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  2. 4 Ways A Green Office Leads To Green Profits By now, the idea of going green in the business world is probably thought of as an overused cliché. However, you don’t have to live in Southern California and drive a Prius to reap the benefits of green business practices. In actuality, many of these business strategies save money in addition to lowering your company’s impact on the environment. Below are four examples you should seriously consider adopting. Go Paperless One definite way to slash costs is to abandon printing. You should be aware that the average printing cost per employee in an office is $725 per year. If you have a lot of employees, that’s a lot of money. Thankfully, nearly everything you can do with paper documents can be replicated and even improved upon with digital files. There’s really no reason to continue using paper at all. Update Your Lighting Lighting is something else that can save you money when you go green. Compared to traditional incandescent light bulbs, energy efficient lights can use anywhere from 25 to 80 percent less energy to provide the same amount of light. They also last a lot longer as well. This includes CFL, LED and halogen incandescent lighting. Upgrading to energy efficient lighting is one easy way to go green and save money at the same time. Update Your Plumbing Similarly, energy efficient plumbing fixtures can save you a decent amount of money. They use less water to operate. Since you are likely using city water, they can certainly save money in the long run. Installing a solar water heater from companies like Clearwater Plumbing can also help to lower your reliance on other much more expensive heating options like a traditional furnace that uses either electricity or natural gas to heat a home. Obtain Energy Audits Lastly, you should consider getting energy audits every year or every other year. This audit performed by a third party can tell you all the ways you are wasting energy and electricity in your office and the rest of your business as well. After making adjustments, you’ll have a much more efficient operation that wastes far less energy. Overhead such as your utility bills will shrink as a result. Overall, while going green may be a cliché, that doesn’t mean the trend is ever going away. Energy efficiency can do far more than help the environment. It’s also a cost cutting measure that increases efficiency and lowers overhead expense. Consider different ways your company can go green and save money at the same time.
  3. No matter your stance on global warming, everyone can agree that living “green” is a good idea. After all, it’s always good to take care of the environment and save a lot of money in the process. If you’ve gone down the green living path, you may think you’re living just about as efficiently as you can. However, if you haven’t considered your heating system, all those other green living practices could end up negated. Here are a few ways to ensure your heating system is matching the green goals of the rest of your lifestyle. Filter Woes Even if you have a newer heating system, a dirty filter will quickly make it largely inefficient. Dirty filters make it much harder for the system to ingest air, causing the blower motor to work harder, resulting in increased electricity usage and extra wear and tear. It’s a good idea to check your filters at least once a month to see if they need to be changed, though if you live in a dusty climate or frequently have your windows open, you may want to check your filter more frequently. Working Hard Before the cooler weather really sets in, it’s important to have a professional HVAC company take a look at your heating system to ensure it’s in peak operating condition. Dust and dirt can accumulate on various components throughout your system, causing it to operate less efficiently. In addition, individual components within the system may wear out or stop working altogether, requiring replacement to ensure your system works well. Empty Spaces If you have a central heating system, it’s important to ensure that your system is only heating the parts of your home that are actually occupied. Otherwise, you’ll be paying extra money and using extra energy to heat air that will never be enjoyed. You can direct the heat by closing the registers in unused rooms, and then keeping the doors closed to those rooms so the cooler air within them doesn’t cool down the rest of your home. End of the Road At some point, even the highest-quality heating systems will need to be replaced. As your system heads toward the end of its life, it will continue to become less efficient, no matter what steps you take. It’s important to have your new system installed by qualified HVAC professionals to ensure that it’s installed properly to ensure it can heat your home efficiently for many years to come. Then, once you have it installed, it’s important to follow the tips above to keep it working at its best. Keep the Cold Out The best way to keep your heating system from working too hard is to prevent the heat it produces from escaping your home. This is only possible through proper insulation techniques, from wall and attic insulation to proper caulking around doors and windows. When you combine proper insulation with an efficient heating system, you end up with a powerful combination that will keep you warm and comfortable while allowing you to maintain your green lifestyle.
  4. Often people think that being environmentally friendly means recycling. And, yes recycling is important, but it is not the only change companies can adopt, in order to conserve resources and to reduce pollution. Famous brands have understood that being environmentally friendly means reducing the amount of waste generated by their operations. Why did these companies decide to go green? They have multiple reasons: - They know it is good for the planet - They want to conserve resources - They want to cut down their waste By doing this they will manage to save money, and as everyone already knows, the main goal of businesses is to increase their revenue. Companies are in a constant search for methods they can use to go greener. The following brands are known worldwide and they are taking the lead into transforming their operations into more sustainable practices. McDonalds Not long ago McDonalds was one of the negative examples, when we were thinking about the impact companies have on the environment. However, they decided to shift their perspective and to opt for greener strategies. They decided to be the ones who send a signal to the other popular fast-food brands. Nowadays we can refer to McDonalds as one of the leaders in the eco-friendly movement. All their restaurants use energy-efficient appliances, because they considered crucial to reducing the overall energy consumption. Also, McDonalds is presently collaborating with PETA, because they want to transform the brand into one that has humane and friendly practices. Multiple restaurants offer green parking lots available only for hybrid vehicles, so their buyers are encouraged to change the cars they use for ones that do less harm to the planet. The parking space has permeable concrete. Home Depot Home Depot is the true example of a company that struggled a lot to change their practices into greener ones. Home Depot was hit by numerous protests and demonstrations after it was designed as the world’s largest retailer of old-growth wood products, by Rainforest Action Network. But not the protests and demonstrations were the ones that convinced Home Depot to change their actions, the more than 45,000 letters and calls are the ones that forced them to change their perspective. They adopted a no old-growth sales policy and this was only the first step in the long process. Google Google does its best to support green energy projects, because it is the type of company that is known for the enormous amount of energy it consumes. Google designed the world’s most efficient data centres, and it is a leader when it comes to creating campaigns that promote energy conservation and the usage of renewable energy sources. Google is one of the biggest sponsors of projects that focus on green energy. It invested in solar panels and windmills to create more green energy sources. Starbucks Starbucks is proud to share with the world their bean-to-cup approach. It improves their efficiency at all levels in the supply chain. Everyone considers this program a success, because Starbucks is using coffee cup sleeves made from recycled paper. Their initiative saves around 80,000 trees every year since 2006. Starbucks has also started multiple collaborations with environmental organisations, because they want to make sure that help the communities it operates in. Tesla Motors Tesla Motors is a well-known brand for its eco-friendly cars. The company became famous because they managed to produce eco-friendly cars that meet the same levels of speed and power, the other vehicles do. Tesla Motors manufactures electric powered vehicles sold around the world. People prefer this brand because the overall maintenance and care costs are lower compared with the ones from other cars. Honda Auto companies have difficulties into becoming eco-friendly businesses, but Honda gets involved in a process composed of multiple steps that transformed it into a green business. They managed to find a way to manufacture fuel-efficient vehicles, and they do not stop here. They are in a constant search for improving their vehicles and they are presently seeking for a way to create a hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicle. Auto companies not only that do their best to produce eco-friendly vehicles they also have to make sure that they recycle their waste. Miltek recommends auto companies to establish collaborations with businesses specialised in recycling trash in safety conditions. Honda states that they are also working on reducing carbon dioxide emissions and they want in the future their cars to be powered by hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline. Toyota Everyone around the world has heard about Toyota, because it is the largest car producer. They are also famous for manufacturing cars that reduce the carbon footprint. Prius is the world’s first hybrid vehicle, and it is considered one of the most amazing vehicles people were ever able to drive. This car is worldwide acknowledged for its efficient consumption, and it occupies leading places in the top of cars that emit the least amount of carbon. Wal-Mart Wal-Mart has a bad reputation when it comes to companies that do efforts to become greener. But, in the present they have started an ambitious project, they want to use renewable energy sources to power all their stores. And they want to use only renewable energy for doing it. Wal-Mart declared that they want to organise all their operations according to a waste-eliminating policy. Not only that their stores will be 100% fuelled by renewable energy, but they will transform all their operations into more eco-friendly ones. Coca Cola Coca Cola has established three main goals they want to achieve, regarding to environment preservation. They focus on preserving water supplies, climate and energy protection, and sustainable packaging. All these initiatives are ambitious, and it implies all their operations to be conducted according to sustainable rules. But the efforts Coca Cola is making to protect the planet do not stop here. They are getting involved in projects that promote recycling, green packaging designs and energy efficient production of supplies. The above companies are examples of how businesses can become leaders in the green revolution. They will encourage other brands to include in their operations more eco-friendly and sustainable business practices.
  5. The importance of taking better care of our environment has become an incredibly popular idea which has spread all around the world. More and more people have noticed or experienced the changes of the environment which have been caused by the negligence and actions of humans who did not pay enough attention to the natural resources or how their actions affect the world we live in. Extreme weather conditions and heavy pollution caused by the traffic and the negligent production of the large factories and the individuals who do not recycle the waste they produce have become something which affects us all because it has led to numerous health affections such as respiratory problems and allergies which people have developed due to the fact that the environment which we live in is not a healthy one anymore. Here are some changes which you implement in your lifestyle to become an environmentally-friendly person. Make your home greener One of the most important and influential steps which you need to make when you decide to become an environmentally-friendly person is to improve your home to become a greener one. The home which you live in is the place where you spend most of your time, so, apart from the fact that by transforming it into an eco-friendly one, you are going to help the environment, you are also going to improve your health by living in a healthier environment. There are numerous ways which you can use to transform your home in a green one such as insulating it to avoid heat loss throughout the walls of your house and reduce the electrical bills, reduce the water waste of your household by collecting the rainwater which you can use for chores such as watering the plants or lawn or washing your car, consider renting a temporary boiler only for the cold months, use sunlight as much as possible instead of turning on all the lights inside your house, use your creativity to repurpose old items rather than throwing them away, and recycle all the waste which your household produces by buying large colored cans designed for separating the waste in order to make it easier to take it to a recycling company which can make sure the waste is reused properly. Donate We all have numerous items which we find useless because they are not in a perfect shape anymore or simply because when we have bought them, they seemed to be incredibly useful but ended up in a drawer which we never open. Since you definitely have a bunch of clutter inside your home, you could go green and get rid of them by donating them to the people who need it rather than throwing them in the trash. Apart from the fact that you are going to help the environment by not wasting items which can still be used, you are also going to have a lot of personal satisfaction by seeing that you have made someone smile. Use your bike or public transportation instead of the car One of the biggest factors which have a huge negative influence on the environment is the pollution caused by heavy traffic all over the world. If you wish to become an environmentally-friendly person, you should make sure that you no longer contribute to the pollution which slowly destroys our environment and start using your bike or public transportation to travel from a place to another, rather than your personal car. Start recycling Apart from the fact the individuals produce a big amount of waste at their households, in everyday life, no matter where they are, they also produce waste such as plastic bags or bottles from the foods and drinks which they consume. As an eco-friendly person, you need to make sure that you look for colored cans designed for recycling to throw your trash rather than throwing it in a place where it will never be repurposed. Go paperless We live in the era of the technology and the internet, so, going paperless should not be that hard. We already use numerous apps for almost any task which we complete during our everyday life. So, you could, for example, opt for online billing rather than to be sent a paper bill which you are going to throw anyway and contribute to the waste produced. Volunteer in eco-friendly activities Since the awareness of protecting the environment has become such a popular topic, there are numerous organizations which unite the individuals who want to join the cause of taking better care of our environment. In order to be part of this cause and help the environment which we all live in, you need to consider volunteering in eco-friendly activities such as planting trees, collecting garbage at community cleanups, or spreading the awareness to people who are less informed about the best ways which they can implement in their everyday lives to give a hand in protecting the environment.
