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  1. Yesterday
  2. Tumor Cells: What You Need to Know? What is the composition of tumor cells? Tumor cell parenchyma is a tumor. The tumor tissue consists of two parts: the parenchyma and the interstitial. Tumor consists of tumor cells, which is the main component of the tumor and has tissue-specific specificity. Tumor is an oncology term. It determines the biological characteristics of the tumor and the specificity of each tumor. Generally, the tissue origin of various tumors is identified according to the parenchymal morphology of the tumor, and the classification, naming and histological diagnosis of the tumor are performed, and the benign and malignant tumors and the malignant degree of the tumor are determined according to the degree of differentiation and the degree of heterotypic formation. What are the characteristics of tumor cells? Tumor cells have three distinct basic features: immortality, mobility, and loss of contact inhibition. In addition, tumor cells have many physiological, biochemical, and morphological features that are different from normal cells. Similar to other diseases, the diagnosis of tumors is based on medical history and physical examination as the most basic and important diagnostic tools. Physical examination includes X-ray examination, ultrasound examination, endoscopy, histological biopsy, blood examination, etc. Here we mainly talk about tumor markers. What is a tumor marker? A tumor marker refers to a chemical substance produced by a tumor tissue that reflects the presence of the tumor itself. It can be used for the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic observation of tumors. They are classified as the following categories: Oncofetal proteins, such as alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen; Tumor-associated antigens, (such as CA19-9, CA125); Enzymes, such as dehydrogenation of lactate Enzyme, neuron-specific enolase, prostatic acid phosphatase; Special plasma proteins (such as β2-macroglobulin, this week protein); Hormones (hormone), such as calcitonin, chorionic gonadotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone; In addition, proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and their products are also increasingly used as tumor markers. The use of tumor markers for the determination of tumors has been clinically used for many years and has served many roles in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic observation. In order to improve the accuracy of diagnosis, several related markers are often combined into a combined marker group in the clinic, and a certain tumor is detected at the same time. How to treat tumors? There are two viewpoints for treating tumors. One is to remove all or all of the tumor cells in the patient, so that the tumor does not recur in the survival period; the second is to change the characteristics of the cancer cells, so that the course is slowed down or even Stop completely. The conventional methods of tumor treatment include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  3. Last week
  4. Solar energy solutions aren’t a brand-new technology, but they have become much more refined, versatile and accessible in recent years. As homes and businesses around the world start incorporating these systems more frequently, many people outside of the industry struggle to separate fact from fiction. Solar power isn’t a perfect solution, but many of reasons that stop people from exploring the technology are little more than myths. The Costs are Too High Minimizing environmental impact is an important factor for many people, but homeowners often have to prioritize the financial impact when making a decision. Unfortunately, there are still many people who believe that any kind of solar solution is going to be too expensive or won’t yield a return on investment quick enough. While every situation and home has different factors that influence overall affordability, solar technology can help homeowners start cutting monthly costs almost immediately. Unreliable Performance Based Weather Another common myth about this technology is that it only works in warm climates or areas with clear skies. Weather patterns can influence the efficiency of solar panels, but you can leverage the technology even in areas prone to cold temperatures and overcast skies. Panels are often a much more reliable power source than modern myth suggests. Panels Reduce Home Value Worrying about the impact of panels on your home’s aesthetic or resale value is a reasonable concern, but it’s ultimately an unfounded one. Modern panels and related technology are a lot more flexible and minimal than older equipment, which gives homeowners more options when it comes to location and presentation. Installed panels can make a home more attractive to buyers and are generally easy to remove if the new owners don’t want them. Installation is Disruptive There’s nothing wrong with embracing a “do it yourself” attitude towards your home’s energy supply system, but there are also plenty of specialized professionals who provide complete installation services. Planning and preparing a home for panels can take some time, but there’s little risk that the actual installation and initialization will be a serious inconvenience for residents. Despite the many myths surrounding domestic solar energy systems, they are becoming a common sight across the United States. Even a minimal system that only provides partial power to the home can yield significant savings in the years ahead. Anyone who takes the time to consult with experts and research their options can find plenty of compelling reasons to incorporate this technology into their home or business.
  5. Synonymous codon substitutions affect the mRNA coding sequence, but the encoded amino acid sequence remains unchanged. Therefore, ostensibly these substitutions do not affect the phenotype and are often ignored in the study of human genetic variation. However, a variety of studies have shown that protein levels, translational accuracy, secretory efficiency, final folding structure and post-translational modifications are regulated by multiple mechanisms. Synonymous codon action has gradually emerged, and the precise mechanism has yet to be discovered. Studies on the interference of synonymous codon substitution on the co-translational folding mechanism often lack in vivo evidence, and usually, rare synonymous codons tend to translate more slowly than ordinary synonymous codons. In addition, rare synonymous codons tend to appear in clusters, many of which are preserved during evolutionary history. The folding rates of many protein secondary and tertiary structures are similar to their synthesis rates, and subtle changes in elongation may also alter the folding mechanism. Theoretically, synonymous rare codon substitutions reduce translational elongation and can provide more time for the N-terminal portion of the nascent protein to form a stable tertiary structure before the C-terminal portion emerges from the ribosome exit tunnel. Is the extra time good or bad for efficient folding? Cells contain a chaperone network to facilitate protein folding. It is unclear whether altered elongation and co-translational folding mechanisms of synonymous codons interfere with chaperone function. Recently, Ian M. Walsha and colleagues from the University of Notre Dame published an article in PNAS "Synonymous codon substitutions perturb cotranslational protein folding in vivo and impair cell fitness." They show that synonymous codon changes in the coding sequence of enzymes essential for E. coli growth have a significant impact on cell growth. The researchers tested various mechanisms of this growth defect, including changes in folded protein structure, expression levels, enzyme activity, mRNA abundance, and/or cellular stress responses. The findings are compatible with synonymous substitutions that alter the translation elongation pattern, the rationale being that altered co-translational folding mechanisms lead to more degradable structures. These results suggest that synonymous codon alterations can affect protein folding in vivo and affect the function of chaperones in protein homeostasis networks. Thus, the clever use of synonymous codons can have implications for protein design and the interpretation of synonymous mutations associated with disease. Most of the current understanding of protein folding mechanisms comes from studies of small proteins that fold reversibly upon dilution from chemical denaturants. However, only a small number of proteins can be stably refolded in vitro and remain in a stable state. This suggests that the conformation adopted early in the folding process is essential for successful folding and supports the formation of an early folding intermediate that is different from the conformation formed after dilution from the denaturant. Indeed, there is substantial evidence that chaperones are essential for the successful folding of many proteins in vivo. Although it has been hypothesized that synonymous codon changes can alter the extension rate and alter the folding mechanism, to date, no evidence supporting the hypothesis has been found experimentally in vivo, possibly due to the auxiliary role provided by chaperones. The results presented here indicate that synonymous codon-induced translational elongation affects folding during the synthesis of nascent CAT polypeptide chains. Although the nascent chain generated using different synonymous codons is still stable and CAT has a trimeric structure, the CAT protein generated by translation using the synonymous Shuf1 mRNA sequence is more susceptible to degradation by the cellular protease ClpXP, which leads to severe cell growth defects. Assuming that the ClpXP ssrA degradation tag is attached to the C-terminus of CAT, most of the degradation may occur only after the release of the translated CAT nascent chain from the nucleosome. Notably, even the native Shuf1-CATssrA protein is more susceptible to degradation than native CATssrA, suggesting that codon-induced perturbations persist for some time after translation and folding are complete. Thus, the buffering effect of the cellular proteostasis network is not sufficient to twist the effect of Shuf1-CAT folding defects on cell growth. The ssrA tag approach developed here reveals such interferences in other coding sequences, even though these interferences do not lead to eventual changes in protein structure. Recent in vitro single-molecule force unfolding experiments have shown that some small, ribosome-bound native folding domains can fold at the ribosome by a similar mechanism. However, as these studies point out, the results measured by molecular tweezers do not capture the transient folding of nascent chains during synthesis, and therefore, in these experiments it is the effect of close proximity of the ribosome surface, rather than co-translational folding of the ribosome surface, that is measured. The folding behavior of a reversible folding model may indeed result in indistinguishable folding behavior during translation. However, most of the model proteins selected for these studies were small, whereas synonymous codon-derived co-translational folds were much larger. The in vitro folding mechanism of proteins larger than 175 aa that are retained during co-translational folding is not known. Thus, synonymous codon-derived regulation of elongation rates can play a broad role in efficient folding of larger, and more complex proteins. CAT results indicate that synonymous changes in mRNA coding sequences can perturb the folding of protein sequences even in the presence of chaperone molecules, suggesting that mRNA sequences may have evolved with chaperones, thus effectively supporting the folding of the resulting protein structure. Although knowledge of the co-translational folding machinery is still in its infancy, these results suggest that for large or otherwise complex proteins it should be possible to rationally design mRNA coding sequences to improve in vivo folding yields and identify disease-associated synonymous codon substitutions that are most likely to adversely affect protein co-translation.
