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  1. Today
  2. Experiencing plumbing issues like a clogged drain and blocked sewage pipes is quite common for homeowners. However, no one wants them to happen. But if it happens even, there’s nothing to be depressed!! If there’s a problem, there’s always a solution! Today’s post talks about two fantastic plumbing solutions that can help you in unclogging your drain or sewage pipes effortlessly. Plumbers call them hydro jetting and snaking. To know more about these extraordinary techniques related to drain cleaning Melbourne or that of any other region, keep reading this post! Let’s Start With Snaking… Snaking is a classic approach to unclog the drain. With this method, the plumber takes an auger. Auger is like steel cable that has a coil; similar to cork-screw in one end. It works as a piercer when a plumber inserts it in the sewage pipe. With the help of the auger, the plumbers remove obstructions, and your clogged drain becomes unclogged. What are the Benefits of Snaking? Snaking has proven effectiveness. There’s no better alternative than snaking if you want to clear basic drain clogs. Moreover, it doesn’t harm the sewage pipes. It’s a gentle process that can be used for old pipes as well. Besides, since snaking is efficient in removing obstacles from the drainpipe, it warns you about critical issues like the presence of a harmful object in the line. In a one-liner, if you want to clear basic clogs from your sewage pipes, snaking can do wonder! However, every good comes with some touch of evil. And snaking is of course, not an exception to the fact. It’s not a permanent solution, and there will always be the risk of clog accumulation in the future. Now it’s the Time to Focus on Hydro Jetting! Hydro jetting is the process, in which a plumber forces a stream of water in the sewage pipe. The pressure is set at 3000-8000 PSI (Pound per Square Inch). This is such a massive pressure that it can easily blow out any obstacles in the pipelines. The list includes hair, grease as well as tree roots. What are the Benefits of Hydro-Jetting? Hydro jetting is one of the most effective methods of cleaning ornery drain clogs. For this reason, it’s highly recommended for cleaning complicated drain clogs. Besides, it’s a versatile method that can be used for both residential and commercial purposes. The only downside of hydro jetting is none other than its forceful approach. For this reason, it’s not suitable for old or damaged pipelines. What’s the Best Method to Clean Drain Clogs, Snaking or Hydro-Jetting? Well, it entirely depends on the severity of the clog and the condition of the pipes. Hydro jetting works as a power-pack. On the other hand, snaking works as the primary method of clearing clogs. To know what the best fit solution is for you, consult with an experienced plumbing agency. They will help you in making the right decision. However, when you call a professional plumber, make sure you’ve requested them to conduct a holistic check. It will help you to detect several issues like the need for hot water system replacement Melbourne or in other areas, carbon monoxide test etc. So, what’s stopping you? Ring up the best plumbing agency near you today and get your job done at the earliest.
  3. Yesterday
  4. In this era of environmental crisis, we all must do our part to reduce waste. Reducing food waste is something everyone can do to benefit the environment. The sad fact is, more than one third of all the food produced in the word goes to waste, and one billion people could be fed by the food wasted in Western Countries alone. Many people, especially those in heavily urbanized areas, are extremely ignorant when it comes to knowing where their food comes from. In one survey, the majority of urban dwellers did not know that their meat and dairy products came from living animals. Unfortunately, the survey did not query the respondents as to where they did think meat and dairy foods came from, which could give valuable insight on how to improve public perception about food production and consumption. Reducing Retail Food Waste One area of concern with vast room for improvement is retail food waste; the amount of food thrown out by grocery stores and restaurants is tremendous. If you work in a grocery store, you could convince the management to donate unused or out of date food to a food bank. Likewise, if you own, or work in a restaurant, consider purchasing equipment that conserves resources, such as hamburger moulder equipment that measures precise amounts of food so that you don't use more or less than you need. Also, at the end of the day, you could offer prepared, perishable, unsold food to those in need. Eliminating Food Waste at Home There are many ways to reduce or completely eliminate your home food waste. First, don’t buy food you’re not going to eat. Sometimes, for our health, we think we should eat something we really don’t like. Be honest, even if you buy it, you probably won’t eat it. Second, if you have children, be mindful of their portions. Children probably waste more food than adults, simply because they can’t eat a large portion. Many children are also picky eaters, and will refuse to eat food they don’t like. Another way to reduce food waste is to compost; composting involves turning vegetable food waste into healthy garden soil. If you have a yard, consider starting a compost pile. It will not only help to reduce food waste, but it can also be used to grow your own organic vegetables. Another healthy strategy for reducing food waste is to make your own bone broth; rather than throwing out your chicken or beef bones, you can boil them down into an incredibly nutritious broth. This broth can be used in many different healthy recipes. It’s up to us all to take action, and reduce food waste in any way we can. The environment depends on it.