  6. Waste is not pretty, and some of it is beginning to hurt the environment in more ways than one. This is the reason you need to take steps to reduce the waste you produce. The following are four ways you can do that for the good of the planet. House Inspection A good house inspection can help reduce waste in various ways; for example, you can seal up holes or cracks. These imperfections could be forcing you to use more energy than needed by forcing your AC to work harder to keep your home comfortable. You will not only be reducing energy waste, but you'll end up saving money. Upgrading your home to a smart digital thermometer may give you a tax cut, but also decrease the utilities that you waste. This is great because you can save on utilities consumed while saving money. Composting Forward Composting may sound a little strange at first, but it can go a long way towards reducing waste. A lot of what you throw away can be composted naturally without going to landfills. All you need is a composting bin, the sun, and the willingness to feed your garden or a local garden your compost when you are done. Try to get everyone in your home used to the idea of composting so that it becomes easier for you to do it. Water Purification Water purification and filtration intricate systems it requires not only fabric wire cloth parts like those found at newarkwire.com, but also a number of other complex systems to create certain chemical reactions to remove particles that could lead to hard water. Hard water is bad for the environment because it can make it harder to dissolve soap, which can clog up your plumbing or the sewer system in your city. Hard water can also degrade your clothes faster, forcing you to buy more prematurely. Businesses, apartment complexes and even residential areas can all have different water filtration and purification systems put in place that will help recycle water and reduce the amount of water waste. Going Paperless It is important that you start making your way towards a paperless existence. There are a lot of things you can do like canceling paper statements from your bank and relying on digital statements. You can also ask loved ones to send you digital postcards or mail rather than regular mail. It may be impossible to get rid of all mail, but that doesn't mean you cannot reduce it. You should also consider avoiding the use of paper plates or cups at home. Going digital is also convenient for archiving information as you can search your online database instead of a garage full of boxes. These are just some of the eco-friendly steps you can take to lessen the amount of waste your home creates. Sure, it is going to be tough to get used to some of these changes, but it will be worth it in the end.
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  8. It may happen that at certain point of time, you might have faced problem of Plumber Melbourne and blocked drains at your home. The reason behind the blocking of drainage system at your home might be several such as accumulation of hairs, soap pieces, foreign materials and objects. When these materials accumulate near the drainage system, then it can lead to blocking of your drains. When such a problem exists, then it can lead to slow draining of sink and showers. To deal with such a plumbing problem, then it is advised to take help of a professional plumber in Melbourne. Hiring professional services of a plumber will help you to deal with Blocked Drains Melbourne. They are the right professional experts, you should approach to when you face any type of problem with your taps, sinks or faucets. With the help of variety of things, which can lead to blocking of drains at any point of time. · Grease – It may happen that when you wash utensils, the fat and grease might normally get down to their kitchen sink. The grease when it flows down usually sticks inside the pipes and when it gets accumulated over time can block drains. You can avoid this problem by making sure that greasy substances are not poured down the sink. So, to ensure that drains don’t get blocked you can wait for the grease to dry up and turn into solid, then can dispose it easily and can scrape it off easily by throwing it in the garbage. · Foreign particles or substances – At the time when you face blockage of drains, then one of the reasons can be accumulation of particles such as leaves, hairs, soap substances and other solid materials which can block drains. Therefore, if possible it is advisable to lay some nets around your drainage system, which filters out foreign substances or particles. This will help you to deal with the block drainage problem. · Drainage slope – You might not know but the slope of the drain pipe also plays a vital role regarding how effectively the waste or water flows into the main drainage system. If in case, the slope of the drain pipe is too steep, then it can cause water to quickly rush down thereby leaving waste and other particles behind and after some time, the waste which has been accumulated after a long time will be the main reason behind blocked drains Melbourne or pipes. On the contrary, in case if the drainage slope is too gentle, then also it can cause a problem. It can be said that if you face drainage blocking problem at your house, then you should probably opt for professional plumber in Melbourne. They will help you to get the best solution to deal with blocked drains or hot water repairs in Melbourne and help you to have a relief by getting you the best service delivered at your convenience. Thus, with the help of professional plumber, you can get an effective solution for any type of plumbing problem in less time and with less efforts.
  9. Many businesses today tout themselves as being green, but they are not always as eco-friendly as they could be. Green businesses have a positive edge in marketing and public relations. Some green efforts, such as installing solar panels on an office building, may offset expenses. However, there is much more involved in going green from a commercial perspective than using solar energy. Active management and regular improvements are required to run a business that is truly eco-friendly, and special attention in these specific areas is required. The Impact of Logistics Producing and packaging products as well as getting them to market can create a tremendous amount of pollution and produce unnecessary waste. Actively focusing your attention on improving logistics is essential. This can include investing in communications equipment from companies like altechradio.com and business software specific to your industry. For example, rather than ship your products on diesel trucks, you may use hybrid or electric trucks. This is only one of many ways that you may improve logistics to run your business in a more environmentally-friendly way. The Production of Eco-Friendly Products Even when you run a green company, your products may be a major source of pollution. Consider if your products produce waste when they are used by your customers or if they are bad for the environment in any other way. Perhaps they are not usually recycled and wind up in the landfill a few years later. Look for ways to improve your products so that consumers can continue to enjoy their benefits without contributing to pollution and other environmental concerns. An Improvement in Internal Operations To run a green company, you also should analyze your company’s regular operations and processes. Look for inefficient processes that may lead to pollution and that may easily be improved. For example, if your workers in the field normally drive around a work area in a motorized vehicle to communicate, simply investing in two-way radios can improve productivity, eliminate unnecessary pollution and conserve energy. Reviewing your current operations and processes regularly is an important first step. Finding these implements can be as easy as searching online for something like “two way radios in NYC” and shopping around locally. Keep in mind that new technologies are being unveiled regularly, and these may help you to continue to improve in this area going forward. With numerous benefits associated with running a green business, it makes sense to continually work toward improvements in this area. While some companies are content to simply install solar panels, you can see that there are many additional steps that you can take to take your environmentally-friendly business to the next level. A smart idea is to make steady improvements over time as new opportunities become available.
  10. There are benefits when it comes to the use of alternative forms of energy. Many of these benefits aren’t just limited to the increased availability of energy and the public health implications. Here are some of the ways that green electricity can work to protect the Earth. Reduction in Emissions The amount of gases that are emitted with traditional forms of electricity are contributing to climate change. Alternative forms of energy don’t release harmful gases into the atmosphere while generating electricity for your home. This makes them the better alternative because they are more environmentally friendly. If enough people were to switch to renewable energy sources, this could help to reduce the amount of pollution that’s in the air. Sustainable Options Coal and oil are a finite source of energy. This means that once they’re gone, those forms of energy will become obsolete. Alternative forms of energy are sustainable because they are powered by things like the sun and wind. Getting solar panels installed is one way that you can help to protect the environment and ensure that your home continues to have a reliable power source. Solar panel installation and wind farms can also be used to generate a sustainable form of energy for you. Improved Water Quality Water pollution is another concern when it comes to generating power from traditional methods. Oil spills can occur which is another concern when it comes to water pollution and damage to the environment. Another concern is the amount of water that’s required for the process. Using alternative forms of energy ensures that there’s enough water available for those that need it. There’s also the benefit of not having to worry about the amount of pollution that’s entering your water system. Less Habitat Loss The act of searching for more sources of finite energy often leads animals to lose their habitats. Another common cause of habitat loss is due to climate change. As the weather patterns shift, certain areas of the world will start to loss their ability to sustain life in the same manner. By stopping this cycle, you can generate power without having to encroach on established areas of habitat. In most cases, you can generate power at your home without the need to construct large facilities to get the job done. There are lots of reasons that going with green electricity will help to protect the planet. You can do your part by promoting its use and advocating for others to do the same.
  11. There are benefits when it comes to the use of alternative forms of energy. Many of these benefits aren’t just limited to the increased availability of energy and the public health implications. Here are some of the ways that green electricity can work to protect the Earth. Reduction in Emissions The amount of gases that are emitted with traditional forms of electricity are contributing to climate change. Alternative forms of energy don’t release harmful gases into the atmosphere while generating electricity for your home. This makes them the better alternative because they are more environmentally friendly. If enough people were to switch to renewable energy sources, this could help to reduce the amount of pollution that’s in the air. Sustainable Options Coal and oil are a finite source of energy. This means that once they’re gone, those forms of energy will become obsolete. Alternative forms of energy are sustainable because they are powered by things like the sun and wind. Getting solar panels installed is one way that you can help to protect the environment and ensure that your home continues to have a reliable power source. Solar panel installation and wind farms can also be used to generate a sustainable form of energy for you. Improved Water Quality Water pollution is another concern when it comes to generating power from traditional methods. Oil spills can occur which is another concern when it comes to water pollution and damage to the environment. Another concern is the amount of water that’s required for the process. Using alternative forms of energy ensures that there’s enough water available for those that need it. There’s also the benefit of not having to worry about the amount of pollution that’s entering your water system. Less Habitat Loss The act of searching for more sources of finite energy often leads animals to lose their habitats. Another common cause of habitat loss is due to climate change. As the weather patterns shift, certain areas of the world will start to loss their ability to sustain life in the same manner. By stopping this cycle, you can generate power without having to encroach on established areas of habitat. In most cases, you can generate power at your home without the need to construct large facilities to get the job done. There are lots of reasons that going with green electricity will help to protect the planet. You can do your part by promoting its use and advocating for others to do the same.