  6. Since World War II ended, agriculture has dramatically changed. New technologies have caused food productivity to soar. Mechanization, specialization, and increased chemical use hinder farmers from producing lower-priced foods and fiber. Government policies that favor maximized production is a key factor. These developments have many positive effects and reduce the risks associated with farming. But they also have significant costs. Topsoil depletion, air pollution, groundwater contamination, and greenhouse gas emissions only scratch the surface. Also, there is the decline of family farms, neglect of farm laborers' living conditions, and human health threats due to new pathogens. As well, rural communities are being disintegrated due to the concentration of economics in the agricultural and food industries. Over the last four decades, a growing movement has come forth that questions the need for high costs. This movement offers more innovative and reasonable alternatives. This movement is toward sustainable agriculture. It continues to garner increasing acceptance and support in the food production sector. The three main goals of sustainable agriculture are social equity, environmental health, and economic profitability. Although the concept is made up of a wide range of practices, policies, and philosophies, there are a few common principles that define sustainable agriculture. Throughout this movement, practice and science have led to many key farming techniques aimed at sustainability. Crop Rotation and Diversity Maintaining plant variety can be very beneficial. It results in improved pest control and healthier soil. Incorporating intercropping and complex crop rotations are ways of implementing crop diversity. Irrigation Rainwater can be collected or harvested with the use of gravity feed water tanks. Harvesting rainwater helps the environment and saves money. Water from wells, lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, and other sources can also be stored. Cover Crops Clover and hairy vetch are two types of cover crops. Cover crops are planted off-season when an area would be left bare. Planting cover crops allows the soil to be protected and builds soil health by replenishing nutrients, lowering the need to use herbicides, preventing erosion, and keeping weeds at bay. Reduced or No-Till Methods To prevent weed problems and to prepare fields for planting, traditional plowing known as tillage has been used. However, this generally causes massive soil loss. Reduced or no-till methods allow seeds to be directly inserted into undisturbed soil. This reduces erosion and improves soil health. Overall, more diverse and complex agricultural practices have proven to be the most productive and sustainable.
  7. Earlier
  8. 2. RNC-Seq Translating mRNA full-length sequencing (RNC-SEQ) shows a unique advantage that effectively addresses this issue. The cell lysate was loaded on a 30% sucrose pad and all the ribosomal-related translated mRNA and free mRNA and other cellular components were separated by ultracentrifugation. Ultracentrifugation can deposit RNC. RNC-mRNA can be recovered from the granulated RNC, effectively avoiding the interference of high concentration of sucrose, which is beneficial to downstream research. Next-generation RNC-mRNA sequencing technology reveals the full-length information of translated mRNAs, including the abundance and type of mRNAs. By optimizing the centrifugation and sucrose buffer, the recovery of RNC can reach 90%. Under the condition of appropriate buffer, RNC still maintains translation activity. The technical difficulty of RNC-SEQ lies in the separation of complete RNC. The fragility of RNC leads to the dissociation of ribosomes and the breakage / degradation of mRNA, which leads to the biased analysis of RNC-mRNAs. 3. Ribo-Seq Ribosome map (Ribo-seq), first published by Science in 2009 in Ingolia et al, which studied translation from another perspective. Treating cell lysates with low concentrations of ribonuclease (RNase) degrades mRNA, except for ribosome-protected RNA fragments. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to analyze 22-35 nt mRNA fragments (ie, ribosome footprints: RFPs), which correspond to ribosome-protected fragments (RPFS) to reveal the location and density of ribosomes. Based on positional information, the distribution and density of ribosomes on each transcript, information such as the start codon position (including non-ATG start), codon usage bias, upstream ORFs (uORFs), and translation pause landscape can be inferred. These aspects cannot be studied by other translation methods. In 2016, an optimized Ribo-seq method-super-resolution ribosome profiling was developed, which was able to observe a strong global 3nt periodicity in a single transcript. In addition, this method improves Ribo-seq's ability to reveal small ORFs (sORFs) and unannotated new coding regions, possibly encoding proteins from annotated non-coding RNA and pseudogenes. The ribonuclease used in the ribosome map was also taken into account. It was found that ribonuclease T1 is the enzyme that can best maintain the integrity of the ribosome, and also can convert the multimer into a single nucleosome. A variant of Ribo-seq is translation complex profile sequencing (TCP-seq). Fast-cooled yeast cells were cross-linked with formaldehyde to cause their translation complexes with mRNA to stagnate in their natural positions, and then subjected to RNase digestion. Then sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation was used to separate whole ribosomes and small subunits (SSU), and RNA fragments of up to 250 nt in these fragments were sequenced. Natural distribution maps were obtained at the beginning, extension and termination stages of translation. This method can observe the SSU footprint on the 5 'untranslated region (UTR) of mRNA and capture the position of any type of ribosome-mRNA complex at various stages of translation. However, Ribo-seq experiments are complicated and expensive. Compared to RNC-SEQ, it requires a large number of cells as a starting material. Since Ribo-seq of all species requires depletion of hybrid-based rRNA, Ribo-seq is usually limited to several model organisms. For many other species, especially the wide variety of bacteria, Ribo-seq is difficult to perform due to the lack of rRNA probes, and expensive customization of rRNA probes seems to be the only option. Many other factors affect the number of RFPs, such as pseudo RPF. Since Ribo-seq mainly analyzes coding sequences (CDS), where ribosomes bind to mRNA. Untranslated regions (UTRs) highly related to translation regulation cannot be effectively analyzed. In addition, Ribo-seq often generates many "RFPs" that are aligned to non-coding RNA, indicating a significant false positive rate. Another disadvantage is the short RFP length (24-26 nt for prokaryotes and 28-30 nt for eukaryotes), which is limited by the size of the ribosome and cannot be extended further. In order to obtain sufficient coverage of moderately abundant mRNAs, the amount of sequencing needs to be expanded (usually more than 100 million reads per sample), which means that sequencing and computational costs are high. Nevertheless, many translation events, especially the splice junctions of splice variants and circular RNAs, remain difficult to cover. The stitching alignment algorithm performs poorly at detecting connection points in these short reads. In contrast, the full-length RNC-seq sequence is the sequence of the entire mRNA; therefore, longer read lengths are suitable. Longer reads result in almost complete coverage of most translated mRNAs, including low-abundance mRNAs. This allows efficient detection and quantification of ligation, for example, translation of various splice variants of BDP1 and BRF1 and translation of circular RNA CircLINC-PINT, which are almost impractical using Ribo-seq. It is worth emphasizing that the density of RFP does not represent translation activity. The RFP density is directly proportional to the translation initiation rate and inversely proportional to the elongation. If translation is completely stalled on a certain mRNA, RFP will be highly enriched in that mRNA, but translation activity will be zero. 4. TRAP-Seq Inada et al. reported ribosome affinity purification (RAP) or translating RAP (translating RAP: TRAP). The large ribosomal subunit protein Rp25p produced under the control of a tissue-specific promoter and a fusion affinity tag (such as polyhistidine, green fluorescent protein (GFP), etc.) is used at the C-terminus. These ribosomes are then affinity purified (beads or columns) and isolated from ribosomes of other cell types. TRAP-SEQ specifically enriches RNC-mRNA in difficult-to-separate samples isolated ribosomes cannot be contaminated with non-ribosomal mRNPs co-precipitated with ribosomes because TRAP-SEQ does not use ultracentrifugation. TRAP-SEQ has its unique advantages in isolating translated mRNA from specific cell types in complex tissues. However TRAP-seq requires a stably transfected cell line to produce labeled ribosomal proteins. When applied to plants and animals, it is inevitable to build stable transgenic organisms. This is time-consuming and expensive, and it is not suitable for those that have not yet been established Species that stabilize transformation methods. In addition, overproduction of labeled ribosomal proteins has the potential to alter the structure and properties of these ribosomes. As a result, the system is no longer under physiological conditions; careful evaluation should be performed before all conclusions are applied to general scenarios.
