sources displace fossil fuels?â€ published last month in Nature Climate Change, discusses what happened when alternative energy sources were introduced in countries around the world, over the past fifty years.
Contrary to the accepted wisdom that new green energy replaces fossil-fuel use, York found that on average each unit of energy use from non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than a quarter of a unit of energy use from fossil-fuel sources.
The picture is worse with electricity, where each new unit generated from green sources displaced less than one-tenth of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity.
â€œBased on all of the results presented above, the answer to the question presented in the title of this paper â€“ do alternative energy sources displace fossil fuels? â€“ is yes, but only very modestly. The common assumption that the expansion of production of alternative energy will suppress fossil-fuel energy production in equal proportion is clearly wrong.â€
Why donâ€™t the new sources replace the old? York identifies two key reasons: the inertia of a huge existing fossil-fuel infrastructure, and the power and influence of the coal and oil corporations.
â€œThe failure of non-fossil energy sources to displace fossil ones is probably in part attributable to the established energy system where there is a lock-in to using fossil fuels as the base energy source because of their long-standing prevalence and existing infrastructure and to the political and economic power of the fossil-fuel industry.â€
In other words, eliminating fossil-fuel as an energy source is at least as much a social and political problem as a technical one.
â€œOf course all societies need energy. So, obviously, if societies are to stop using fossil fuels they must have other energy sources. However, the results from the analyses presented here indicate that the shift away from fossil fuel does not happen inevitably with the expansion of non-fossil-fuel sources, or at least in the political and economic contexts that have been dominant over the past fifty years around the worldâ€¦.
â€œThe most effective strategy for curbing carbon emissions is likely to be one that aims to not only develop non-fossil energy sources, but also to find ways to alter political and economic contexts so that fossil-fuel energy is more easily displaced and to curtail the growth in energy consumption as much as possible.
â€œA general implication of these findings is that polices aimed at addressing global climate change should not focus principally on developing technological fixes, but should also take into account human behaviour in the context of political, economic and social systems.â€
The evidence shows that simply introducing green energy isnâ€™t enough: the introduction must be accompanied by â€œexplicit policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions.â€
The article is published in a scientific journal, where political and social conclusions can only be expressed in muted form. But Richard Yorkâ€™s research and conclusions reinforce the argument that he and his co-authors (John Bellamy Foster and Brett Clark) made more explicitly in their recent book, The Ecological Rift: Capitalismâ€™s War on the Planet.
â€œWe are confronting the question of a terminal crisis, threatening most life on the planet, civilization, and the very existence of future generations. â€¦ attempts to solve this through technological fixes, market magic, and the idea of a â€˜sustainable capitalismâ€™ are mere forms of ecological denial, since they ignore the inherent destructiveness of the current system of unsustainable development â€“ capitalism.â€