  12. Civil engineers design many structures that help to improve your life. Taking on the task of improving wastewater management in order to make it more green is a newer concept. Here are some of the ways that civil engineers are tackling the wastewater management revolution. Run-off Alternatives You may have noticed that there are more ways that water run-off is being handled. In some areas, a greener approach is being taken by using landscaping alternatives to handling water run-off from parking lots and streets. These green “ditches” are helping to limit the amount of water that needs to be processed by a wastewater treatment plant. Your home may also be helping by using soft-scaping in order to combat some of your run-off issues. Use of Wetland Systems Another similar idea is through the use of engineered wetland systems that help with the treatment of certain types of wastewater. The plants and the bacteria are the filtering system that complete the treatment process. There are a couple of types of wetland treatment systems that you may have seen. These include an open wetland system and more of a closed system in which the top layer is covered with mulch. The benefit of these engineered systems is that they are more cost effective. Improved Delivery System The piping is a large component of any wastewater treatment facility. There are thousands of miles of pipes underneath your city that deliver the water to it. Much of this piping is aging because it was installed decades ago. This has lead engineers to find new means of delivery that are green and won’t corrode with age. Recycled metals and types of plastic are more commonly being installed when corrosion is observed in the sewage delivery system in your neighborhood. Green Construction Methods The wastewater treatment facility itself may even by using green construction methods in order to reduce its carbon footprint. This may mean that your wastewater treatment facility is installing alternative forms of energy in order to perform its tasks. There are any number of greener construction methods that are becoming popular in which newer facilities can be constructed. Civil engineers are responsible for the planning and development of these newer installations so that they can better serve you and help to protect the environment. A variety of methods can be used to make wastewater management a little greener. You may have seen these methods in action in and around your community over the years.
  13. If you are like most people, your annual home energy cost amounts to a small fortune. However, this is seemingly a necessary expense that you have minimal control over. By taking a closer look at how you use energy at home and how this energy is generated, you may dramatically reduce energy costs on a regular basis. In fact, you may even be able to generate a profit from home energy generation rather than continue to pay expensive utility bills. Reduce Energy Consumption Dramatically The first step to take if you want to improve home energy consumption is to alter how it is used. You can make a few behavioral adjustments, such as by turning all lights off when they are not in use and unplugging appliances and electronics when they are not needed. You can also reduce energy consumption at home by upgrading to a new HVAC system and major appliances that have improved energy efficiency ratings. To promote HVAC system efficiency further, schedule energy-efficient door and window installation services, re-seal doors and windows and upgrade insulation throughout the walls and ceiling. These steps require a substantial financial investment, but the net impact on your finances over time may be positive. Produce Your Own Green Energy When you follow these steps to reduce energy consumption, you may still be responsible for regular energy bills. To potentially eliminate energy costs going forward, produce your own green energy. Solar energy panels are among the most common ideas, but there are other ideas. For example, wind and geothermal energy may be well-suited for your home as well. Because you may have already taken steps to reduce energy consumption, the home-produced energy may completely cover all of your needs at home. This can eliminate the need to pay an energy bill regularly. Your home may produce so much energy that you are able to sell energy to the local utility provider. By doing so, you can actually receive a small amount of income regularly rather than pay a monthly bill. You could continue to struggle with high energy costs for years to come, or you can take action to address this problem directly. While it may require a large financial investment to accomplish each goal outlined here, you will notice that each small step that you take has a positive effect on energy consumption and expenses. Now is a great time to take your first steps to improve your home in these thoughtful ways.
  14. When buying a home in Ontario, there are several things that can help ensure you make the most of your investment. Choosing the right area is step one, then choosing the right house is step two. There are many up and coming neighbourhoods where home prices are still reasonable, and don’t require you to be driving a Ferrari just to even think about entering the market. I’m looking at you Toronto, with your million-dollar entry fee and overpriced market. IT is best to look for a city outside of this “crazy” zone, somewhere like Brantford or Hamilton, maybe even Clarington or Bowmanville. These cities are not only great, pleasant places to live – but they’re going up in value – FAST! Of course, determining the best place is one thing, and finding the right home is another. Not all houses are created equal, and if you’re not careful you could end up with a real junker that will empty your pockets faster than a trip to the casino ever could. First, you’ll need to choose the right real estate agent, which as an example, in Brantford you could look to someone like The Munir Group, or in Toronto go with someone from Remax. Your agent should be registered with the Real Estate Council of Ontario (RECO) and have a perfect understanding of the market they operate in. This will allow them to feel you out and find the perfect home for you. Once you’ve found some potential homes, get a home inspector to help you make sure the houses are as good as they seem. Pick your inspector wisely as they hold the power to help you make a solid purchase. If you aim to expand your home, choosing a builder before you even buy a property can also be a good way to ensure you make the right choice and save money along the way. Check if any new builds come with a warranty, especially if the home is at risk of workmanship issues, water penetration or structural defects. Buying a home is not an easy task, and with the amount of investment required – you better make sure it’s a good one. This is easier said than done, but with some due diligence and the right people on your team – a beautiful and profitable home is not a white unicorn anymore.
  15. Life can be extremely busy. That’s why it’s not unusual for people to never think twice about the undeniable value of metal recycling. If you want to make the world a better place, then you should learn the ins and outs of metal recycling. You should learn about all of the things that make it so essential. Recycling Metal Can Conserve Natural Resources Natural resource conservation is a big deal. If you want to conserve major resources, then recycling metal can help you achieve your aim. Steel recycling can safeguard substantial amounts of limestone, coal and iron ore. It can even decrease H20 use. Substantial water levels are necessary for an abundance of metal production projects. Recycling Metal Can Conserve Vital Energy People don’t like to admit that natural resources simply aren’t accessible endlessly. The terrific news is that recycling metal can help hold on to natural resources. If you want to decrease any and all waste that’s associated with steel, copper, aluminum, and other materials, then regular recycling efforts are the way to go. Industrial scrap recycling can be terrific for lowering greenhouse gas discharges that are part of numerous metal production smelting practices. Recycling Metal Can Lower Air Pollution Greatly Metal production is a pretty complex and intricate thing. It entails the discharge of many hazardous gases. Recycling is often considered to be superior due to the fact that it doesn’t give off as many problematic gases. That’s exactly how it can dramatically decrease the planet’s air pollution levels. Recycling Metal Can Introduce New Job Opportunities The key to attaining a healthy planet is having human beings who are both happy and productive. Happy humans require jobs that enable them to have rewarding and well-rounded existences. Metal recycling can promote a healthy planet by introducing new jobs to it. Burning metal doesn’t call for a lot of manpower. Scrap metal recycling, on the other hand, is a whole other ballgame. Recycling metal is in many cases a project that calls for hundreds of individuals. Human beings need the planet in order to thrive. That’s why it makes sense that the planet needs cooperation from humans, too. If you want to ensure a planet that has a fantastic future, then you should think about all of the positives of recycling metal. Ignoring the planet and its needs can be detrimental to the people of tomorrow. It can be detrimental to landscapes everywhere as well.