  5. The new year is finally here, making it the perfect time for a new resolution. For small business owners, a great resolution is to reduce unnecessary waste. Not only is eliminating excess waste beneficial for cutting costs, it also minimizes the impact on the environment. Since the average person creates four pounds of trash daily, imagine the amount of trash that accumulates from an entire staff? Practicing sustainability helps the environment and saves businesses money. Double-Sided Printing Believe it or not, there are businesses that still use printed sheets. Between constantly paying for paper and replacing ink cartridges, making copies can become extremely expensive. By printing on both sides, there are fewer sheets and materials that need to be purchased and recycled. Donate Excess Goods After realizing there are excess items that can be considered waste, it’s better to donate them rather than throw them away. For instance, if new inventory comes in or a product is discontinued, finding someone who can use those materials is a better way to repurpose them and cut garbage costs. Frequently Train Employees Understanding sustainability is only half the battle. It is important to inform employees of any changes that can make eliminating waste easier. It is important to inform employees on both how and why these precautions are being taken. For instance, if there is a new recycling policy, inform them on why it is beneficial for the business. It is also necessary to have regular meetings to share the triumphs and failures so the team can exchange feedback on how to improve on setbacks. Everyone staying on the same page is a key component of success. Digital Tags For retail businesses, paper tags can become expensive. Instead, using a digital price tag can save money on both paper tags and employees having to tag the items. Research shows that the initial investment in these digital tag machines pay themselves off within two and a half years, which eventually allows for the profits to be spent elsewhere. Digital price tag machines also can be instantly updated with a click of a button, which can display the original and sale price simultaneously. The new year creates new opportunities for small businesses to make a profit. The best way to do so is recycling old products, communicating sustainability tips to employees, and cutting labor costs by using digital tags.
  6. It is an unfortunate fact that many homeowners are damaging the environment without even realizing it. In addition to efficiency issues that could potentially be wasting quite a bit of energy, your home might also be filled with a variety of harmful toxins. You may be surprised to realize that your house is killing the environment, but do not fear! There are some simple steps you can take to have a more eco-friendly home. Here is a quick look at some of the most common ways that many homes hurt the environment and a few steps that can be taken to address those issues. Inefficient or Damaged HVAC System In the average home, the heating and cooling system is responsible for most of the energy consumption. That is just one of the reasons why you must make sure that your HVAC system remains well-maintained and is working at maximum efficiency at all times. In addition to having the entire system serviced at least twice a year, you must also immediately contact an air conditioning repair specialist if you ever notice any unusual problems. Some of the most common signs of a damaged HVAC system include skyrocketing energy bills, unusual noises, different temperatures in every room, and unpleasant smells coming from the vents. Toxic Building Materials While most modern homes must adhere to very strict environmental regulations, many older homes were built with highly toxic materials. If your home is more than a decade or two old, then you might want to spend some time figuring out if there are any dangerous materials in the walls or roof. To locate those materials, you can contact a home inspector who will look over every inch of your property. It might be tempting to get rid of those materials on your home, but you should call a company that specializes in removing those contaminants if any are found. Dangerous Cleaning Supplies One of the easiest ways to make your home more eco-friendly is to remove all of the dangerous cleaning supplies that are in your cupboards. Even many of the seemingly safe cleaning supplies are filled with harsh chemicals or CFCs. To safely get rid of those products, you can call your local waste management company to see if they have a hazardous materials drop-off site. While you can find safe cleaning products at most stores, many people are now making their own cleaners with harmless ingredients, such as baking soda, white vinegar, and lemon juice. In addition to taking care of these few problems, you should also make sure that you practice eco-friendly habits at home. Taking shorter showers, turning off unused electronics, and other minor changes to your daily habits could end up having a huge impact on the environment.
  7. Last week
  8. Almost half of the lakes in the United States are polluted to the point that they are considered unsafe for swimming, fishing and supporting marine life. Keeping the lakes clean is a great way to help the planet. Use these tips to help clean up local lakes around the country. Use Less Salt in the Winter While salting sidewalks and roadways helps melt snow that can cause icy accidents to occur, it is also becoming a big problem in lakes. The chloride from the salt eventually makes its way to lakes and rivers. This chloride builds up in lakes and aquifers, killing marine ecosystems. Use only as much salt as necessary to melt the ice and let local officials know that you support efforts to reduce salt usage on highways and roadways. Use Natural Pesticides and Herbicides Pesticides and herbicides used to keep bugs and weeds out of gardens leech into the ground and make its way into the water that goes into the lakes. Pesticides and herbicides are high in phosphorous and nitrogen that pollute lakes and kill wildlife. Natural pesticides and herbicides can help reduce dangerous levels in the water. Biological nutrient removal also aids in the reduction of phosphorus and nitrogen in lake water. Switch to Non-toxic Tackle Those who enjoy fishing may want to look at their tackle. Toxic tackle, such as lead jigs and sinkers, leach lead into the water. Additionally, waterfowl such as trumpeter swans and loons pick at the tackle that is left on the sides of the lake or in the water. These animals may contract lead poisoning and die, which disrupts the entire ecosystem of the lake. Pack it In, Pack it Out There is nothing that makes summer memories like spending a warm day on the boat out on the lake. Keep water clean by making sure nothing is left around the lake or dumped into the lake after a day of fun. Trash, leftover food and supplies that are brought to the lake need to be disposed of properly at home. These items pollute the lake and harm fish and wildlife that live around the water. Keeping the lakes clean is the responsibility of everyone. Lakes are the biggest reservoirs of water in the country. Making the lakes clean keeps the water that everyone drinks free from pollutants and dangerous chemicals. Clean water means a healthier, happier life for everyone.