  9. After living in your house for some time, you may realize it looks old and tired. Ideally, this does not mean you move into another new home if you can't. Thus, it needs some little refreshing to look more updated. So, if you have opted to renovate the room, don't perk it up only with modern lifestyle and expensive facilities but eco-friendly ones. Make sure the materials have a unique style but harmless to the environment. Recently thousands of homeowners are going with homes that are not only aesthetically pleasing but with low environmental impact. How do you renovate your house in a stylish and environmentally friendly way? Use bamboo floors You might be wondering what makes bamboo distinguishable from other wood. Well, bamboo is a unique wood on itself that grows faster than other woods, durable and moisture resistant. The percentage of the bamboo population is higher compared to other wood that takes time to grow. To have a bamboo floor, you only need to hire someone with high expertise on how to install it. Use of discarded metal or reclaimed woods Copper recycling and use of salvaged wood for house renovation is one of the most prevalent techniques used by homeowners today. They have been giving homes stylish and contemporary looking. You don't have to worry about durability. Rarely do they rust to hold house beauty for a long time. Recycled woods are becoming popular in home renovations as they are sublimely handsome and environmental sound. Go for solar energy Nowadays, use of the sun has become predominant in most households. This is one of the most potent and renewable sources of energy. Use of the sun as energy will satisfy your heart with guilt-free contentment as collecting power through solar powers is environmentally friendly. So, as little as less than 250$, you can build your home solar power system, which is less expensive compared to electricity bills. Recycled glass Today there is new cell bio glass that looks new, but they are eco friendly. If you want your house to have a new look you can add the recycled glasses in the kitchen and bedroom. They will enhance lighting and vibrant brightness under morning sunshine. Having a green home is one of the most lucrative things to owe in this era. To renovate your house with environmentally friendly materials isn't as difficult as you may think. Try these ideas while renovating your home to have a comfortable life!
  10. Yvonne Chen, an associate professor at the University of California, Los Angeles and a member of the Johnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, genetically modified immune cells such as T cells to attack the most evasive enemy: cancer. New cancer immunotherapies produce immune cells that can effectively kill blood cancers, but it is difficult to kill solid tumors. She is designing ways to allow immune cells to "beat" solid tumors. She presented her research at the 64th Annual Meeting of the Society for Biophysics, San Diego, California, USA, on February 18, 2020. T cells are white blood cells that patrol and attack invaders in our bodies, but they also need to avoid attacking our own cells, a way in which cancer can evade immune system surveillance. Solid tumors are cancers that form tumor masses in the body, accounting for 90% of cancer cases and can even inactivate immune cells. These tumors can be surrounded by a protein called transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). The protein TGF-β can inhibit the activity of T cells in the tumor environment. Chen discovered a way to help T cells overcome TGF-β inhibition to resist tumor cells. T cells are genetically engineered to express a receptor called the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), which is designed to recognize tumor-associated proteins, the tumor antigens. Once a cell presenting a target antigen is encountered, CAR-T cells can bind the target cell and kill it. Given that CD19 is an antigen found on B cells, T cells engineered to express a CAR that targets CD19 (CD19 CAR-T) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. Although CD19 CAR-T cell therapy has shown encouraging clinical results, sometimes a cancer cell population without CD19 appears throughout the treatment. "Clinical trials have shown that 50% of lymphoma patients treated with CD19 CAR-T cells relapse within 6 months, and many of these cases involve tumor cells that no longer express CD19," Chen said. To avoid this, Chen designed T cells targeting CD19 and CD20 to reduce the likelihood of any cancer cells escaping therapy. This bispecific CAR-T cell therapy is currently being tested in a phase I clinical trial carried out at UCLA. Besides hematological cancers, solid tumors have been the focus of many ongoing research efforts in Chen's laboratory. "Immunotherapy works well for hematological tumors, but not for solid tumors, in part because of TGF-β-induced immunosuppression," Chen said. Her new approach to using CAR that has been genetically engineered to target TGF-β is a good start for solid tumors. "TGF-β CAR has shown the potential to safely and effectively enhance the antitumor efficacy of T cell therapy." Chen and colleagues constructed CARs that could respond to TGF-β by enhancing defense. "T cells expressing TGF-β responsive CAR are not inhibited in response to TGF-β, but are ready to meet and attack tumor cells when exposed to high concentrations of TGF-β," Chen said. Chen and colleagues are developing TGF-β CAR-T cells that also target another tumor-specific marker in order to develop next generation T cell therapies that can be effective against immunosuppressive solid tumors.
  11. But after the passion faded, the problem gradually emerged. Among them, a major problem that researchers cannot solve is how to start the RNAi process only in the cells that are needed. To make things worse, many people were in hurry to undergo a series of therapies that have just rushed into human trials with only preliminary verification in the laboratory. "Many early clinical trials are very unwise, and many people want to be the first to do clinical trials," said Professor Mark Kay, a gene therapy expert at Stanford University. He knew these tests will not succeed. The seeds of disaster, which were buried from the beginning, quickly bear bad fruit. Soon after, RNAi therapies in some studies showed unexpectedly dangerous side effects in the human body. These therapies are either ineffective or harmful to the body because they cannot be delivered to the correct cells in the body. The entire RNAi field fell to the bottom in an instant, and many biopharmaceutical companies including Roche, Pfizer, and Merck have decided to exit. In 2014, Merck sold its RNAi technology company Sirna at a discount. It was bought by a biotechnology company called Alnylam. The rise of bright star Alnylam was founded in 2002, right at the midpoint of RNAi's scientific breakthrough (1998) to the Nobel Prize (2006). Its name is a bit difficult to read, but there is an interesting story behind it-it is derived from the word "Alnilam". Like the stars, more than 10 years ago, cutting-edge companies developing RNAi technology can be seen everywhere, and Alnylam seems to be no different from them. But when RNAi therapy fell into a trough, Alnylam was one of the few lucky ones to survive. This does not mean that it has never experienced pain. On the company's official website, Alnylam wrote that in the early days of its establishment, it had also encountered many challenges: the departure of its partners and the loss of confidence in the technology by the outside world had brought a big blow to Alnylam. Only within the company can we see the belief and optimism that make RNAi therapy a reality. Of course, countless cases prove that faith and optimism alone are not enough. What really drives Alnylam forward is a key technology he invented during the "darkest moment" of RNAi therapy. In 2010, the company published a paper that impacted the entire field of RNAi therapy-they found that using ligand-based technology, people could finally deliver targeted RNAi therapies. Yokohama's biggest obstacle to scientists' progress was removed. In front of them is a bright road to the approval of first RNAi therapy. First RNAi therapy After finding the key to solving the problem, Alnylam quickly established a series of research and development pipelines to address a variety of rare genetic diseases. Among them, its leading RNAi therapy, patisiran, treats a disease called hATTR amyloidosis. The root cause of this disease is mutations in the gene encoding thyroxine transporter, which causes the abnormal accumulation of amyloid in the human body and causes damage to organs and tissues. It is a severe and fatal rare disease. The life expectancy of a patient is only 2-15 years from the onset of symptoms. Patisiran can exert the "silencing" effect of RNAi on genes. By inhibiting the expression of specific mRNAs, this therapy can effectively prevent the generation of mutated thyroxin, clear the amyloid deposits in tissues, and restore tissue function. In September 2017, Alnylam and his partner Sanofi announced the positive top-line results of patisiran in a phase 3 clinical trial. Studies have shown that the new drug has reached the primary clinical endpoint, as well as all secondary clinical endpoints. At the 18-month node, patisiran significantly reduced patients' neurological lesions and improved their quality of life compared to placebo. Two months later, Alnylam submitted a rolling listing application to reduce the time required for listing. The US FDA has also granted patisiran breakthrough therapy designation and orphan drug status, accelerating its introduction. On August 3, the UK granted patisiran "Early Access" status, allowing patients to get treatment before the treatment is officially launched. Today, humans finally ushered in the approval of the first RNAi therapy. Some personal opinions As we know, the even research and development of new drugs is not easy, even with Nobel Prize support. Even if they can finally leave the laboratory and come to the patient's bed, these new therapies often go through a long research and development journey. Monoclonal antibodies, for example, have gone through a long journey, as are RNAi therapies today. And perhaps only the bravest fighters can open up a path of benefit for the patients from the thorns of doubt.