  16. Technical advances in RNA-seq Sanger sequencing and microarrays. Sanger sequencing technology was first used for transcriptomics, which enabled methods such as SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression). SAGE was one of the first attempts to quantify gene expression on a global basis. Almost instantaneously, microarrays utilizing complementary probe hybridization, quickly emerged and come to dominate the field of transcriptomics profiling for the next decade. NGS. The advent of next-generation technologies has enabled the sequencing approach to surpass microarray approach. In 2006, the first RNA-seq paper was published by utilizing454/Roche technology. The era of RNA-seq dominance began in 2008 with the maturity of Illumina/Solexa technology. The most popular technical platforms for RNA-Seq has been the Illumina Genome Analyzer and Hi-Seq. While the Illumina/Solexa technology can generate gigabases of data per run (initially 1GB per run for the Genome Analyzer in 2006 and 600 GB per run for the HiSeq in 2012), Roche/454 technology generates reads long enough for RNA-seq but are hampered by the relatively low throughput and high cost. Third generation sequencing. Despite the popularization of the NGS technologies, the application of third generation sequencing in RNA-seq is on its way. For examples, Heliscope sequencing and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing have already been applied in some RNA-seq studies. PacBio SMRT long reads sequencing technology can easily cover complete transcript from the 5′ end to the 3′-poly A tail without the need of fragmentation to obtain full-length cDNA sequences, which is useful to identify new transcripts and new introns, thereby accurately identifying isoforms, alternative splicing sites, fusion gene expression, and allelic expression. Table 1. The advantages of RNA-seq compared with other transcriptomics approaches (Wang et al. 2009). Technology Tiling microarray cDNA or EST sequencing RNA-seq Technology specifications Principle hybridization Sanger sequencing High-throughput sequencing Resolution From several to 100 bp Single base Single base Throughput High Low High Reliance on genomic sequence Yes No In some cases Background noise High Low Low Application Simultaneously map transcribed regions and gene expression Yes Limited for gene expression Yes Dynamic range to quantify gene expression level Up to a few-hundredfold Not practical >8,000-fold Ability to distinguish different isoforms Limited Yes Yes Ability to distinguish allelic expression Limited Yes Yes Practical issues Required amount of RNA High High Low Cost for mapping transcriptomes of large genomes High High Relatively low Challenges of RNA-seq Short-read. Illumina sequencing technology has steadily increased read length and throughput since its introduction in 2007. Long paired-end strand-specific reads are commonly used for higher levels of mappability and de novoassembly of transcriptomes. Furthermore, the third generation sequencing technology (such as PacBio and Ion-Torrent) enables full-length transcripts sequencing. PCR biases. Another concern is the impact of PCR amplification on the accuracy of gene expression quantitation via RNA-seq. Helicos and some of the third sequencer used an amplification-free technology. There are also PCR-free methods for Illumina sequencing. Workflow of RNA-seq based on NGS The workflow of RNA-seq by utilizing high-throughput sequencing technology is illustrated in Figure 1. Briefly, long RNAs are first converted into a library of cDNA fragments through RNA or DNA fragmentation. Sequencing adaptors are then attached to each cDNA fragment and sequence data are generated in a high-throughput manner from both ends (paired-end sequencing). The resulting sequence reads are subsequently aligned with the reference genome or transcriptome, and are classifies into three types: exonic reads, junction reads and poly(A) end-reads. A base-resolution expression profile can be generated by using these three types of sequence reads. Figure 1. A typical workflow of RNA-seq (Wang et al. 2009). Library construction Figure 2. A typical library construction pipeline of RNA-seq. Following sample collection, total RNA is usually isolated via organic extraction and/or silica-membranes of spin columns. Total RNA sample is subsequently processed either by direct selection of poly(A) RNA or by selective removal of rRNA because the abundant rRNA is usually not the research focus and greatly reduces the coverage of the useful transcript. Oligo(dT)-based mRNA purification procedure is widely used in eukaryotes. However, some RNA transcripts that lack the poly(A) tails are missed. Compared to the poly(A) RNA selection, ribo-depletion approach is preferred because it enriches all nonribosomal RNA species, including tRNA, ncRNAs, nonpoly(A) mRNA, and preprocessed RNA. The two most popular rRNA depletion methods are: (i) hybridization of rRNA with biotin-labeled anti-rRNA probes, followed by removal with streptavidin-caoted magnetic beads; and (ii) selective degradation of rRNA by a 5’-3’ exonuclease that specifically recognizes rRNA with a 5’ phosphate. Fragmentation is subsequently conducted to reach the desired length for different NGS technologies. Some small RNAs, such as microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs, and short interfering RNAs, can be directly sequenced without fragmentation. Larger RNA molecules need to be fragmented into smaller pieces (200-500 bp) before deep-sequencing technologies. cDNA fragmentation (DNase I treatment or sonication) and RNA hydrolysis or nebulization. However, each of these methods can create a different bias in the outcome. For example, cDNA fragmentation is usually strongly biased towards the identification of sequences from the 3’ ends of transcripts, while RNA fragmentation has little bias over the transcript but is depleted for transcript ends. Therefore, cDNA fragmentation provides valuable information about the precise identity of these ends and RNA fragmentation provides access to precisely identity of the transcript body. In the classic NGS protocols, adapters are ligated onto shared double-stranded DNA fragments. However, a major drawback of this approach is the loss of information on transcriptional direction. Pre-treat the RNA samples with sodium bisulphate can convert the cytidine into uridine. Widespread C-T transition thereby marks the coding stand of each transcript. Some other methods that maintain strand-specificity have been proposed, such as direct ligation of RNA adaptors to the RNA sample before reverse transcription. Sequencing The RNA-seq is currently dominated by three different platforms: Illumina (Genome Analyzer and HiSeq), Applied Biosystems SOLID, and Roche 454 Life Science systems. Read lengths range from 30-100 bp for Illumina and SOLiD, and 200-500 bp for 454 pyrosequencing system. 454-based RNA-seq is particularly attractive for non-model organisms without reference genomes or transcriptomes. Longer reads or paired-end short reads can reveal connectivity between multiple exons. RNA-seq is a powerful method to study complex transcriptomes and reveal sequence variations in the transcribed regions. Bioinformatics Figure 3. A typical analysis pipeline of RNA-seq data. Quality assessment is the first step for the bioinformatics analysis of RNA-seq, which ensures a coherent final result by removal of low-quality sequences, over-represented sequences, and adapter sequences. Once all reads have been filtered and mapped or assembled, gene expression levels can thus be inferred, leading to a genome-scale transcriptome map in terms of quality and quantity. RNA-seq also allows detecting differential expression (DE) across treatments of conditions. Normalization has to be conducted to adjust the differences between samples such as library size and gene-specific features. Furthermore, RNA-seq enables us to identify SNPs, fusion genes, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as RNA editing, degradation, and translation. If you want more information about the applications of RNA-seq or bioinformatics workflow of RNA-seq, you can refer to the article. References: Wang Z, Gerstein M, Snyder M. RNA-Seq: a revolutionary tool for transcriptomics. Nature reviews genetics, 2009, 10(1): 57. Qian X, Ba Y, Zhuang Q, et al. RNA-Seq technology and its application in fish transcriptomics. Omics: a journal of integrative biology, 2014, 18(2): 98-110. Marguerat S, Bähler J. RNA-seq: from technology to biology. Cellular and molecular life sciences, 2010, 67(4): 569-579. Wilhelm B T, Landry J R. RNA-Seq—quantitative measurement of expression through massively parallel RNA-sequencing. Methods, 2009, 48(3): 249-257. McGettigan P A. Transcriptomics in the RNA-seq era. Current opinion in chemical biology, 2013, 17(1): 4-11.
  17. Eco-Friendly Home Renovation

    After a while, every home could use some updating and freshening up, whether to match your needs better or simply to make it look more visually appealing. This is especially true if you are happy in your home and are planning on living in it for many more years. Although some eco-friendly renovation projects require quite an investment, you can rest assured that those investments would be worth it. Plus, there are many both affordable and eco-friendly ways to renovate, and here are some you should consider. Buy energy-efficient appliances If you’re planning on replacing your old kitchen appliances, look for those that are energy-efficient. You can recognize them by the Energy Star logo on them. Larger kitchen appliances, like refrigerators, for example, can use quite a lot of energy, which means that they can also cost you a lot and for a long time. This is why investing in energy-efficient appliances – even though it might cost a bit more initially – can save you money in the long run. Donate everything you no longer need If there’s an item that you’re thinking about replacing, and you won’t need it anymore, don’t throw it away. You can always give it to charity, or you might even have a friend who could use it. Moreover, there are many organizations that welcome such items, like Habitat for Humanity, for instance. In short, there are ways not just to be eco-friendly with your unwanted items but to actually give back to the community as well. Use recycled materials Using recycled materials for your renovation, like reclaimed wood, would help reduce waste. Plus, it would preserve nature simply because there would be no need to cut any trees. Plus, there are many salvaged materials that are both durable and visually appealing, so nobody would even notice that your new item is made of recycled materials. For example, bio-glass looks just like any other “new” glass, but it’s completely eco-friendly, which makes it a perfect choice. Renew instead of replacing You don’t need to replace everything in order to upgrade the appearance of your home. For example, instead of buying new kitchen cabinets, you could simply repaint them and replace only the knobs. Plus, even small changes can make a difference; you can switch one wooden cabinet door with a glass door. It would emphasize the items you keep in that cabinet, and it would make your kitchen look much more interesting. Repaint If you’re thinking about repainting your home, make sure to use VOC-free paint. VOC, or volatile organic compounds, are chemicals that can evaporate and harm your health. Also, if you’re planning on repainting your exterior, keep in mind that safety comes first, especially if you’re doing it on your own. Therefore, think about getting some quality scaffolding so you can paint the upper parts of your house without using uncomfortable and unsafe ladders that you’d have to move every few minutes. Moreover, if you can’t afford to repaint your entire exterior, think about repainting just your front door, your house numbers, and perhaps your mailbox. It would spice up the appearance of your home, and it would definitely give it a new feel overall. Insulate If insulation is a part of your renovation project, make sure to choose a high-quality one. The better insulated your home is, the less energy you will use on heating and cooling it. In other words, it would definitely pay off sooner than you might think. Just don’t forget to do your research on the eco-friendly insulation options, since the insulation itself is not the only possible eco-friendly aspect of the project. Make use of the sun Going solar is a great way to make your home more eco-friendly. Besides preserving the environment, using solar energy can also reduce your electricity bill. However, you should know that there are ways to use the power of the sun that don’t include spending money on solar panels. For example, you can plant seasonal trees in your yard, which would block the sunlight in the summer but let it through during winter. Or, you could add smart blinds and heat-reducing films to your windows. Add skylights Another great way to make use of the sun is adding some skylights in order to let more natural light into your home. Of course, you don’t have to install them in every room of your home; you can place them in the most commonly used areas, like your kitchen or living room. Just don’t forget to install automated blinds as well, so you can block the sun when needed. If you place them correctly and use them to the fullest, skylights could also help you reduce the amount of electricity you need. If you’re looking for a way to renovate your home while preserving the environment at the same time, consider some of the above-listed suggestions. You would feel much better about yourself, knowing that you’re making a difference, and you’d save some money in the long run as well.