  9. Recycling is more than just a way to help the environment - it's also a fantastic business tool. If you own a business, you might want to look at recycling as a way to thrive in an increasing competitive market. Below are just four methods you can use to help your business through recycling and recycled materials. Sell Scrap and Old Equipment for Recycling If you're looking for a good way to turn your extra materials and old equipment into cash, you'll definitely want to take a look at recycling. While many businesses think that recycling is limited to some extra copper wiring or maybe even some old boxes, the truth is that there are buyers for virtually everything you use. If you want to sell electrical equipment that you no longer need, for example, you'll almost certainly be able to find a buyer who can meet your price. Buy Discount Recycled Materials Recycled materials are often a great alternative to buying new. Not only is doing so is a good way to reduce waste and to help out the environment, but recycled materials also tend to cost a great deal less. If you buy recycled, you'll get all the benefits that you would typically get from buying top-shelf materials without having to deal with the significantly higher price tag. Buying recycled is simply a smart move for any budget-conscious business. Make a Great Public Impression If you look at many of the major corporations around the world, you'll notice that they have very conspicuous green initiatives. While many might do this because they truly care about the planet, the truth is that doing so is just as much a public relations ploy as anything else. If you choose to use recycled materials, do so conspicuously. It will help to get an increasingly environmentally conscious public on your side. Show Investors Resourcefulness Finally, remember that all of these actions tend to look good to investors. Investors who know that you're dedicated to making a good public impression, cutting costs, and creating new revenue streams are also investors who are eager to buy into your business. If you're looking for new ways to bring in partners or to increase the size of your operation, using recycling as a point of pride can be a great choice. Don't be afraid of recycled products or materials. They can save or make you money, but they can also become a cornerstone of your business' reputation. When you're ready to grow, start looking to recycled materials.
  10. Earlier
  11. Construction can have a large impact on the environment. The use of heavy machinery and invasion of wildlife habitat are just a few of the more common problems when it comes to the construction industry. Here are some of the ways that construction companies can work to reduce their impact on the environment. Use Sustainable Products Sustainable building products work to reduce the amount of natural resources that are being used up. For example, you can reduce the impact on the environment that’s caused through the use of concrete by switching to timbercrete. This is the combination of some concrete being mixed with sawdust. The sawdust comes from the waste products of the lumber industry. Other sustainable products include the use of bamboo, ferrock, and other renewable wood products. Reduce Energy Consumption The type of heavy machinery that’s typically used on a construction site produces large amounts of pollution and noise. Replacing this type of equipment with more energy efficient models, or even their electric counterparts help make your construction site better for the environment. Another thing to consider is your fuel usage. For example, not leaving your equipment idling when it’s not needed will reduce the amount of fuel that’s required for the job. Focus Recycling Efforts The amount of waste that’s generated on your construction site can be reduced. Using industrial scrap metal recycling services will ensure that your leftover metal can be put to good use. It will also give you the benefit of not having so much to clean up on your jobsite. This will work to reduce the amount of materials that are transported to the landfill and can make for a greener worksite. You may even be able to recycle some of the other construction debris. Low Impact Solutions The manner in which you go about the building process plays a large part on the amount of impact that the environment experiences. For example, minimizing your impact on the natural habitat around you starts with site planning. You may be able to keep larger trees and build around them. Reducing the amount of dust that’s generated on your site is another solution. You could use recycled water or rain water instead of fresh water when you’re spraying down the dirt. Construction companies can change the way that people think about the building process. Use these solutions so that you can reduce your environmental impact when it comes time to erect a new development.