  12. Owning a piece of history in the form of a 19th-century home is an incredible way to make history come alive every day. Though the beauty of the architecture of these classic homes can't be matched, that beauty often comes at the price of high utility bills. Though these homes were efficient in their time, the effects of aging have rendered them fairly energy-inefficient. Fortunately, there are steps you can take to improve the energy-efficiency of your 19th-century home, thus lowering your energy costs. Seal the Gaps One of the biggest areas of energy loss from older homes occurs through the cracks and gaps that form in the home as it settles over the decades. Though this is something you have to deal with in a home of any age, it's especially pronounced in historic homes. It's a good idea to conduct an energy audit of your home to find specific areas where the air inside your home is leaking outside and the air outside your home is leaking in. Filling these gaps and cracks with appropriate materials will greatly increase your home's energy-efficiency. Replace the Windows Though older homes were built with many energy-efficient features that were often better-planned than today's homes, one feature that has vastly improved on today's homes is the windows. Many older homes have single-glazed windows, meaning just one pane of glass stands between the interior of your home and the unconditioned air outside. By replacing your windows with new energy-efficient windows, therefore, you're likely to see a big drop in energy consumption. Plus, many new windows come with UV protection built-in, which can protect the historic furniture and finishes in your home. Replace the Doors Though there's nothing quite like the beauty of an antique door, that doesn't mean it's the best option to keep your energy costs under control. Especially if one or more doors in your home are suffering from rot or some type of termite damage, replacing your doors with new Andersen doors is a great way to save some cash. In addition to being more energy-efficient, new doors tend to be more secure, as their frames are better-reinforced and their construction more focused on potential points of entry. Wrap the Pipes If you've ever been into the basement of your 19th-century home only to be amazed at the network of pipes carrying water throughout your home, it's important to know that these exposed pipes are costing you money. Exposed pipes sitting in uninsulated spaces, especially those carrying hot water, are quick to lose their temperature as they travel through a cold basement. On the other hand, cold water pipes are at risk of freezing if you don't have some form of heat in your basement. Do yourself a favor, then, and wrap all your pipes. This will lessen the work your water heater has to do and prevent any messy burst pipes in your basement. Whether you've lived in your 19th-century home for some time or if you're new to historic-home living, it can seem as though your to-do list is never-ending as you seek to make improvements to your home. By understanding which changes will have the biggest return on investment, though, you can begin to do the work that will transform your home into what you always envisioned. Then, though it may still be far off, the finish line will draw that much closer.
  13. The background The outbreak caused by the new/novel coronavirus (2019-nCov, SARS-CoV-2, or COVID-19) has attracted the attention of people throughout the world. Among them, there is a question that has drawn widen attention: why the number of confirmed cases are increasing rapidly since January 18, 2020? How can the novel coronavirus be detected quickly? In this article, some questions are discussed and explained. The pathogen of this unexplained case of viral pneumonia was initially determined to be "novel coronavirus". Whether it can be detected quickly and accurately becomes the key to prevention and control. Prior to the emergence of specific diagnostic methods, suspected cases could be found based on patient signs. Unfortunately, the specificity of this new type of coronavirus pneumonia is not strong. Compared with SARS, the onset of pneumonia was not urgent, and some patients did not even have a high fever. In the flu season, it is very difficult to distinguish patients with new coronaviruses from. On January 16, the first batch of PCR kits for the new coronavirus was delivered to provincial CDCs, which was the direct cause of the rapid increase in the number of confirmed cases in recent days. The Coronavirus Detection PCR Kit works roughly by extracting RNA from patient samples, performing reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and amplifying trace amounts of virus information in the samples by amplification reactions, and finally read the signal fluorescently. If the signal is positive after PCR, it can be said that the virus is present (infected) in the sample, otherwise it is not infected. How long does a nucleic acid test take? It takes about 16 hours at the beginning (the data in this article is estimated based on the normal laboratory operation time and does not represent the actual time). The new coronavirus that caused this pneumonia, like its close relatives SARS and MERS, its genetic information is composed of single-stranded RNA. To complete its detection, at least two steps are required to extract viral RNA and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Extracting viral RNA itself also involves multiple steps such as lysing the sample and purifying the RNA, which can take several hours. RT-PCR generally takes at least three or four hours to complete. If the entire process line is operated, it will take about one working day, that is, about 6-8 hours. The test results need to be reviewed, and repeated experiments will take twice the time. Based on this, some organizations have developed a simplified version of the kit, which can reduce the time of a single test to about 3 hours. How to develop and produce kits? Some people might wonder why did it take so long to develop and produce a kit after a month or so from the discovery of the first patient to the delivery of the kit? Let's take a look at the development process of the kit. Pathogen isolation and investigation: The pathogen that caused the outbreak is a brand new coronavirus. Before confirming that this is a pathogen that has never been seen, we need to exclude all known pathogens: including all types of influenza viruses (influenza A, avian flu, etc.), adenoviruses, rhinoviruses and Coronaviruses that cause pneumonia (SARS, MERS), Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, etc. Design primers: This is a very critical step. Only by designing appropriate primers can the PCR reaction for virus detection be performed. Scientists need to perform genome-wide sequencing and bioinformatics analysis on this newly found virus, design primers (that is, a DNA sequence), verify its specificity and sensitivity, and ensure that it can only recognize new coronavirus genes. Industrialized production: It can be said that all components in all viral nucleic acid detection kits are the same except for primers, so the synthesis of a large number of appropriate primers is the key to industrialized production kits. Pathogen isolation and screening takes at least a week, and sequencing and bioinformatics analysis take about three days. Probe design and specificity checks take another two or three days. In other words, it takes almost two weeks to put the designed primers into industrial production when everything is going well. In addition to nucleic acid testing, protein testing is also on the way. In addition to the current nucleic acid detection methods used in health systems, detection techniques based on viral proteins can also play a significant role in the rapid detection of pathogens. In addition to the genetic information carried by DNA / RNA, the protein shell of the virus also carries a large amount of information about the structure and pathogenic mechanism of the virus. It can also determine whether the patient is infected with the virus and whether it is immune to the virus. Nucleic acid detection relies on primers, and detection of viral proteins mainly depends on antibodies. As long as an antibody with sufficient affinity and specificity is found, the tedious steps of extracting viral RNA can be omitted and the protein immunoassay can be directly performed using the serum or sputum of the patient at the onset of disease (generally enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA). The results will get in 3-5 hours. If a new-generation immune reactor based on a microfluidic platform is used, the total detection time can be shortened to 30 minutes under the condition of ensuring detection sensitivity, and real-time diagnosis can be truly achieved. The difficulty in the development of protein-based virus detection lies in the production of antibody screening. The production of experimental antibodies is highly dependent on animals (generally produced by animals such as mice, rabbits, and sheep). A few days after the injection of the antigen, the animal's immune cells need to be screened to find lymphocytes that can be used to produce highly specific antibodies and expand them. Even at full speed, it will take 2-3 weeks to get the initial available monoclonal antibodies. Compared to RNA-based PCR kits, protein detection kits require longer development time and higher production costs.
  14. We all come across objects that we have saved, many for years, that we just haven't wanted to throw away. But sometimes the day comes when we look at those things and say to ourselves, “These just have to go. I will never use them again, and I should not hold on to them just because they have fond memories.” If you have to move, that is an optimum time to face this fact as you are trying to downsize what you have to cart to a new location. Why not line your pockets with some unexpected dollars by recycling and letting someone else have the use of those things that are still useable and sought after? Those people searching for such items have some creative ideas for them or have a collection that will be enhanced by the addition of what you have to offer. Some of the categories of possible recycled “clutter” are the following. Electronics Recycling There are R2-certified electronics recycling services who use state-of-the-art equipment to take the proper care of the recycling in an environmentally friendly and secure way while making sure that your data on any electronics is destroyed. That assures you that when you bring old electronics in for recycling, you don't have to worry about your sensitive information getting into the wrong hands. Some of the electronics included are cell phones, computers, tablets, complete laptops, circuit boards, motherboards, TV and monitor boards, CD and DVD and VCR boards, hard drives, processors, CD and floppy drives, CPUs, power supply units, CRT and LCD televisions, CRT and LCD monitors, whole PC towers, copiers, printers, fax machines, and more. Toys We keep seeing articles that ask if we have retained certain toys from our childhoods and, if so, many of them are worth a lot of money. So dig through those old stored boxes of “memories.” Collectors are anxious to find additions to the many different and unusual toys that have come out over the years, and there is an endless search for many of them. Clothing Vintage clothing and items from decades past are all the rage, and many have come back in style. Consignment shops are always on the lookout for clothing in good condition, and you can make yourself some extra dollars by either selling to them outright or putting the items on consignment to reap a portion of the sale prices. Collectibles Multiple items, some unique, are always being sought by collectors, and they will pay a “pretty penny” when they find something to add to their “stash.” Research online for particular objects and see if you want to try to sell your “discoveries” directly to the consumer or go through a middle man who will do the set-up, advertising, and shipping for their part of the purchase price. There are endless possibilities of what is being collected, so if anything is in good condition, it will probably find a new home whether it is jewelry, old records that are now called “vinyls” and are highly searched for and collected, handcrafts, quilts, paintings, beautiful pens, stuffed animals, wooden and metal toys, old dishes and platters, cookie jars, ceramic pieces, figurines and other knickknacks, watches, antique postcards and greeting cards – and the list goes on and on.