  18. Introduction to ChIP-Seq ChIP-sequencing (also known as ChIP-seq), which combines chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays with DNA sequencing, is a powerful technique for genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins, histone modifications or nucleosomes. ChIP is a type of immunoprecipitation (IP) experimental method used to isolate specific DNA sites in direct physical interaction with transcription factors and other proteins. In ChIP, specific antibodies are used to enrich DNA fragments bound by particular proteins or nucleosomes. ChIP-seq was one of the early applications of NGS (next-generation sequencing), and the first study of large-scale profiling of the genome-wide histone methylations using ChIP-seq was published in 2007 (Barski et al., 2007). The sequencing of this study was performed on the platform of Solexa 1G genome analyzer. At the same year, Johnson et al. (2007) used ChIP-seq to generate the genome-wide mapping of transcription factor binding sites. Robertson et al. (2007) developed ChIP-seq to identify mammalian DNA sequences bound by transcription factors in vivo. These two papers also demonstrated the increased sensitivity and specificity of ChIP-seq. Owing to the rapid progress of NGS technology and the decreasing cost of sequencing, ChIP-seq has become an indispensable tool for characterization of epigenomes and gene regulation study (Park, 2009). Comparison of ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq ChIP-chip, ChIP coupled with microarrays, and ChIP-seq are two standard techniques for identification of the genome wide DNA-proteins binding interactions. Take advantages of the sequencing technology, ChIP-seq offers many advantages over ChIP-chip, as summarized in Table 1 (Park, 2009; Schones and Zhao, 2008). Table 1. Comparison of ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq. ChIP-chip ChIP-seq Maximum resolution Array-specific, generally 30-100 bp Single nucleotide Coverage Limited by sequences on the array; repetitive regions are usually masked out Limited only by alignability of reads to the genome; increases with read length; many repetitive regions can be covered Flexibility Dependent on available products; multiple arrays may be needed for large genomes Genome-wide assay of any sequenced organism Source of platform noise Cross-hybridization between probes and nonspecific targets Some GC bias can be present Experimental design Single- or double-channel, depending on the platform Single channel Cost-effective cases Profiling of selected regions; when a large fraction of the genome is enriched for the modification or protein of interest (broad binding) Large genomes; when a small fraction of the genome is enriched for the modification or protein of interest (sharp binding) Required amount of ChIP DNA High (a few micrograms) Low (10-50 ng) Dynamic range Lower detection limit; saturation at high signal Not limited Amplification More required Less required; single-molecule sequencing without amplification is available Multiplexing Not possible Possible Workflow of ChIP-seq The workflow of ChIP-seq used to profile the specific DNA binding sites for transcription factors, DNA-binding enzymes or other DNA-associated proteins (non-histone ChIP) and DNA sites correspond to modified nucleosomes (histone ChIP) is illustrated in Figure 1 (Park, 2009). Following ChIP protocols, the chromatin is fragmentated and crosslinked proteins or modified nucleosomes immunoprecipitated using an antibody specific to the protein or the histone modification. After DNA purification and library construction, DNA fragments can be sequenced simultaneously on any of the sequencing platforms, such as Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer, Roche 454 and Applied Biosystems (ABI) SOLiD platforms, and HeliScope by Helicos, as illustrated in Figure 1. With the tremendous progress of NGS technology, the Illumina platform, such as Hiseq, has been the most widely used platform for sequencing. Figure 1. Overview of a ChIP-seq experiment (Park, 2009). Experimental Design of ChIP-seq The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and model organism ENCODE (modENCODE) consortia have developed a set of working standards and guidelines for ChIP-seq experiments based on experience of hundreds of ChIP-seq experiments (Landt et al., 2012). To obtain high-quality ChIP-seq data, there are several technical aspects should be considered in the ChIP-seq experimental design, including antibodies, cell number, controls, replicates, chromatin fragmentation, library construction and sequencing (Kidder et al., 2011). Antibodies The quality of antibodies used for ChIP is one of the most important factors that contribute to the quality of ChIP-seq data. A sensitive and specific antibody will give a high level of enrichment. Limited efficiency of antibody is the main reason for failed ChIP-seq experiments. Antibody validation and characterization should be done before the ChIP begin. Cell number As the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is directly correlated with the cell number, using the correct number of cells can help to diminish the background noise. The abundance of the protein or histone modification to be investigated and the quality of the antibody should be considered when determining the number of cells. Controls An important part of ChIP-seq experimental design is determining which controls to use. A ChIP-seq peak should be compared with the same region in a matched control. There are several different control types but no consensus on which is the most appropriate: Input DNA. Mock IP: DNA obtained from IP without antibody. Nonspecific IP: using an antibody against a protein that is not known to be involved in DNA binding. Replicates High-quality ChIP-seq data sets are valuable resources for the community. Many factors, including cell-culture conditions, ChIP and library construction, may contribute to variability between data sets. To ensure reliability of the data, biological replicate experiments are necessary. Chromatin fragmentation Before ChIP, chromatin must be fragmented into a manageable size. ChIP-seq for DNA-binding proteins uses endonuclease digestion or sonication to fragment DNA. ChIP-seq for histone modifications uses micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to fragment DNA. Library construction and sequencing Libraries may be constructed from ChIP DNA by standard protocols specific to the sequencing platform. Process in library construction and sequencing, including size selection, gel purification, PCR, single-end or paired-end sequencing strategy and sequencing depth, would affect the ChIP-seq data quality. Considering above technical aspects, a ChIP-seq experimental design that would obtain high-quality data is illustrated in Figure 2 (Kidder et al., 2011). At first, the appropriate controls for antibody specificity should be determined before ChIP. Chromatin is sheared into an ideal size range by sonication or enzymatic means after isolation of the ideal number of cells. Next, high-quality antibodies are used for ChIP. After purification of ChIP-enriched DNA, a library is constructed to allow sequencing on NGS platforms. Figure 2. ChIP-seq experimental design (Kidder et al., 2011). At CD Genomics, we provide you with high-quality sequencing and integrated bioinformatics analysis for your ChIP-Seq project, enabling accurately screen and determine the protein binding sites in the whole genome. If you have additional requirements or questions, please feel free to contact us. Additional reading: Pipeline and Tools for ChIP-seq Analysis References: Barski, A., Cuddapah, S., Cui, K., Roh, T.Y., Schones, D.E., Wang, Z., Wei, G., Chepelev, I., and Zhao, K. (2007). High-resolution profiling of histone methylations in the human genome. Cell129, 823-837. Johnson, D.S., Mortazavi, A., Myers, R.M., and Wold, B. (2007). Genome-wide mapping of in vivo protein-DNA interactions. Science316, 1497-1502. Kidder, B.L., Hu, G., and Zhao, K. (2011). ChIP-Seq: technical considerations for obtaining high-quality data. Nature immunology12, 918-922. Landt, S.G., Marinov, G.K., Kundaje, A., Kheradpour, P., Pauli, F., Batzoglou, S., Bernstein, B.E., Bickel, P., Brown, J.B., Cayting, P., et al. (2012). ChIP-seq guidelines and practices of the ENCODE and modENCODE consortia. Genome research22, 1813-1831. Park, P.J. (2009). ChIP-seq: advantages and challenges of a maturing technology. Nature reviews Genetics10, 669-680. Robertson, G., Hirst, M., Bainbridge, M., Bilenky, M., Zhao, Y., Zeng, T., Euskirchen, G., Bernier, B., Varhol, R., Delaney, A., et al. (2007). Genome-wide profiles of STAT1 DNA association using chromatin immunoprecipitation and massively parallel sequencing. Nature methods4, 651-657. Schones, D.E., and Zhao, K. (2008). Genome-wide approaches to studying chromatin modifications. Nature reviews Genetics9, 179-191.
  19. MBP Solutions Go Green Scheme

    MBP is a company that is dedicated to providing expertise in product knowledge, incineration technology and legal compliance, which are the key competences in the energy industry that is rapidly developing. Embracing the current trend where many countries across the world are shifting towards environmental conservation by reducing global warming and minimizing the emission of greenhouse gases, MBP provides a sustainable option, biofuel and bio liquids, which substitute the need for fossil fuels such as diesel. The MBP biofuels and bio liquids are useful in a wide range of applications whether in their pure form or blending them with other fuels. Some of those applications include electricity, road transport, combined heat and power plants (CHP) and heat generation industries. Not only does MBP provide a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels but also helps industries and companies go green. Below is a detailed explanation of how MBP is currently making businesses conduct their production activities in a more eco-friendly manner. The Go Green Scheme For companies that want to go green the first step is for MBP to conduct a desk evaluation of the development of potential based on the existing by-product information provided to enable them conduct an on-site audit. Once the audit is complete, a development of the potentials and economic scenarios enables MBP to offer appropriate by-product solution. For the scheme to be very effective and accomplish the desired results there are three factors that need consideration. 1. Recycle and recover This is a key step in achieving a better environment and sustainable utilization of resources. MBP experts together with manufactures work together to use the by-products and waste to develop a suitable by-product strategy that will optimize the potential of the individual wastes for both short and long term. Prevent, Reuse, Recycle, Recover and Reduced Disposal of waste is the way of thinking, which MBP promotes in its activities ever since the company started, commonly referred to as the circular economy. Examples of MBP applications that promote recycle and recover include; uses for energy recover (bio liquids) anaerobic digestion feedstock (biogas) and composting for the agricultural land (soil improvement). 2. Sustainability Environment protection is a major part of MBP ideological backbone that is why they take pride in identifying products normally considered as waste or by-product and by understanding its potential, they find an optimal application of it. This reduces the waste generated and minimizes the consumption of raw materials since the by-products from MBP often substitute the raw materials. MBP specializes in offering sustainability to these two areas of business Biofuels, bio liquids and bio methane substrates Since 2012 MBP Solutions is among the biofuel companies that supply the market with biofuels and bio liquids and is certified by the EU standards RED (Renewable Energy Directive) and the RSB (Roundtable for Sustainable Biomaterials). These certifications prove that the biofuels, bio liquids and bio methane substrates from MBP are sustainable. Aquaculture Aquaculture is without a doubt a sensitive area where sustainability is crucial hence, the need for MBP to provide fish oils in conformance with ASC (Aquaculture Stewardship Council). The company is currently trying to secure two sustainability standards accreditation namely the IFFO RS Chain of Custody and the MSC Chain of Custody. 3. The circular economy The circular economy involves production, Recycle and Recovery where the system focusses on reducing waste and keeping the materials in use for a longer period. MBP is focusing on recovery and recycling which are in line with the EU agenda to increase resource utilization efficiency in the European society. The EU action plan involves developing appropriate legislation that enables circular economy practices and supporting development and incentives in Europe. MBP shares some of the target with the EU action plan such as getting rid of landfilling and the re-use focus of turning ones’ industry by-products into another industry’s raw material. Conclusion The go green scheme is in accordance with the MBP Solutions purpose, which is to help minimize humanity’s impact on the environment by transforming one industry’s by-products into another’s raw material.