  12. 1.1.2 Drug Ion Electrical Properties and Drug Loading Capacity The interaction between the drug and the phospholipid layer molecule has an important effect on the structure and load of the liposome, and the effect of the charge effect is particularly significant. Generally, when the charge properties of the drug and the phospholipid molecular layer are the same, it is not easy to be encapsulated. By adding appropriate excipients during the preparation of the liposome to make it a charged liposome opposite to the charge of the encapsulated drug, the drug encapsulation rate can be improved. For example, in the preparation process, octadecylamine is added to obtain positively charged liposomes, and phosphatidic acid is added to obtain negatively charged liposomes. The antiviral drug cidofovir is negatively charged under normal physiological conditions. It is found that liposomes made with positively charged phospholipids composed of DOTAP and DC have a significantly higher encapsulation rate than liposomes made with electrically neutral phospholipids. However, other studies have shown that when the positively charged drug sumatriptan uses a neutral phospholipid as the membrane material, the encapsulation rate is low, and when the positively charged material stearylamide is added to the membrane material, the phospholipid membrane is significantly strengthened, thereby t lop09he leakage of the drug is prevented, and the drug load is increased. However, the encapsulation efficiency was lower than that of positively charged membranes after the addition of negatively charged membrane dicetyl phosphate, indicating that in some drug encapsulation processes, charge is not the main factor influencing. 1.1.3 Decoration and Encapsulation Rate of Medicinal Chemical Structure The chemical structure of a drug determines its physical and chemical properties. By modifying the structure of a drug to some extent, the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of the drug can be improved, thereby improving the encapsulation efficiency of the drug. Researchers reacted the anticancer drug cyclocytidine with palmitic acid to obtain two derivatives of monopalmitate and dipalmitate, which were separately encapsulated to prepare liposomes. As a result, the encapsulation rates of the two derivatives were found. It rose to 86.5% and 93.7% respectively, while the original drug was only 21%. The HLB value shows that on the one hand, the original drug is converted from hydrophilic to lipophilic after esterification, and the encapsulation position of the drug is correspondingly transferred from the aqueous phase to the external lipid phase. On the other hand, the long ester chain obtained by structural modification can be embedded in the lipid membrane. In addition, the fluidity of the lipid membrane is reduced, thereby increasing the liposome stability and encapsulation efficiency. Liposomal particle size design Particle size is an important evaluation index of liposomes, and its size and degree of uniform dispersion directly affect the in vivo behavior of liposomes. Large particle size liposomes are easily endocytosed by macrophages and concentrated in the liver. Smaller particle size liposomes can effectively prolong the circulation time of the drug and play a long-lasting effect. When the particle size is less than 50nm, liposomes can penetrate the liver endothelium and enter the spleen, bone marrow and tumor tissues. Duan Yisong et al etc. used long-circulating material polyethylene glycol to prepare mitoxantrone long-circulating liposomes with an average particle size of 60nm. Compared with ordinary liposomes, the average residence time in rabbits was prolonged by 6.2h, reflecting Its long cycle advantage. Awasthi et al. Investigated the particle size on the circulation time of PEG-modified liposomes in rabbits and found that the optimal particle size is 160-220 nm. Large particle size liposomes (400-530nm) are highly targeted to liver and spleen-enriched reticular macrophages. When the liposome particle size increases to 1-12 μm, it is easily taken up by the lungs. After azithromycin was prepared into cationic liposomes, the mice were administered tail vein to study the distribution of azithromycin in mouse whole blood and various tissues. AUC increased by 7.4 times. This is because liposomes larger than 6 μm will be mechanically filtered by pulmonary capillaries and then taken up by monocytes into lung tissue. Preparation method selection The preparation method of liposomes greatly affects the structure and particle size of liposomes, so it is generally selected according to the nature of the drug and the purpose of the drug. For fat-soluble drugs, mechanical dispersion methods such as film dispersion method and freeze-drying method can be selected to prepare multilayer liposomes with large particle diameters, so that the drug is slowly released in the target tissue. If you need to increase the drug's transport speed, you can choose to prepare small single-compartment liposomes. The main methods include ethanol injection, surfactant treatment, film-ultrasonic method, and so on. The drug loading of water-soluble components is generally not high. The key is to increase the volume of the aqueous phase in the liposome. Therefore, large monolayer or polycystic liposomes are generally selected for preparation. The reverse thin film dispersion method and the double emulsion method and the freeze-thaw method are suitable for the preparation of large particle size aqueous drug-loaded liposomes. Among them, the reverse thin film dispersion method is mostly large monolayer liposomes, including The sealing rate can reach 60-65%, and some studies have shown that for the hydrophilic drug salvianolic acid B, the large monolayer liposomes (LUV) prepared by the reverse evaporation method, the ethanol injection method, and the double emulsion method are used. Compared with liposomes, the encapsulation rate is the highest. The repeated freeze-thaw process in the freeze-thaw method will be accompanied by the formation of ice crystals, which will cause mechanical damage to the phospholipid bilayer, thereby increasing the chance of water-soluble drugs entering the phospholipid bilayer and increasing the encapsulation rate. At the same time, multi-compartment liposomes can be prepared into small single-compartment liposomes by repeated extrusion and freeze-thaw methods, which increases the drug loading space and drug loading. In addition, the microencapsulation method is suitable for preparation Small-particle-size drug-loaded liposomes in aqueous phase. For amphiphilic drugs such as weak base and weak acid, they can be encapsulated by active drug loading methods, such as PH gradient method, ammonium sulfate gradient method metal ion gradient method, and so on. In some cases, a single method alone cannot meet the requirements of encapsulation efficiency and particle size, especially for compound drugs with different properties in the co-loading concentration, so it is often combined with several methods.