  15. With the cost of power continuing to climb, it’s important to find ways to reduce your home’s energy consumption. You should also consider the impact on the environment. Here are four proven ways to save energy and reduce your carbon footprint. Make Use of Your Ceiling Fans Many people use ceiling fans to enhance the appearance of their home’s interior. However, ceiling fans are more than just decorative pieces. They can also reduce energy costs. During the winter, be sure to run your ceilings fans in a clockwise direction. This will help circulate warm air, thus allowing your heating system to operate more efficiently. Meanwhile, reversing the direction of your fans will help blow down cool air in the summer. Install Energy-Efficient Windows Your old windows could be quietly draining your bank account. If you want to save more money in the long run, consider upgrading to energy-efficient windows. This among the best home improvements you can make. These windows are designed with low-E glass, which actually helps reduce frost build up on the outside. Because your rooms will feel much warmer during the winter, you won’t need to dial up the thermostat. Consult with professionals who do Cincinnati window installations or perform similar services in your area. Smart Lighting System Leaving the lights on can definitely lead to a sky-high electrical bill. If you want to curb your energy consumption, upgrade to a smart light switch. This innovative feature links to your smartphone via an app. Whether you’re in your bedroom watching television or out of town for the weekend, you turn the lights on and off with a simple swipe. A smart lighting system is especially ideal for parents who have forgetful kids. Eco-Friendly Showering Long, hot showers can waste a lot of energy. You can save a boatload of cash by simply reducing your shower time to five minutes. It’s also a good idea to get low-flow showerheads, which are affordable and easy to install. Furthermore, be sure to check your hot water heater’s thermostat. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, it should be set at 120 degrees Fahrenheit. This is the optimum temperature for energy savings. As you can see, creating a more energy-efficient household doesn’t take a lot of effort. Just a few changes can make a world of difference. Not only can you look forward to a lower monthly energy bill, but you’ll also be doing the planet a big favor.
  16. Industries that choose to utilize waterjet cutting technology are doing their part for the environment. This is because this type of technology creates less waste than traditional cutting methods. Here are just a few of the industries that are employing waterjet cutting for streamlined efficiency. Mining Operations There’s less wasted raw mining materials when you use waterjet cutting in mining. This is because the waterjet is more efficient at cutting what you want from the earth without having to drill holes to get it started. Another benefit is the fact that the water can be recycled without having to constantly add more to the system and flood out your mining site. Aerospace Applications Metal fragments created during the manufacturing process can generate a lot of waste. In the aerospace industry, all of this waste would cut into your bottom-line. This is because the types of metals that are used in the aerospace industry tend to be very expensive and harder to manufacture. Less waste in an expensive industry is good for everyone because you can create more products from the same amount of material. Metal Fabrication Metal fabrication encompasses a wide range of manufacturing environments. This includes things like custom made moulding blades. These types of blades are critical for other industries, such as woodcutting or even more specialized manufacturing environments. Another good thing about waterjet cutting is that it’s more accurate in its degree of precision for the types of blades that you can fabricate. Automotive Industry The automotive industry uses waterjet cutting technology for the bodies of their vehicles. This precise method of cutting means that it’s more reproducible so that you can get the exact same car no matter where it’s manufactured. Another good thing about waterjet cutting is that it doesn’t introduce warping during the cutting process because it doesn’t produce the same amount of heat. Electronics Manufacturing Electronics tend to be more fragile in nature. This industry is perfect for the use of pure waterjet cutting technology because you can control the amount of water pressure that’s being used. The environmental benefit is that you can use less water overall. Due to the nature of the process, the water is only in contact with the final product for a short amount of time to reduce waste. There are lots of other industries that are seeing waterjet cutting technology as a good move for the future. Consider these benefits the next time you want to find the right method to manufacture your products.
  17. Abstract: Scientists have made progress in research of childhood cancer and the latest treatment will also cover mental health assessment. February 15th is International Childhood Cancer Day, reminding us that childhood cancer deserves more attention since more than 250,000 children are diagnosed with cancer and about 90,000 children die from cancer every year. In recent years, the incidence of childhood cancer has been increasing, but children suffering from cancer have not received enough attention from all walks of life. How to make breakthroughs in the field of childhood cancer treatment and find more accurate and effective treatments is a problem that scientists worldwide have been exploring. Recent research on childhood cancer has made some new progress. Precision medicine of childhood cancer: JAMA Network Open published a research result of the CHU Sainte-Justine TRICEPS team that genomic profiling will help clinical treatment of childhood cancer. Until April 2019, the team had enrolled 84 patients. In 87% of patients, the study identified genomic anomalies that allowed for better patient management. The therapeutic alternatives are personalized because the proposed actions will be different for each patient. The discoveries can lead to a "targeted" therapy because it specifically seeks to block (or bypass) the action of genes that cause cancer progression. Gene technology for Ewing sarcoma: Ewing sarcoma is a childhood cancer driven by EWS-ETS transcription factor fusion oncoproteins. The majority of tumors express wild-type TP53, and thus, therapies targeting the p53 pathway would benefit most patients. To discover targets specific for TP53 wild-type Ewing sarcoma, scientists used a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screening approach and identified and validated MDM2, MDM4, USP7, and PPM1D as druggable dependencies. New target for treating childhood cancer: SWI/SNF is a multi-component protein complex that plays an important role in chromatin remodeling. It is also likely an important tumor suppressor, as indicated by the fact that approximately 20% of human cancers carry a mutation in one or more SWI/SNF protein components. This SWI/SNF component protein is mutated in a number of cancers, including malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), a highly aggressive, nearly uniformly fatal childhood cancer. William Tansey and his laboratory found that cancers bearing an SNF5 mutation may be susceptible to therapy by MYC inhibition, providing yet another reason why the discovery of clinically viable MYC inhibitors is of utmost importance. The purpose of modern childhood cancer treatment is not only for the survival rate and the extension of survival time, but also to improve the quality of life. The principle of treatment of pediatric tumors has been raised to the integration of eradication of tumor, functional maintenance and mental health. For the first two principles, childhood cancer patients are very different from adults, for they are at the stage of growth, thus the treatment plan must take the impact of treatment on the normal development of children into consideration. For example, the widespread use of radiation therapy in adults has been severely limited in childhood cancer treatment due to the risk of skeletal deformities, gonad damage, and intellectual effects in children. In the future, there will be anti-tumor drugs and treatment being more safe, effective, and less toxic, such as biological treatment, gene therapy, differentiation induction therapy to replace traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For mental health, on the basis of further improvement of tumor eradication and long-term survival, the mental health of children with tumors will be increasingly valued. Psychological problems, including children's self-experience, psychological effects, concerns about relapses and difficulties in participating in society, should be brought to the attention. Parents should be noticed that organ function and appearance reconstruction are also necessary for those who have suffered growth stagnation, and whose appearance is abnormal due to surgery and radiation therapy. In short, the childhood cancer treatment is being improved, and under the premise of continuous increase of survival rate, children's long-term psychological and physical health, as well as functional maintenance must be considered when formulating treatment plans.