  20. The challenges of Chip-seq ChIP-seq is a powerful method to identify genome-wide DNA binding sites for a protein of interest. Mapping the chromosomal locations of transcription factors (TFs), nucleosomes, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling enzymes, chaperones, and polymerases is one of the key tasks of modern biology. To this end, ChIP-seq is the standard methodology (Bailey et al., 2013). Multiple challenges presented in ChIP-seq are not only in sample preparation and sequencing but also in computational analysis. Unlike other types of massively parallel sequencing data, the ChIP-seq data have several characteristics: Histone modifications cover broader regions of DNA than TFs. Reads are trimmed to within a smaller number of bases. Fragments are quite large relative to binding sites of TFs. Measurements of histone modification often undulate following well-positioned nucleosomes. To extract meaningful data from the raw sequence reads, the ChIP-seq data analysis should: Identify genomic regions – ‘peaks’ – where TF binds or histones are modified. Quantify and compare levels of binding or histone modification between samples. Characterize the relationships among chromatin state and gene expression or splicing. Bioinformatics analysis workflow for ChIP-seq data Bioinformatics analysis workflow for ChIP-seq data and the considerations for each step is illustrated in Figure 1 (Nakato and Shirahige, 2017). The procedure of sample preparation, sequencing and mapping (Figure 1A) is common in both experiments with single or a few samples (Figure 1B) and experiments with many samples (Figure 1C). Initially, sequencing reads of ChIP-seq are analyzed to assess the quality of the reads. After quality metrics, reads are mapped to the reference genome. Compared with input reads, genomic regions that are significantly enriched for ChIP reads are detected as peaks. Other genomic regions are regarded as non-specific background. Read densities can be visualized along the genome. Adjusting peak-calling strategy and parameters to each sample’s property is possible in sample-scale analysis (Figure 1B). But one-by-one adjusting is difficult for large-scale analysis (Figure 1C), in which objective quality metrics for multilateral quantitative assessment is necessary to filter poor-quality data automatically. The called peaks represent candidates of histone modification and targeted protein or DNA-binding sites, which can be used to identify associated functional annotations, such as binding motifs. Figure 1. ChIP-seq analysis workflow. Adapted from (Nakato and Shirahige, 2017) A comprehensive comparison of tools for differential ChIP-seq data analysis There has been a large effort to improve analytical tools that are used in analysis of ChIP-seq data, and each step has led to the development of specialized software tools. A subset of software tools available for mapping and peak calling are briefly listed in Table 1 (Furey, 2012). Table 1. A subset of software tools available for mapping and peak calling in the analysis of ChIP-seq data. Tool Notes Web address Short-read aligners BWA (Burrows-Wheeler Aligner) Fast and efficient; based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform http://bio-bwa.sourceforge.net Bowtie Similar to BWA, part of suite of tools that includes TopHat and CuffLinks for RNA-seq processing http://bowtie-bio.sourceforge.net GSNAP (Genomic Short-read Nucleotide Alignment Program) Considers a set of variant allele inputs to better align to heterozygous sites http://research-pub.gene.com/gmap Wikipedia list of aligners A comprehensive list of available short-read aligners, with descriptions and links to download the software http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sequence_alignment_software#Short- Read_Sequence_Alignment Peak callers MACS (Model-based Analysis for ChIP-seq) Fits data to a dynamic Poisson distribution; works with and without control data http://liulab.dfci.harvard.edu/MACS PeakSeq Takes into account differences in mappability of genomic regions; enrichment based on FDR (false-discovery rate) calculation http://info.gersteinlab.org/PeakSeq ZINBA (Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Algorithm) Can incorporate multiple genomic factors, such as mappability and GC content; can work with point-source and broad-source peak data http://code.google.com/p/zinba Besides detection of enriched or bound regions in ChIP-seq data analysis, an important question is to determine differences between conditions. Owing to the complexity of ChIP-seq data in terms of noisiness and variability, the question is particularly challenging for ChIP-seq. Many different computational tools have been developed and published in recent years for differential ChIP-seq analysis. These tools show important differences in their algorithmic setups, in the number and size of detected differential regions (DR), and in the range of applicability. Description of 14 different tools for differential ChIP-seq data analysis is listed in Table 2 (Steinhauser et al., 2016). Table 2. Description of different tools for differential ChIP-seq data analysis. Tool Language Peak Calling Web address SICER Bash/Python Window based approach, merging of eligible clusters in proximity closer than the defined gap size https://home.gwu.edu/~wpeng/ Software.htm MACS2 Python Not required https://github.com/taoliu/MACS/ ODIN Python Not required http://costalab.org/wp/ odin RSEG C++ Not required http://smithlabresearch.org/software /rseg/ MAnorm R Requires peak calling e.g. with MACS http://bcb.dfci.harvard.edu/~gcyuan /MAnorm/MAnorm.htm HOMER Perl & C++ Window based approach Peak calling done by HOMER http://homer.salk.edu/homer /index.html QChIPat R, Perl & C++ Peak calling possible with BELT, MACS, SISSRs or FindPeaks http://motif.bmi.ohio-state.edu/ QChIPat/ diffReps Perl Sliding window approach https://github.com/shenlab -sinai/diffreps DBChip R Requires peak calling e.g. with MACS http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/ ~kliang/DBChIP/ ChIPComp R Requires peak calling e.g. with MACS http://web1.sph.emory.edu/users /hwu30/software/ChIPComp.html MultiGPS Java Expectation maximization learning http://mahonylab.org/software /multigps/ MMDiff R Requires peak calling e.g. with MACS https://bioconductor.riken.jp/ packages/3.1/bioc/html/MMDiff.html DiffBind R Requires peak calling e.g. with MACS http://bioconductor.org/packages /release/bioc/html/DiffBind.html PePr Python Window based approach https://github.com/shawnzhangyx /PePr Decision tree indicating the proper choice of tool is illustrated in Figure 2. The choice of tool depends on several factors: shape of the signal (sharp peaks or broad ChIP enrichments), presence of replicates and presence of an external set of regions of interest. The tools indicated in black give good results using default settings, and the tools in gray would require more extensive fine-tuning of parameters to achieve optimal results. Figure 2. Decision tree indicating the proper choice of tool. Adapted from (Steinhauser et al., 2016). Technical guidelines for the comprehensive analysis of ChIP-seq data Recent advances in sequencing technologies and analyses enable us to handle hundreds of ChIP samples simultaneously. But there are still some issues in analysis of ChIP-seq data, such as the false positive peaks, the multiple mapped reads and the poor overlap between peak-finding algorithm results. To obtain high-quality results from the computational analysis of ChIP-seq data, some technical aspects should be considered, which have been listed below (Bailey et al., 2013): 1) Sequencing Depth Effective analysis of ChIP-seq data requires enough coverage by sequence reads (sequencing depth). The required sequencing depth mainly depends on the size of the genome and the number and size of the binding sites of the protein. 20 million reads may be adequate for mammalian TFs and chromatin modifications which are typically localized at specific, narrow sites, such as enhancer-associated histone marks (Landt et al., 2012). Proteins with broader factors, including most histone marks, or more binding sites, such as RNA Pol II, will require up to 60 million reads for mammalian ChIP-seq (Chen et al., 2012). Control samples should be sequenced significantly deeper than the ChIP ones. 2) Read Mapping and Quality Metrics Before mapping to the reference genome, the reads should be filtered by applying a quality cutoff. It is important to consider the percentage of uniquely mapped reads reported by the mapping tools. 3) Peak Calling The analysis for ChIP-seq data is to predict the regions of the genome where the ChIPed protein is bound by finding regions with peaks. A fine balance between sensitivity and specificity depends on choosing an appropriate peak-calling algorithm and normalization method based on the type of protein ChIPed. 4) Assessment of Reproducibility To ensure the reproducibility of the experimental results, at least two biological replicates of each ChIP-seq experiment are recommended to be performed. The reproducibility of both reads and identified peaks should be examined. 5) Differential Binding Analysis Comparative ChIP-seq analysis of an increasing number of protein-bound regions across conditions or tissues is expected with the steady raise of NGS (next-generation sequencing) projects. The direct calculation of differentially bound regions between treatment samples without controls is not recommended. 6) Peak Annotation The aim of the annotation is to associate the ChIP-seq peaks with functionally relevant genomic regions, such as gene promoters, transcription start sites, intergenic regions, etc. 7) Motif Analysis Motif analysis is useful for much more than just identifying the causal DNA-binding motif in TF ChIP-seq peaks. When the motif of the ChIPed protein is already known, motif analysis provides validation of the success of the experiment. Additional reading: The Advantages and Workflow of ChIP-Seq References: Bailey, T., Krajewski, P., Ladunga, I., Lefebvre, C., Li, Q., Liu, T., Madrigal, P., Taslim, C., and Zhang, J. (2013). Practical guidelines for the comprehensive analysis of ChIP-seq data. PLoS computational biology 9, e1003326. Chen, Y., Negre, N., Li, Q., Mieczkowska, J.O., Slattery, M., Liu, T., Zhang, Y., Kim, T.K., He, H.H., Zieba, J., et al.(2012). Systematic evaluation of factors influencing ChIP-seq fidelity. Nature methods 9, 609-614. Furey, T.S. (2012). ChIP-seq and beyond: new and improved methodologies to detect and characterize protein-DNA interactions. Nature reviews Genetics 13, 840-852. Landt, S.G., Marinov, G.K., Kundaje, A., Kheradpour, P., Pauli, F., Batzoglou, S., Bernstein, B.E., Bickel, P., Brown, J.B., Cayting, P., et al.(2012). ChIP-seq guidelines and practices of the ENCODE and modENCODE consortia. Genome research 22, 1813-1831. Machanick, P., and Bailey, T.L. (2011). MEME-ChIP: motif analysis of large DNA datasets. Bioinformatics 27, 1696-1697. McLean, C.Y., Bristor, D., Hiller, M., Clarke, S.L., Schaar, B.T., Lowe, C.B., Wenger, A.M., and Bejerano, G. (2010). GREAT improves functional interpretation of cis-regulatory regions. Nature biotechnology 28, 495-501. Nakato, R., and Shirahige, K. (2017). Recent advances in ChIP-seq analysis: from quality management to whole-genome annotation. Briefings in bioinformatics 18, 279-290. Steinhauser, S., Kurzawa, N., Eils, R., and Herrmann, C. (2016). A comprehensive comparison of tools for differential ChIP-seq analysis. Briefings in bioinformatics 17, 953-966. Thomas-Chollier, M., Herrmann, C., Defrance, M., Sand, O., Thieffry, D., and van Helden, J. (2012). RSAT peak-motifs: motif analysis in full-size ChIP-seq datasets. Nucleic acids research 40, e31.