  13. Mesenchymal stem cells have the characteristics of low immunogenicity and homing to ischemic or injured tissues. After entering into the host body, they can homing to specific sites and be differentiated into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm under the influence of microenvironment cells derived from individual germ layers, such as bone, cartilage, tendon, fat, liver, kidney, skin, muscle, nerve, and even pancreas, are more than 10 kinds of mature cells, thus becoming ideal seed cells for organ repair in regenerative medicine. Initially, mesenchymal stem cells were found in the bone marrow, but highly invasive bone marrow donation experiments were needed. In addition, the number and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells decreased with age. Recently, umbilical cord blood has been less damaged due to acquisition methods and has been used as an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells. Another promising source of mesenchymal stem cells is adipose tissue. This review compares these three mesenchymal stem cell sources from aspects such as morphology, success rate of isolation of mesenchymal stem cells, frequency of clonal colony formation, expansion potential, multi-directional differentiation ability, and immune phenotype. Adipose tissue can be used as an alternative source of bone marrow tissue for the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, people have also found that mesenchymal stem cells are also found in cord blood, periodontal ligaments, amniotic fluid, dermis, periosteum, skeletal muscle, fetal lung, fetal liver, placenta and pancreas. Mesenchymal stem cells have broad clinical application prospects and can be used to treat diseases of the nervous system, liver and kidney injury, autoimmune disease, heart disease, bone disease, cartilage disease, ischemic vascular disease, diabetic complications and tumors. They can also be used in tissue engineering and facial shaping. In addition, they can be co-transplanted with hematopoietic stem cells to treat blood diseases. Based on this, the article made an inventory of the research progress made by mesenchymal stem cells in recent years. 1.TEPCM: magnetic mesenchymal stem cells promise to improve cartilage repair doi: 10.1089 / ten.tec.2019.0001 Cells carrying superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) can be directed to a specific location by an external magnetic field, which is beneficial for tissue repair. Recently, a research report entitled "In Vitro Safety and Quality of Magnetically Labeled Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Preparation for Cartilage Repair" was published in an international magazine Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. The safety and effectiveness of this magnetically labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in repairing cartilage defects. Researcher Dr. Naosuke Kamei said that “in this study, we demonstrated the safety of magnetically labeled MSCs through karyotyping, clone formation experiments, and total proliferation experiments. After labeling, we found only small differences in mesenchymal stem cells”. Researchers can evaluate the quality of stem cells by the differentiation of chondrocytes and their reactivity to magnetic forces. The results show that the appropriate concentration of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can help optimize the mesenchyme while ensuring magnetic attractiveness and differentiation ability of plastid stem cells. Nat Commun: Identify key proteins that regulate angiogenesis in tumors doi: 10.1038 / s41467-019-10946-y Recently, in a research report published in the international journal Nature Communications, scientists from the Barcelona Institute of Biomedicine found that inhibiting the function of p38 protein or inhibiting angiogenesis in human and mouse colon cancer. This process is called angiogenesis, which is essential for cancer cell growth and can promote cancer progression and metastasis. Researcher Dr. Angel R. Nebreda said that we found that p38 activity is very important for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These stem cells have high plasticity and can be concentrated around blood vessels. It participates and plays a role in many key processes, such as tumor formation. This study clarifies the molecular mechanism of tumor angiogenesis. Researchers have now described the activity of p38 in cancer cells, but until now they did not know the key role that the protein plays in MSCs, and very little is known about how the protein is involved in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, researchers clarified the key role of the protein p38 in the cardiovascular process during tumor angiogenesis, especially how it promotes the development of MSCs. The researchers said that p38 can play a role in MSCs cells. The effect is to inhibit angiogenesis. Using genetically modified mouse models, researchers have found that inhibiting p38 may stimulate cardiovascular production in tumors, and this situation also occurs during the repair process of damaged tissues in the body. 3.EBioMedicine: researchers develop cancer treatments that target bone metastasis while retaining bone tissue doi: 10.1016 / j.ebiom.2019.06.047 Researchers at the University of California, Irvine (Irvine, UCI) have developed a treatment and tested it on mice using engineered stem cells to target and kill cancerous metastases in bone tissue while preserving bone. The new method, published in the journal EBioMedicine, equips engineered mesenchymal stem cells to target them, prompting them to transfer to bone metastases, where they release therapeutic drugs. "The power of this strategy is that we provide a combination of anti-tumor and anti-bone resorption agents so that we can effectively block the vicious circle between cancer and its bones," said the study's lead author Weian Zhao, associate professor of pharmaceutical sciences and biomedical engineering, said. "Compared to chemotherapy, this is a safe and almost non-toxic treatment, and chemotherapy often causes lifelong problems for patients." To be continued in Part Two…
  14. While many of us can easily recycle our paper, glass and plastic waste, recycling electronics and batteries is not as easy. However, recycling these items might be even more important than recycling more common household waste. You may not know this, but both old electronic items and batteries can leach harmful chemicals into the soil and groundwater. Recycling Electronics According to the Environmental Protection Agency, 2.84 million tons of electronics were thrown away in 2017, with little more than 1 million tons recycled. The rest mostly ended up in county landfills. Unfortunately, electronic devices often contain hazardous heavy metals, including barium, lead, silver, chromium, cadmium, and mercury. These can easily leech into the soil and groundwater, poisoning the environment. The good news is, recycled electronics can often be refurbished and resold or donated to people in need. Likewise, some of the valuable metals, such as copper, silver, and gold, can be recovered and reused. Battery Recycling Batteries contain large amounts of toxic heavy metals and chemicals and simply tossing batteries in the trash can easily contaminate the soil pollute the water. The good news is, the Environmental Protection Agency reports that 99.1% of lead-acid vehicle batteries are recycled. This is because when you get a new battery for your vehicle, the auto shop already has a line to recycle all of the old batteries. Unfortunately, batteries from our electronic devices are not responsibly recycled. More often than not, people don’t know how to recycle such batteries and simply toss them. However, many electronics retailers have battery recycling drop-offs, and there are battery recycling services that collect batteries from your business or office. Reclaiming Valuable Metals Both electronics and batteries contain valuable metals that can be recovered. Recovering these metals not only keeps them out of our landfills and our environment, but it also reduces the need for strip mining. It’s a sad fact, but many of the metals used in batteries, such as lithium, are mined in third-world countries, often using child labor. To prevent future shortages of lithium, cobalt, nickel, and other rare earth metals, recycling for lithium batteries is essential. Recycling retrieves not only nickel, cobalt, copper, lithium, and aluminum from old batteries, but also valuable graphite and manganese. The good news is, recycling can recover anywhere from 25% to 95% of the materials from a lithium-ion battery. Putting paper, plastic, and glass out on the curb for recycling is easy. However, with a little bit of forethought, recycling electronics and batteries will take very little effort.