  18. Landscape design must be suited to the local climate. The native plant works well in the local climate for the design as they do not need a lot of extra watering, fertilizers and pesticides to survive. For this, the native plant and grass must be preserved or collected. However, Manuel Diaz Farms Inc. is a Wholesale plant nursery, all types of native plants and grass are available here. To speed on sustainable landscaping practices, Homebuilders can go for the bioswales, rain gardens and the use of native plants. Mainly, Rain gardens help control runoff by directing stormwater to home landscaping sites while Bioswales are designed to remove silt and pollution from surface runoff water. The use of native plants minimizes maintenance costs and improves soil quality. Landscape design varies on climate, so we examine characteristics and best practices in projects from the five major climate zones in the United States. • Marine Climate: On an urban site, steep slopes, compacted soil, lack of shade and stormwater runoff are the main challenges to address to maintain a Sustainable Landscaping Design. If the homeowners want a sizable vegetable garden, they have to face the lack of water for irrigation. For New Residential Developments according to Sustainable Landscaping Design, some steps are mandatory to be taken. Firstly, rainwater must be collected for irrigation and stormwater runoff must be eliminated from the driveway with the help of Rain gardens and Bioswales. Then The use of native plants such as ferns, birches and willows should be increased. • Cold/Very Cold Climate: To enhance water filtration in this weather, stormwater retention ponds are needed to add Landscaping Design for New Residential Developments. And Bioswales will be seeded with a mixture of native grasses and sedges. Most importantly, long, deep-rooted fescue grasses can be used because they absorb large amounts of water. • Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate: For Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climate, Landscaping Design for New Residential Developments must include some points that are given below. 1. Farmland should be restored to its original habitat. 2. Rainwater percolates into the ground through permeable pavers at every driveway entrance. 3. The curb cuts streets drain to allow water to flow into a dry bed, then into bioswales. • Hot-Humid Climate: To develop a New Residential with Sustainable Landscaping Design, Bioswales and rain gardens must be constructed with a highly permeable engineered soil that allows infiltration of water. Additionally, the native plant materials need to be selected to plant because they have the ability to tolerate the region's extremes of dry and wet weather. • Mixed-Humid Climate: Peoples in Mixed-Humid Climate can use dry-stack rock walls in their Sustainable Landscaping Design. Actually, Beard plants rock walls with mostly native plants. They don't even require a lot of water. Besides, the walls allow rainwater to flow properly without using pipes or concrete swales. • New products and technologies to Green the Landscape A successful sustainable Landscaping Design depends on the native plant and grass that can be found in Manuel Diaz Farms Inc. But there are new products and technologies to enhance sustainable landscape design. 1. HydraCX2 is made from mechanically processed straw fibers. It can hold soil and seed in place on a steep slope. 2. Synthetic turf is a new one that doesn’t need irrigating, fertilizing, mowing or pesticides. 3. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems can be used to filter out particulate matter and even bacteria. 4. Native desert plants don’t require irrigation. They can survive on very little rainfall. Even though the development of new residential areas requires a Sustainable Landscaping Design, most of the homeowners have Lack Knowledge of Green Yard Practices. So they need to be aware of this practice in order to be successful in this field. On top of that, the use of native plants and grass must be increased for this.
  19. Quantum dots, also known as semiconductor nanocrystals, are nanoscale materials composed of a small number of atoms. The number of atoms in a quantum dot is usually between a few and a few hundred, and their size in all three dimensions are less than 100 nm. The movement of carriers in the three dimensions of quantum dots is limited by the size effect. Due to the quantum confinement effect, the energy levels of carriers in quantum dots are similar to those of atoms having a discontinuous energy level structure, so quantum dots are also called artificial atoms. Due to their special energy level structure, quantum dots exhibit unique physical properties. This paper mainly discusses some properties of quantum dots, including quantum confinement effect, quantum size effect, surface effect and luminescence property. 1 Quantum confinement effect Generally, the smaller the volume, the greater the bandwidth, so the optical and electrical properties of the quantum dots are highly dependent on the size of the material. Generally, when the size of the quantum dot is equal to or smaller than the exciton Bohr radius of the corresponding bulk material, the movement of the carrier electron-hole pair is in a strongly restricted state. When the energy gap increases as the particle size becomes smaller, the semiconductor material is quantified. The energy after quantification of the semiconductor material is: E(R)=Eg+h²π²/2uR²-1.8/εR. In the formula, Eg is the bulk band gap, u is the mass of electrons and holes, ε is the dielectric constant of the quantum dot material, R is the radius of the particle, and E(R) is the lowest excitation energy. The value obtained by subtracting Eg from E(R) is the amount of increase in kinetic energy. 2 Quantum size effect It can be seen from the above formula that the quantum confinement energy and the coulomb interaction energy are proportional to 1/R2 and 1/R, respectively, the former can increase the band gap energy (blue shift), and the latter can reduce the band gap energy (red shift). When R is small, the quantum confinement can be more sensitive to R. As R decreases, the quantum confinement energy increases more than the Coulomb interaction energy, resulting in a blue shift of the spectrum. 3 Surface effect Surface effect means that the specific surface area of quantum dots increases with the decrease of particle size, resulting in insufficient coordination of surface atoms and increased number of unsaturated bonds and dangling bonds, thus the atoms on the surface of quantum dots are extremely unstable and easily bind to other atoms. This surface effect gives the quantum dots a large surface energy and high activity, which not only causes changes in the atomic structure of the quantum surface, but also causes changes in the surface electron energy spectrum. Surface defects lead to trapped electrons or electron holes, which in turn affect the luminescent properties of quantum dots, causing nonlinear optical effects. 4 Luminescence property The principle of luminescence of quantum dots is similar to that of conventional semiconductor luminescence, that is, carriers in a material reach an excited state after receiving external energy, and release energy when carriers return to the ground state, and this energy is usually released in the form of light. Unlike conventional luminescent materials, the luminescent materials of quantum dots have the following characteristics. 4.1 Adjustable emission spectrum Semiconductor quantum dots are mainly composed of elements in IIB-VIA, IIIA-VA or IVA-VIA group. The luminescence spectra of quantum dots of different sizes or materials are in different bands. For example, the luminescence spectra of ZnS quantum dots covers the ultraviolet region, and the luminescence spectra of CdSe quantum dots covers the visible region, while the luminescence spectra of PbSe quantum dots covers the infrared region. Even for the same quantum dot material, the luminescence spectrum is different if the size is different. 4.2 Wide excitation spectrum and narrow emission spectrum The range of the spectrum that triggers the quantum dot to reach the excited state is wide, and the quantum dot can be excited as long as the excitation light energy is higher than the threshold value. Regardless of the wavelength of the excitation light, as long as the material and size of the quantum dots are not changed, the emission spectrum of the quantum dots is fixed, and the emission spectrum range is narrow and symmetrical. 4.3 Large stokes movement The peak of the emission spectrum of a quantum dot material is usually red-shifted relative to the peak of the absorption spectrum. The difference between the peak of the emission and absorption spectrum is called the Stokes shift. The Stokes shift of quantum dots is larger than conventional materials. Stokes shift is widely used in the detection of fluorescence spectral signals.
  20. The costs related to running and maintaining an industrial plant tend to rise every year and even sometimes every quarter. Energy costs are one of the top areas to see the most increases. Simple inflation and business growth are factors. Of course, regulatory and other changes in industrial practices and changes in energy creation can skyrocket energy costs as well. Follow these tips for lowering your industrial plant's energy consumption this year: Improve the Lighting It's time to rethink how light is distributed and handled in the plant. Employees often leave lights on in unused areas. Some plants have older lighting systems that waste power. Wherever possible, bring in natural light, such as via indirect light window shades and overhead skylights. Inspect the lighting systems and replace outdated, low-efficiency parts. For example, install natural light LED bulbs. Also, invest in motion-detection systems that automatically turn off indoor and outdoor lights in empty areas and after hours. Inspect Systems Regularly Since unclean, old and broken systems run inefficiently, it's important to maintain them regularly. Motors and fans in some systems, such as HVAC systems, usually work harder because of overheating caused by debris buildup on parts and air flow issues. Some equipment, such as air compressors and pressure washers, are normal energy wasters and then cause a higher amount of energy loss when malfunctioning. For example, your employees waste energy if they have to work longer with these systems because air or water leaks destabilize needed pressure. Use Energy-Efficient Devices It might seem obvious that energy-efficient devices can help, but many plant administrators forget about or fail to see the long-term benefits of using these cost-saving options. For example, SCRs for water tube boilers not only reduce environmentally harmful NOx emissions, but also operate better and provide greater energy efficiency. Automated outlet devices and whole-system panels can turn off outlets and power to equipment that normally causes an energy drain in idling or standby mode. A programmable thermostat can detect via attached sensors changes in outdoor and indoor temperatures and adjust settings per your specifications. Establish Direct Oversight Continuous energy management is critical to maintaining control over energy usage. Review your current workforce or bring in outside help to administer an energy-efficiency program. Make certain that this program has more than one person working on it so that you have people with different viewpoints assessing the plant and researching and offering ideas. The team should also regularly provide cost-comparison reports that help you to understand short-term, upfront and long-term costs versus overall savings. It's not difficult to use less energy at your industrial plant. The process merely requires creativity, time and patience. It's also important to motivate employees by showing them that energy-efficiency changes are beneficial to everyone. When plant workers are invested in energy loss reduction, these types of changes occur more smoothly. Additionally, invested employees typically offer ideas of their own without prompting through company-wide employee feedback tools.