  21. CD Genomics, the world leading genomic sequencing company, is able to offer the genotyping of 11 all HLA loci, including HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DRB3/4/5, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1, and DPB1 and deliver a thorough and detailed report. As known, the HLA gene complex on human chromosome 6 is one of the most polymorphic regions in the human genome and contributes in a large part of the diversity of the immune system. Accurate typing of HLA genes with short-read sequencing data has historically been difficult due to the sequence similarity between the polymorphic alleles. Hence CD Genomics introduces an accurate and reliable HLA genotyping service, which uses NGS technology and amplification methods to address limitations of traditional Sanger sequencing assays. HLA Genes have an important/integral role in the human adaptive immune system. For example, classical class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and class II (HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ) HLA gene starts to function by presenting foreign antigens to T cells to trigger immune responses. Those HLA genes display amazing sequence diversity on human body. Let’s say it in another way, imagining there are >4,000 known alleles for the HLA-B gene alone. The genetic diversity in HLA genes in which different alleles have different efficiencies for presenting different antigens is believed to be a result of evolution conferring better population-level resistance against the wide range of different pathogens to which humans are exposed. Since the first description of an association between HLA and human disease, HLA molecules have proven to be central to physiology, protective immunity and deleterious, disease-causing autoimmune reactivity. It is reported that HLA has been associated with more than hundreds of different diseases, including various autoimmune disorders, transplantation etc. However, although it plays an important role in human health, people do not routinely have their HLA genes typed. With the current trend toward precision medicine, knowing their HLA types will be crucial in early diagnosis and management of many diseases. “CD Genomics HLA Typing can be done at different levels of resolution. We offer a worldwide service, with our high throughput service to process hundreds of samples at a time. We can only accept genomic DNA. Our aim is to deliver a high confidence and responsive service to our clients at realistic cost.” About CD Genomics HLA typing Service The service is offered for R&D / non-diagnostic purposes only and results must not be utilized to inform patient management decisions. It is featured with: first, comprehensive assay; second, unambiguous results; and third, sample-to-report solution. The service has complete workflow, covering from sample preparation, sequencing, data analysis, and reporting. For more information, please visit https://www.cd-genomics.com/HLA-Typing.html About CD Genomics CD Genomics was established in 2004, the company is aiming at providing the research community with high quality Next Generation Sequencing, high throughput microarray services. Due to the demand for our services has being increased; CD Genomics has already updated its technology platform to mainstream NGS and microarray instruments.
  22. The introduction to non-coding RNAs Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) used to be considered as transcription noises or byproducts of RNA processing, but increasing evidence suggests that a majority of them are biologically functional and regulate various activities in the cells. The ncRNAs are roughly classified into two categories according to their sequence length: small ncRNAs (<200 bp) and long ncRNAs (200 bp or more). The categories of ncRNA are listed in Table 1. Table 1. Overview of ncRNA (Fu 2014). ncRNAs Full name Function Housekeeping ncRNAs rRNA Ribosomal RNA Translational machinery tRNA Transfer RNA Amino acid carriers snRNA Small nuclear RNA RNA processing snoRNA Small nucleolar RNA RNA modifications TR Telomere RNA Chromosome end synthesis Regulatory ncRNAs miRNA MicroRNAs RNA stability and translation control endo-siRNA Endogenous siRNA RNA degradation rasiRNA Repeat-derived RNA Transcriptional control piRNA Piwi-interacting RNA Silencing transposon and mRNA decay eRNA Enhancer-derived RNA Regulation of gene expression PATs Promoter-associated RNA Transcription initiation and pause release lncRNA Long non-coding RNA Imprinting, epigenetics, nuclear structure As shown in Table 1, ncRNAs can be roughly divided into two classes: housekeeping ncRNAs and regulatory ncRNAs. Housekeeping ncRNAs, involving rRNA, tRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, and TR, are considered “constitutive” since they are ubiquitously expressed in all cell types and offer essential functions to the organisms. Regulatory ncRNAs, involving miRNA, endo-siRNA, rasiRNA, piRNA, eRNA, PATs, and lncRNA, have received increasing attention from the research community due to their regulatory function in gene expression, imprinting, and epigenetics. RNA-seq is an advanced technique to illustrate the ncRNA species. Here, we made a summary of the bioinformatics tools for ncRNA analysis with data from NGS. Figure 1. ncRNAs as integrated parts of gene network (Fu 2014). Small ncRNA analysis Small RNAs play a crucial role in transcriptional regulation and are essential to fully understand the entire scenario of transcriptional regulation. Their aberrant expression profiles are considered to be associated with cellular dysfunction and disease. Therefore, many researches are focused on detection, prediction, or expression quantification of small RNAs, particularly miRNAs, to better understand human health and disease. The available computational tools for small RNA sequencing data are summarized in Table 2. Table 2. Computational tools for small ncRNA analysis Tools Descriptions DARIO Quantify and annotate ncRNAs with access to several ncRNA public databases. CPSS Quantify and annotate ncRNAs, with special emphasis on miRNAs. ncPRO-seq Detect known small ncRNAs in an unbiased way and discover novel ncRNA species. CoRAL Divide small ncRNA into functional categories based on biologically interpretable features other than sequence; Annotate ncRNA in less well-characterized organisms. RNA-CODE Combine secondary structure with de novo assembly. Applicable to ncRNA annotation lacking reference genomes. miRDeep Used to detect both known and novel miRNAs in small RNA sequencing data. Circular RNA detection CircRNAs are a novel type of RNA that form a covalently closed continuous loop. Most of them are generated from exonic or intronic sequences, and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) or reverse complementary sequences are necessary for their biogenesis. CircRNAs are mostly conserved, and function as miRNA sponges, regulator of splicing and transcription, or modifiers of parental gene expression. Increasing evidence suggests the potential significance of circRNA in human diseases, such as atherosclerotic vascular disease, neurological disorders, and cancer. Among all the presented tools for circRNA detection, CIRI, CIRCexplorer, and KNIFE exhibit a balanced performance between precision and sensitivity. The available computational tools for circRNA sequencing data are summarized in Table 2. Table 3. Computational tools for circular RNA detection. Method Approach dependencies CIRI Segmented read-based Bwa, peri CIRCexplorer Segmented read-based STAR, bedtools, python (pysam, docopt, Interval) KNIFE Candidate-based Bowtie, Bowtie2, tophat2, samtools, perl LncRNA investigation LncRNA is a type of non-coding RNA with more than 200 nucleotides, such as lincRNAs and macroRNAs. LncRNAs function as a platform for the interaction with mRNA, miRNA, or protein. They have emerged as vital regulators in diverse aspects of biology, including transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation, and chromatin remodeling. Increasing researches suggest misexpression of lncRNAs contributes to tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. LncRNAs hence become a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. The combination of lncRNA sequencing and matched computational tools is a powerful approach for this purpose. Table 4. Computational tools for lncRNA investigation. Tools Applications Reference lncRScan Detect lncRNA from the complex assemblies; Distinguish lncRNA from mRNAs (Sun et al., 2012) iSeeRNA Accurately and quickly detect lincRNA from large datasets (Sun et al., 2013) Annocript Detect lncRNA by leveraging public databases and sequence analysis software to verify high non-coding potential (Musacchia et al. 2015) LncRNA2Function Annotate lncRNA based on the theory that similar expression patterns across diverse conditions may share similar functions and biological pathways. (Jiang et al. 2015) References: 1. Choudhuri S. Small noncoding RNAs: biogenesis, function, and emerging significance in toxicology. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology, 2010, 24(3): 195-216. 2. Fu X D. Non-coding RNA: a new frontier in regulatory biology. National science review, 2014, 1(2): 190-204. 3. Gao Y, Wang J, Zhao F. CIRI: an efficient and unbiased algorithm for de novo circular RNA identification. Genome biology, 2015, 16(1): 4. 4. Jiang Q, Ma R, Wang J, et al. LncRNA2Function: a comprehensive resource for functional investigation of human lncRNAs based on RNA-seq data//BMC genomics. BioMed Central, 2015, 16(3): S2. 5. Musacchia F, Basu S, Petrosino G, et al. Annocript: a flexible pipeline for the annotation of transcriptomes able to identify putative long noncoding RNAs. Bioinformatics, 2015, 31(13): 2199-2201. 6. Qu S, Yang X, Li X, et al. Circular RNA: a new star of noncoding RNAs. Cancer letters, 2015, 365(2): 141-148. 7. Su Y, Wu H, Pavlosky A, et al. Regulatory non-coding RNA: new instruments in the orchestration of cell death[J]. Cell death & disease, 2016, 7(8): e2333. 8. Sun K, Chen X, Jiang P, et al. iSeeRNA: identification of long intergenic non-coding RNA transcripts from transcriptome sequencing data. BMC genomics, 2013, 14(2): S7. 9. Sun L, Zhang Z, Bailey T L, et al. Prediction of novel long non-coding RNAs based on RNA-Seq data of mouse Klf1 knockout study. BMC bioinformatics, 2012, 13(1): 331. 10. Veneziano D, Nigita G, Ferro A. Computational approaches for the analysis of ncRNA through deep sequencing techniques. Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 2015, 3: 77. 11. Yang G, Lu X, Yuan L. LncRNA: a link between RNA and cancer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Gene Regulatory Mechanisms, 2014, 1839(11): 1097-1109. 12. Zeng X, Lin W, Guo M, et al. A comprehensive overview and evaluation of circular RNA detection tools. PLoS computational biology, 2017, 13(6): e1005420.