  15. Exosomes are nano-scale vesicles secreted by cells. These microvesicles are usually about 30-150 nanometers in diameter and contain important cellular molecules such as proteins and RNA. Previous studies have shown that exosomes can be used as diagnostic markers for cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and kidney disease. In recent years, exosomes isolation technology has made significant progress and development. Ultracentrifugation Ultracentrifugation is the most commonly used exosomal purification method. After removing dead cells and cell debris by low speed centrifugation, high-speed centrifugation is used to precipitate vesicle particles of the same size from soluble molecules such as free proteins and protein complexes purified. It is important that the exosomes be subsequently washed at least once with PBS or fresh growth medium to reduce free residual proteins therein. In addition, all centrifugation steps must be performed at 4 ° C to keep the proteases, DNase and RNases inactive. Usually ultracentrifugation is also used in combination with a sucrose density gradient (its continuous distribution from low to high density) or a sucrose cushion (30% sucrose cushion), that is, centrifuged at 100,000-200,000 xg in a centrifuge (containing exosomes) In 120 minutes, the exosomes in the sample should be enriched in a sucrose density range of 1.13-1.19 g / mL. Although this powerful method can obtain highly purified exosomes, there are some disadvantages. Indeed, the process of ultracentrifugation is time-consuming and labor-intensive, and requires a lot of raw materials. The biggest drawback is that repeated centrifugation operations are likely to cause damage to exosomal vesicles and reduce their quality, or soluble proteins in the sample may form aggregates and clumps with exosomes to cause contamination. Ultrafiltration centrifugation Considering that exosomes are cystic bodies with a size of several tens of nanometers, which are larger than ordinary proteins, exosomes can also be separated according to their size, such as ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Ultrafiltration is the selective separation of samples using ultrafiltration membranes with different retention molecular weight (MWCO). That is, the solvent, ie, some small molecular substances, is filtered to the other side of the membrane, while high relative molecular mass substances larger than the membrane pore size are retained On the ultrafiltration membrane, the purpose of separating exosomes is achieved. This method is simple and efficient, and does not affect the biological activity of exosomes. It is the best method for studying exosomal RNA because it produces greater RNA production than ultrafiltration and precipitation methods. It is also possible to pass a nanofiltration concentrator. However, the main disadvantage of ultrafiltration is that exosomes may block the filter pores, resulting in shorter membrane life and lower separation efficiency. Exosome membranes also adhere to each other, resulting in low separation yields and even erroneous test results. In addition, there is another interference that needs to be resolved in the method of separating exosomes based on the size of the exosomes, which is the existence of a large number of non-exosomal nanovesicles that are similar in size to the exosomes. In SEC, the porous phase fixed in the column can also be selectively separated based on the molecular size using the principle of gravity flow. Small molecules can pass through the pores and cause later elution, while larger components (including exosomes) can be eluted early, bypassing the pores. This method can greatly maintain the integrity and biological activity of exosomes, and combine with differential centrifugation to obtain highly purified exosomes. PEG-base precipitation method Polyethylene glycol (PEG, 8000 kDa) can competitively bind free water molecules, so that less soluble molecules or exosomes are precipitated from the solution. Earlier this method was used to collect virus from samples such as serum, and now it is also used to precipitate exosomes. Samples are usually incubated overnight at 4 ° C with PEG, and exosomes are then recovered by low-speed centrifugation or filtration. However, this method also has some problems: for example, the purity and recovery of exosomes are low, false positives (more proteins or some polymers that are difficult to remove), and mechanical or chemical additives that damage the exosomes. Alternatively, if you know the sugar chain composition of the exosomes, you can use lectins to enrich the exosomes. Lectin is a protein that binds to carbohydrates and can be centrifuged at low speed after agglutinating exosomes. In recent years, exosomes have been separated based on the principle of precipitation. Various commercial exosomal extraction kits have also been developed on the market. The operation is simple, and high-purity and high-recovery exosomes can be obtained without ultracentrifugation. Magnetic bead immunoassay Exosomes are available because they are rich in protein and have many specific marker receptors on their surface, such as CD9, CD81, CD63, CD82, Hsp70, Ras-related protein Rab-5b, cytoskeleton protein actin, and TSG101. Anti-marker antibody-coated magnetic beads can be captured after incubation with exosomes. Because the heterogeneity of exosomes is consistent with their origin, the abundance of these markers on different exosomes is also different. Therefore, you can capture different types of exosomes from a sample by using specific antibody combinations, and select these exosomes by immobilizing these antibodies on ELISA plates, magnetic or chromatography beads, or microfluidic devices. Although immunoaffinity technology has the advantages of high specificity, high purity exosomes can be obtained without affecting the morphological integrity of exosomes, it is the preferred method for enriching and characterizing unique exosomes. However, this method is low in efficiency, and the biological activity of exosomal contents is easily affected by pH and salt concentration, which is not conducive to the downstream experiments. Phosphatidylserine affinity This method combines PS (phosphatidylserine) with magnetic beads and uses the principle of affinity to capture PS outside exosomal vesicles. This method is similar to the immunomagnetic bead method, and the exosomes obtained are complete in morphology and highest in purity. Since no denaturant is used and the biological activity of exosomes is not affected, exosomes can be used for cell co-culture and in vivo injection. 