  21. All your household waste doesn’t have to end up in a landfill. There are many means of managing household waste that are better for the environment and can also be good for your home’s functioning. Here are a few smart eco-friendly options for your household waste. Make Money from Unwanted Items and Materials It’s true that one man’s trash is another man’s treasure, and you may find people who are interested in buying some of your household waste for recycling purposes. Aluminum and other forms of scrap metal along with paper and plastic can earn you money if they’re recycled. You can also try selling old furniture and electronics that you wish to get rid of instead of disposing them in the trash. Use Waste Items for Arts and Crafts Projects If you have a knack for creating arts and crafts or have kids who need supplies for school projects, utilizing certain items from your household waste can be a smart decision. Empty soda cans and water bottles can be turned into creative planters that act as pots for growing flowers and other household plants. Plastic bottlecaps often work well as additions for handmade beaded curtains. Old newspaper and other wastepaper can also be used for a variety of projects. Find Ways to Reuse Wastewater You may be surprised when you realize exactly how much water for your home goes to waste that could have still gone to good use. A reliable wastewater treatment system can work well for reusing water for purposes of watering your lawn and plants. If you’re looking for ways to reduce the amount of wastewater that you generate, try taking shorter showers and installing water-efficient faucets, toilets and washers. Turn Waste into Compost Food scraps, coffee grounds and nutshells can all be used to make compost to fertilize your soil. You can purchase a composter and put your waste in it so that it can be turned into suitable compost material. Even shredded newspaper, tissues and lint that comes from all-natural material (such as cotton) can make great compost. It’s also possible to formulate compost out of dead leaves and other debris in your yard. Finding ways to manage your household waste in a more environmentally responsible manner can pay dividends when it comes to helping the planet. These clever and simple methods for managing your household waste can also add more convenience to your life
  22. Changing the cat litter has got to be one of the most despised chores, at least at my house. It's like drawing the short straw and ending up with the chore no body wants. If you hate changing cat litter, you may be interested in how we solved this dilemma and stopped changing cat litter. No, we didn't get rid of our beloved cats or just let it go (that would be stinky!). We invested in an automatic litter box. An automatic litter box is self cleaning unit that makes quick work of cat box cleanup. Typically, they work around the clock on a timer and scoop and store waste for later disposal. Some models even go further and wash and disinfect themselves. This is great because waste doesn't have time to sit and develop the bacterial growth that gives it that funky smell. There are quite a few different brands and types of automatic litter boxes. Some even bear quite the resemblance to a human potty, believe it or not. When choosing a self cleaning cat litter box, you should consider the type of litter the box uses. Many units require that you purchase special litter while others use ordinary clumping litter. Still others operate with preferment granules that never need changing. Be careful when you select a box because the type of litter can have a major impact on the overall lifetime cost of running the unit. Another thing to keep in mind about these self cleaning boxes is that it may take kitty some time to adapt to the unit. Some make a certain degree of noise while they are in their cleaning mode which can be a put off to more skittish kitties. Our cats took their time adjusting but after a few days they had no problem using their new box. If you would like to stop changing cat litter, an automatic cat litter box is a great investment. This once avoided chore now seems not so bad and even the kids don't mind being tasked with it. Now there's a bonus! Another big benefit is that it always stays fresh, even after a long day when nobody is home to monitor the litter box.
  23. Whether the tactical operation is one for the military, SWAT, or law enforcement, footwear is key to ensuring that the mission - not foot discomfort or inadequate tactical boot performance - is the foremost consideration when mental focus is critical. There are many options in footwear for uniformed officials and with those options come the responsibility of determining which shoes or boots are best suited to specific work situations. Considerations When selecting footwear, first consider the type of operations performed. By considering the job duties and exposures to elements and other situations, an overwhelming selection of footwear can be narrowed down to a few prime selections: • Is the typical work scenario one within a command station or behind a desk, on patrol in vehicles, and involving very little walking? If the answer is affirmative here, low cut shoes are most suited to this work environment. Low cut shoes without ankle support allow more flexing at the ankle, such as when sitting behind a desk or at the wheel of a car for prolonged periods of time. Patrol officers will likely find low-cut shoes suited to their beat, too. • Does the job involve primarily walking, light running, and sudden movements during situations of physical confrontation? If so, mid-cut footwear provides ankle support, comfort, and help prevent injuries such as sprains. • Is there off-pavement hiking, running, a high degree of physical confrontation, kicking and other more extreme action? In these instances, high cut boots are optimum, such as those issued to military soldiers. They are not often considered as comfortable as lower cut versions, but really protect the ankles and lower legs when it counts. As part of missions, uniforms and footwear may come into play during the time required for response, recall or activation. If split-second dressing is required, for example, fumbling with small eyelets and laces may prove cumbersome and possibly even dangerous. Consider the dressing phase and whether arriving at the duty station occurs in a full state of dress, or if there are times when dressing in seconds arise as highly important. Materials of footwear composition also come into play during tactical missions. Waterproof wear may be required or water-resistant coverage could be considered enough for the work detail. Plastic may melt in extreme heat, such as fires or direct sunlight. Metal may be reflective and give away position or alert subjects to positioning. Metals may also easily tear into laces or other parts of the tactical boots. Non-slip soles may be necessary, although some might make too much noise on polished floors. Ensure soles and heels will endure and are specifically designed to suit the surfaces on which the majority of the job's duties are performed. On the inside of the shoes or tactical boots, determine whether extra inserts are needed for the expected level of interior wear and tear and to prevent blistering. If padding or extra support is needed, either seek footwear which provides that or seek gel inserts or other optional cushioning to customize fit. Toes may need to be protected by steel to prevent broken bones during combat maneuvers, in the event of physical confrontations, kicking, or items being dropped onto feet. Finally, because of the importance of foot health during tactical operations, gaining a podiatrist's consultation may help in selection of a tactical boot or service shoe which will prevent or alleviate problems and pain associated with back, knee, foot, or other injuries. When in doubt about the decision to be made, perhaps the best resources for advice are the other officers or soldiers within the unit. Tactical World Store is a company specializing in selling professional tactical gear. We dedicated to provide the highest quality Tactical Footwear (Mainly including tactical boots, military combat boots and tactical work shoes) for law enforcement, military, security, fire, EMS, postal, public transportation.