  23. Protecting the environment is a high priority for many people today, but a large portion just don’t know where to start. One of the easiest ways to go green is to start recycling at home. Here are a few tips to get you going on this path. Learn the Rules and Get Organized First, look into some recycling centers nearby to see what kinds of materials they allow you to bring in. They might have specific rules about what items they will allow and what they will reject. Some facilities might require you to crush bottles and remove the caps, while others won’t care. You’ll also need to get some bins and garbage bags for storing and transporting all the goods you plan to recycle. Clear out some space in your garage or backyard for storage. Make sure they are sealed up nice and tight to keep pests from getting into them and making a mess. Don’t be afraid to get creative and make them cute! The better looking your bins are, the more likely you are to have them out where you can see them. This increases the chances that you and your household will remember to separate your waste products appropriately. Start by Recycling Aluminum Cans and Glass and Plastic Bottles The easiest items to begin recycling are aluminum cans, plastic bottles and glass bottles. Some facilities will also allow steel cans, such as the ones used for canned food. They might also allow glass jars or other containers. You’ll need to separate them, and you might also want to rinse them out to avoid attracting ants and other pests, but that is not always necessary. Most facilities allow you to crush the items, so that can help you condense the space and bring in a lot more items every time you go down to the recycling center. Since many products are sold in containers made of aluminum, glass, or plastic, these are the easiest to start with. Make the decision to start and stick with it. Placing reminders around the house can help you turn recycling into a household habit. Don’t Forget to Recycle Newspapers and Scrap Metals Many families go beyond bottles and cans and will also recycle newspapers, paper waste and scrap metals. If you have the available space, then this is another great way to keep those items out of the landfills and recycle them to reduce waste and give them new life. Some residential communities have special dumpsters set up at schools or other community centers to receive newspapers and other items to be recycled. This can free up a lot of space at your home and save you from driving all the way out to the recycling center. Check around to see if anything like that is available in your area. Recycle Wastewater Many people don’t know that you could be reusing your household waste water. While reducing the amount of solid waste that ends up in landfills is a great way to recycle, it’s not the only option out there. Many families are investing in greywater systems as a way to recycle the water they use at home. Much of that water that goes down the kitchen sink, bathroom sink and shower drains can still be used to water plants and trees outside without damaging them. By using a treatment system like those at Econocycle to help you recycle your household waste water, you can help lower your water usage as well as your utility bills. Recycling is a great way to reduce waste and protect the environment for future generations. Just start small by recycling some of the items you already use and then build up from there. Once you get started recycling small items at home, you’ll quickly find that you enjoy making an impact and will want to do even more to make a difference in your community.
  24. More businesses are taking an active role to protect the environment. Although this may seem like a daunting task requiring extensive amounts of time or money, it really is fairly easy to make your company eco-friendly. Here are some basic tips for going green at your business. Reduce Utility Usage Wasting electric, gas, and water not only runs up the monthly utility costs, but it can also strain and waste our natural resources. Switch off lights in areas that are not currently being used. Turn down the thermostat to lower levels that protect people’s health and the company assets while lowering the use of heating sources, such as gas, propane, or electric. Check the hot water tank and consider lowering the temperature to a usable but not wasteful temperature. Any electrical equipment not being at night or over the weekends can be turned off or shut down to save power. Reuse Equipment and Supplies If your computer begins to act up or the printer is not working quite right, think about buying a used replacement or a rebuilt model. When you buy new equipment, it costs more and also uses more new materials. Buying a used or recycled brand gives older equipment a second life to avoid wasting new materials and products that will eventually add to the growing trash collection that leads to soil and water pollution. Shop for paper supplies that are recycled, along with other office products that have been refurbished or made from eco-friendly substances that won’t harm the planet. Clear Unneeded Debris If your office is harboring broken machinery or equipment, don’t leave it sitting around to use valuable space and utilities. Rent a dumpster when cleaning out a new business space to get trash where it belongs. You may be able to recycle certain types of fixtures and equipment so that others can get additional use from them in other forms. Dispose of toxic products appropriately to prevent local contamination. Buy Eco-Friendly Products Look for environmentally-friendly cleaning products, computer supplies, and virtual storage to reduce paper use. Ask about biodegradable materials that can gradually disintegrate into the soil, air, or water. Even décor like draperies or carpets can be made from eco-friendly materials. It doesn’t take much time or effort to operate your office efficiently while protecting the earth and our environment. Start switching to eco-friendly practices and products to keep our world green for generations to come.
  25. An efficient HVAC system in your home can help keep the temperature more consistent and save you some money. There are a variety of ways that you can go about ensuring its efficiency. Here are some of the tips that you can employ in order to maximize the efficiency of the heating and cooling system in your home. Clear Out Debris Changing out the air filter regularly will help to keep your unit operating at peak efficiency. More air exchange allows the unit to work more efficiently. Another thing that can help is to have your ducts and registers cleared of debris. You want as much of the hot and cool air to be able to get into the living spaces of your home. Adequate air exchange is another consideration, as you want air circulation that can be achieved without creating different temperature climates around the house. Invest In An Efficient Unit Upgrading your older unit will also maximize the efficiency of your home. The energy rating calculates the average energy usage over the course of the year. If you have a poor energy rating, looking into new ac installation companies can help you save money—especially since newer appliances tend to be efficient. It will increase the comfort level in your home and most likely pay for itself in lower energy costs. Use Technology Assistance A programmable thermostat is another way that you can control the temperature in your home. There are even thermostats that learn about your habits, so that they can more closely regulate the temperature. These types of technology assistance programs are becoming popular means and can help you maximize the energy efficiency of your home. Some apps will even let you control the temperature of your home when you're away. Take Precautionary Measures There are the standard means that you can maximize your energy efficiency. These include things like using environmental options to help regulate the temperature in your home. Opening up the windows at night when it's hot or blocking out the sun are some of the ways that you can reduce your cooling costs. You don't have to run your HVAC system all of the time when there are free methods to maintain your comfort. Take control of your HVAC system so that you can become more energy conscious. Another bonus of increasing your energy efficiency is saving some cash. Use these tips to keep you started down a more energy efficient path.
  26. Cranking up the thermostat is one of the most common ways for people to stay warm indoors throughout the winter, but this is also one of the most expensive methods. You may not be able to afford to use your heating system as much as you would like to this winter, or you may not want to spend a fortune unnecessarily. The good news is that there are several effective ways for you to stay warmer at home without relying heavily on your furnace. Keep Your Heater Well-Maintained Your heater will use more energy to heat your home when it is not well-maintained. Consider those dirty or worn out components may reduce efficiency, causing your heater to work harder than necessary. Scheduling residential heating maintenance services annually is a wonderful way to improve efficiency and to save money when your heater is running. Re-Seal Doors and Windows Annually You may decrease the frequency with which your heater turns on by re-sealing your home’s doors and windows annually. When heated air escapes from cracks in these seals, your heater may need to run more frequently to keep your home warm. This unnecessarily increases heating-related energy costs. In addition, cool air may penetrate through these seals, and this could create draughts that can be uncomfortably chilly. Re-sealing doors and windows is an affordable project that may deliver a great financial return. Add More Insulation to the Walls and Attic Another idea is to supplement your home’s existing insulation with an extra layer. Some homes are built with low-quality insulation, so upgrading the insulation may have incredible benefits on energy efficiency and overall comfort in the home. If your home is older, the insulation may have deteriorated or been damaged. Adding more insulation may be essential for superior warmth indoors. Spray-in foam may be particularly effective. While this step requires a significant financial investment, the return over the years can be substantial. You can see that relying solely on your heater to keep you warm in the winter can be expensive and may not be as effective as it could be. Each of these steps can reduce home heating costs while improving your comfort level indoors. Keep in mind that wearing warmer clothes indoors, burning a fire in the fireplace, sitting underneath a blanket and drinking warm beverages may also have a beneficial impact on your comfort throughout the winter. Consider combining all of these ideas for a comprehensive approach and exceptional results.
  27. Microorganisms widely exist in nature and are closely related to human life and production. They are generally divided into fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria, spirulina, rickettsia, chlamydia, mycoplasma and viruses. Microbial whole genome sequencing is an important tool for mapping genomes of novel organisms, finishing genomes of known organisms, or comparing genomes across multiple samples. Sequencing the entire microbial genome is important for generating accurate reference genomes, for microbial identification, and other comparative genomic studies. Comparative genomic analysis based on whole genome sequencing plays an irreplaceable role in studying pathogenic mechanism of pathogenic microorganism, evolution of pathogenic genes and screening of novel, efficient drug targets. Microbial whole genome sequencing can be widely used in various fields. Diseases Pathogenic microorganism includes all kinds of microorganisms that cause human diseases, food corruption, animal infection in animal husbandry and breeding industry, and plant diseases. Researches focus on disease-related genes, regulatory and interaction systems, metabolic systems, genetic variation, laboratory diagnosis and specific prevention, drug resistance genes, virulence genes and so on. Specifically, microbial whole genome sequencing can be applied to: · Diagnosis and identification of pathogens · Epidemiological investigation and tracing · Rapid identification of pathogen character · Analysis and prediction of disease prevalence · Vaccine variation monitoring and efficacy evaluation · Surveillance of foodborne pathogens · Drug targets discovery Foods Whole genome sequencing of microorganisms in food and bioinformatics analysis of data can help people predict genes that play an important role in the fermentation process or product quality, providing information about the metabolic pathways of microorganisms and their interaction with the environment. Microbial whole genome sequencing opens up the possibility of modifying microorganisms to make them more efficient in the production of vinegar, liquor, yoghourt, and many other fermentation processes. Agriculture Microorganism in agriculture involves in planting and breeding, processing of agricultural products, agricultural biotechnology, agricultural ecology and other research and application. Microbial whole genome sequencing can make people have a better understanding of agriculture microbe from genomic level, and the subsequent studies on genome structure and function lay an important foundation for agromicrobiology in the field below: · Establish agricultural microbial gene bank · Soil microorganism (including root microorganism) · Plant nutrition · Biological nitrogen fixation · Microbial pesticide · Microbial fertilizer · Feed additive · Biogas fermentation Environment & Industry Microorganism is one of the important factors to maintain the energy and material circulation in the ecosystem, it plays an important role in the degradation of various pollutants and harmful substances, and has great application value in energy production and renewable utilization. Some environmental microorganisms can adapt to special environments, such as high temperature, low temperature, high pressure, acid, alkali, heavy metal, and high substrate concentration. Microbial whole genome sequencing allows people to know about the secrets of these microorganisms’ adaptation to extreme environments, and provides a lot of assistance in pollution control, environmental protection, oil exploitation, preservation and transportation of food and medicine, biofuel, fermentation industry and many other fields in environment and industry. At CD Genomics, our expert team with extensive experience can help you fully understand microbial communities and take advantage of them. For this purpose, we provide the following services: 16S/18S/ITS Amplicon Sequencing Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Viral Metagenomic Sequencing Metatranscriptomic Sequencing Microbial Whole Genome Sequencing Viral Genome Sequencing
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