2016.9 "Scientific Reports" magazine published the latest data of this method, showing that PS method can extract relatively high purity exosomes. Chromatography The exosomes isolated by this method are uniform in size under electron microscopy, but require special equipment and are not widely used. Exosome isolation is the first step for exosome characterization. The quality of exosome separation directly affects the subsequent researches of exosome qualitative and quantitative as well as applications in disease diagnosis and therapy. With the extensive experience in exosome isolation, Creative Biolabs provides a portfolio of exosome isolation products which can help you with the high-quality exosome isolation from many types of biofluids in an efficient, faster and cheaper way.
  16. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that was discovered as early as the 1920s. Vitamin E includes tocopherols and triene tocopherols, a total of 8 compounds. Alpha-tocopherol is the most widely distributed and most abundant form of vitamin E in nature. Tocopherol is a hydrolysis product of Vitamin E and is one of the most important antioxidants. How does Vitamin E help the human body? Vitamin E helps delay aging Vitamin E is a strong oxidant and is not weaker than lycopene and astaxanthin. After entering the body, vitamin E can help fight free radical Oxylipin peroxidation, eliminate free radicals, and delay aging. Vitamin E helps boost immunity If vitamin E is lacking, it will reduce the body's humoral immunity and cellular immunity, and increase the possibility of human diseases. Proper vitamin E supplementation will help to strengthen the body's ability to resist disease and enhance its physique. Vitamin E helps eliminate pigmentation Pigmentation is caused by the deposition of lipofuscin in skin cells. Lipofuscin is the product of cells being oxidized by free radicals. This substance not only produces stains and hinders aesthetic appearance, but also deposits in the internal organs and brain cells, causing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and endangering health. Vitamin E as a strong oxidant can eliminate these free radicals, help prevent the generation of pigmentation, and at the same time tenderly expand peripheral blood vessels, reduce blood viscosity, and prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Vitamin E can stabilize the protein active structure of the cell membrane, promote the normal development of muscles and maintain the elasticity of the skin, so that the skin and the body remain active; Vitamin E entering the skin cells can directly help the skin fight against the damage of free radicals, ultraviolet rays and pollutants, preventing The skin loses its elasticity due to some chronic or hidden injuries until it ages. Because of these effects of vitamin E, it is believed that vitamin E helps beauty. Vitamin E helps protect eyesight Vitamin E can inhibit the lipid peroxide response in the lens of the eye, expand the peripheral blood vessels, improve blood circulation, and prevent the occurrence and development of myopia. Vitamin E helps relieve stomach ulcers The poor gastric mucosal resistance in patients with ulcer disease is related to the disturbance of fat peroxidation. Vitamin E can regulate fat oxidation and scavenge oxidative free radicals, while protecting cells from oxidant damage. At the same time, a large amount of vitamin E can promote the proliferation of capillaries and small blood vessels, improve the surrounding blood circulation, increase the supply of oxygen in the tissue, thereby creating good nutritional conditions for healing of the ulcer surface. In addition, it can still inhibit the growth of H. pylori and reduce the recurrence rate of ulcer disease after healing. Vitamin E helps promote sex hormone secretion Vitamin E can increase men's sperm vitality and quantity; increase women's estrogen concentration, improve fertility, and prevent miscarriage. Is it okay to take a lot of vitamin E for a long time? Vitamin E is found in edible oils, fruits, vegetables and grains. The recommended daily intake for adults is 8 to 10 IU. Vitamin E in the general diet can completely meet the needs of the human body. Therefore, the general population does not need to take vitamin E for a long time. Long-term use is not only unsafe, but also has side effects. Taking large doses of vitamin E for a long time may cause various diseases. The more serious ones are: Intake of low-dose vitamin E has anti-oxidant effect, but it may no longer have antioxidant activity when ingested in large doses. At this time, vitamin E becomes a pro-oxidant; Thrombophlebitis or pulmonary embolism, or both, is due to the high dose of vitamin E that can cause platelet aggregation and formation, which may trigger the risk of stroke; Headache, dizziness, dizziness, blurred vision, muscle weakness; skin cracking, cheilitis, angular cheilitis, urticaria;