  24. Fun is a social thing which is conduct by people .So I want to create a Great Fun Galleries for them
  25. According to NASA, 800 million people are vulnerable to droughts, floods, and other extreme weather events caused by climate change. At the same time, carbon dioxide emissions are at an all-time high and rising temperatures endanger the polar ice cap every year. The time to act is now and everyone from governments to businesses and homeowners needs to make a change and embrace more sustainable alternatives. The measures required to protect the planet are, of course, extensive, and more than one sector needs to go green if we want to see lasting changes. However, some improvements are more impactful than others and one that can definitely benefit the planet and society as a whole is green buildings. The size of the green building market has increased considerably in the past few years and is expected to grow by an additional 10% by 2023. There is overwhelming evidence that building sustainable constructions, both for residential and commercial use, can reduce greenhouse emissions and create better conditions for everyone, while at the same time saving money. At present, North America has the most mature green building market, but the trend is starting to pick up in Europe and Asia as well. Building rating standards are also beginning to change, so that modern developers no longer have to design beautiful buildings that stand out against the urban landscape and offer the latest tech innovations, but also that have a low carbon footprint. Here’s why: Green buildings help the environment In order to understand how green buildings help the environment, first we have to define what makes a building be green. First of all, green buildings stand out through the efficient and responsible use of resources and energy. The materials used for green buildings are sustainable, come from ethical sources (meaning that they don’t contribute to deforestation), they’re non-toxic, and don’t affect air quality. Secondly, their environmental impact was considered every step of the way, from design to implantation. Green buildings use energy efficiently, and often feature elements such as solar panels and smart roofs, which reduce dependence on heating and cooling systems. Green building developers may also use special equipment to add greenery to the roof and increase eco-efficiency. What are the results? Green buildings produce 34% fewer carbon emissions compared to conventional buildings and consume 25% less energy. According to UNEP data, the building sector has the biggest potential to reduce greenhouse emissions than all other sectors and, if the current trend continues, the industry has the potential of saving as much as 84 gigatons of carbon dioxide by 2050. Another 2016 study also found that green buildings could help prevent the rise in global temperatures. At present, almost every country has set up sustainability ratings to help developers design and build greener constructions, and provided data to back up their benefits. For example, buildings that have obtained the Green Star Certification in Australia have been proven to use 50% less potable water compared to other homes, while the buildings that have obtained the LEED certification in the United States consume 35% less energy. Whether you want to build a new home, an office building, or any other commercial construction, complying with these sustainability standards can help you protect the planet. Green buildings are good for the economy The fact that green buildings have a lower carbon footprint is a strong enough reason to consider them. However, that’s not their only benefit. Studies have shown that green buildings are also highly economical, not only because they require fewer resources to make but also consume less energy in the long run. In fact, the average green building saves energy by 50%, helping owners and occupants spend less money on gas and energy bills. On a global scale, green buildings have a huge financial potential. According to the European Commission, sustainable building standards could save up to €410 billion on energy spending. Additionally, each country’s economy can benefit. For instance, Canada’s green building industry alone generated $23.45 billion and created 300,000 jobs in 2014. As for developers, they can benefit too. According to a 2016 study, new green buildings or renovated old ones get a 7% increase in asset value. In other words, everyone benefits. When green buildings started being popular, many feared that they were just a fad and that the costs weren't worth it. Now, it’s clearer than ever that sustainability is not just a trend and that green buildings can pay for themselves in the long run. Green buildings are better for society If environmental and financial benefits weren’t convincing enough, studies have also shown that green buildings also help society as a whole. First of all, green buildings are healthier because they are made with non-toxic materials. As a result, indoor air quality isn’t affected and this reduces the incidence of respiratory conditions such as asthma and allergies. Furthermore, living and working in green buildings with good ventilation have better sleep quality and show better cognitive performance. The latter is particularly relevant for the green office building trend, which more and more corporations are interested in. When they work in a green building with optimal comfort levels, workers are more productive and, since they’re exposed to fewer health risks, take fewer sick days. Green buildings are also better for children’s development, which is why schools all over the world are rushing to renovate old buildings or at least expose kids to more daylight and environmental practices. Last, but not least, there’s also the fact that people are now aware of the importance of sustainability and want to be part of the change. Working in a green office or renting an apartment in a green complex creates a sense of pride and people are happy to contribute to the solution by choosing green buildings over the ones that merely meet the minimum requirements.
  26. As winter finally ends and spring gets under way, you're likely to take advantage of the rising temperatures to get your house back in order for another year. From cleaning the house to standard repairs, spring is always a busy time. And if you're environmentally-conscious, then you'll want to follow these tips to make your house greener than ever. Keep Your Stuff out of Landfills Most of us have a tendency to acquire more junk than we need. And after a winter of watching our junk collecting dust, we often use spring to get rid of what we no longer need. But be careful not to throw all of your unwanted things away. Anything that is still usable should be donated, not trashed. With what's left, you should recycle everything you can. Start a Vegetable Garden Growing vegetables in your yard is one of those fantastic activities that has benefits across the board. You will save money and help the environment, and almost certainly have fun while doing it. By producing your own vegetables, you'll save yourself trips to the grocery store. You'll reduce the greenhouse gas emissions caused by the transportation of produce from far away, and lessen the use of the toxic chemicals abused at many larger farms. Use Propane for Your Grill On the first warm days of the year, many Americans feel the grill calling their names. The winter drives us indoors, denying us the juicy steaks and perfect burgers that somehow don't taste as good when not cooked on the grill. But, wherever you stand on the gas versus charcoal debate, you should make this the year you switch to propane. Recent studies have demonstrated that gas grills create far less emissions, meaning you'll be lessening your carbon footprint with every meal. Cut Down on Your Energy Use One of the easiest ways to help save the planet (and lower your utility bill) is by decreasing your household energy use as much as possible. There are many small steps you can take to accomplish this task. Incandescent light bulbs should be replaced by their incandescent counterparts. Windows should be replaced if they are not air-tight. That way, after your AC system installation, you can feel fine turning on the air knowing your house is sealed tight. As winter turns into spring, be sure to follow these tips. You'll enjoy keeping your mindset as green as the newly-formed buds on the trees.
  27. When choosing how to adorn the windows in your home, you may think the only differences between the various options are aesthetic differences. However, different window coverings make a big difference in your home's energy efficiency, as well. Since it's good to save energy however you can, both to save money and help protect the environment, careful consideration should be given to the energy-efficiency of the window coverings you choose. To help you decide, here are a few ways that the choice of window decor affects your home energy use. Curtains There are a wide variety of curtains available, some of which do very little to affect your home's energy use one way or the other. However, certain types of curtains are specifically made to help make your home more energy-efficient. These are sometimes called "thermal curtains" or "black-out curtains." Essentially, these curtains are made from heavier material that makes them nearly impervious to light. Between their light-blocking capabilities that help control sunlight and their heavier fabric that helps keep hot and cold air by the window instead of releasing it into the room, these types of curtains are quite effective at helping you use less energy in your home. Roller Shutters Unlike most types of window coverings, roller shutters are mounted on the exterior of your windows instead of the interior. As such, roller shutters provide an especially effective method of preventing outside air from entering your home. By creating a seal around the window opening, roller shutters essentially act as a third layer of glass, keeping your home nice and comfortable. An added bonus is that roller shutters provide a solid barrier against potential intruders, thus protecting your home from crime in addition to protecting you from discomfort. Blinds Though the nature of blinds, with their multiple slats, means that blinds aren't as effective at temperature control as other window coverings, they can still create a meaningful thermal barrier that helps to maintain the temperature in your home when they are closed. For maximum effectiveness, of course, it's important to shut the slats tightly to minimize the gaps between the slats and help trap the conditioned air inside your home. Window Tinting Window tinting is an especially intriguing window treatment option, as you can still add other layers of window decor on top of this option to create an especially efficient window. The main advantage of window tinting is that it cuts down on the amount of sunlight that can enter a specific room, meaning the sun's rays can't heat up the interior surfaces as quickly, thus keeping the room cooler. If you have windows that get direct sun at any point throughout the day, this can result in significant energy savings over the course of a summer. Though various types of window coverings can help lower your home's energy use, there's no substitute for new windows when it comes to keeping your home comfortable. Therefore, if you can combine new windows with one or more of these other solutions, you'll end up with an especially efficient system that will make a noticeable difference in your energy bills.
  28. If you're a cat owner, you'll know that above all they are clean animals. And if your cat is healthy, the cat's natural independence means that they require far less tending to than most pets. Undoubtedly the major chore for cat owners is keeping their cat tray clean. There will be the inevitable cat odors lingering in the atmosphere as you near changing time. So what's the solution? An increasingly popular remedy is the self cleaning litter box. You'll notice immediately that it is larger than average, but it's the hidden functions that make the difference. A motion detector sensor is instantly set off when the cat enters inside. A few minutes later, the cat waste is pulled into a clump by an electronic rake and moved to a secure closed box or bag. This tray will still need changing, but the odor will be low to non existent and the changing time is a lot quicker and less messy. Some automatic cat litter boxes even have hourly cleaning rotations to ensure maximum hygiene. Let your cat get used to the new tray gradually. Your cat may be initially worried about the cleaning sound that the machine makes. However, it isn't loud, it's more of a humming sound so your cat should soon get used to it. Try to reward your cat for successful use. Most automatic litter boxes have easy to follow set up instructions. Remember to set it up in a quiet place that your cat is comfortable in. The clay litter that they use is reasonably priced. Or, if you want to be green as well as clean, use eco friendly crystals instead. Either way you'll find that the self cleaning litter box will make your cat's life a lot easier, and yours too.
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