  17. In recent years, studies have found that the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors has increased significantly, and the current prognosis is poor. Therefore, studying the mechanism of brain tumor recurrence, improving the prognosis of patients, and prolonging their survival time is an important research direction and a major problem faced by experts: due to the vague understanding of the source of brain tumor cells and its mechanism. Although a large number of related experimental studies have been done on the pathogenesis of malignant brain tumors, but no satisfactory results have been achieved. Currently, only a small percentage of cells in surgical tissues of brain tumors have been found to have infinite proliferation, self-renewal, multi-directional differentiation potential, and tumorigenicity. These cells are called brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), and others tumor cells have no or only short-term proliferation ability. Igntova and other scholars first reported that brain tumor stem cells (BTSC) existed in brain tumor surgical specimens, and isolated precursor neurons that can form neurospheres from glioblastomas, which are called neural stem cells in brain tumors. At present, each brain tumor stem cell has been successfully cultured and isolated from surgical specimens such as medulloblastoma, different grades of astrocytoma, ependymal tumor, and ganglioglioma. Since Singh et al. First isolated CD133-positive tumor stem cells from malignant brain tumors, research on brain tumor stem cells has gradually become a hot topic in neuroscience and related fields. Preliminary studies have found that the occurrence, development, metastasis, and recurrence of brain tumors may be closely related to brain tumor stem cells. Therefore, further in-depth discussion of the biological characteristics of brain tumor stem cells and the mechanism in the occurrence and recurrence of malignant brain tumors will definitely be very important for the future of radical treatment and prevention of malignant brain tumors. Here in this article, we will introduce three important biomarkers. One of the most prominent one is TSGF, namely a group of tumor-related substances. It is a collective term for several internationally recognized carbohydrates and metabolites (lipoproteins, enzymes, amino acids) related to the growth of malignant tumors. TSGF is an effective, convenient and valuable tumor marker for the diagnosis and judgment of brain malignant tumors. In addition, studies have shown that the expression specificity of tumor markers such as nestin, BEHAB, YKL-40, EphA2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD133, fatty acid binding protein, and MMP-9 is more obvious in gliomas. 1. BTSC There are many hypotheses about the source of BTSC, but currently they tend to be derived from mature neural stem cells (NSCs). The accumulation of multiple mutations leads to tumorigenicity and becomes BTSC. The source is discussed from the following two aspects: ① The origin of the tumor is consistent with the NSC distribution area. Studies have shown that the origin of brain tumors may originate in a part of the subventricular area, and BTSCs with high proliferation and differentiation potential are constantly produced in this area, which leads to tumorigenesis, and these areas coincide with the main locations of NSCs. ② BTSC and NSC have many similarities in genetics. The main manifestation is that BTSC does not express markers of differentiated cells, but instead has NSC markers, such as Nestin or CD133. In summary, both theory and experiments support that BTSC is likely to be derived from mutant NSCs that are constantly dividing and proliferating. Although BTSC and NSC have many similarities, there are also obvious differences between them: first, BTSC has stronger self-renewal and proliferation capabilities than NSC, and the number of passages in vitro culture has increased significantly, with an immortalization trend. Its self-renewal and differentiation have become imbalanced; secondly, BTSC differentiates into the same phenotype as the parent tumor under the conditions that induce NSC differentiation and does not differentiate into neurons and glial cells in the same proportion as NSC. These differences provide new research directions and ideas on how to transform NSC into BTSC and whether the two are at the same level of differentiation. 2. CD133 protein, nestin, Sox2 protein In recent years, Rath et al. have successfully cultured and isolated meningioma stem cell spheres with spherical focus growth through serum-free suspension culture. At present, most scholars use CD133 and Nestin as specific markers of brain tumor stem cells. CD133 is a transmembrane protein with a relative molecular weight of 120,000. Studies have shown that both solid tumors and brain tumor cell spheres obtained from in vitro cell line cultures show CD133 positive staining; and CD133 positive cells isolated from glioma cell lines in serum-free culture, they all grew spheroidally, had infinite proliferation, self-renewal, and multi-directional differentiation. Singh et al. compared the biological characteristics of CD133-positive and negative tumor cells and found that the former has a strong ability to self-renew and proliferate, while the latter adheres to growth, does not divide, and does not proliferate. In vivo tumorigenicity tests showed that 100 CD133-positive tumor cells were tumorigenic, while 1 × 105 CD133-negative tumor cells formed only one glial scar at the transplant site. For these reasons, CD133 is considered to be the most important marker of brain tumor stem cells. However, recent studies have shown that CD133-negative cells in some brain tumors also have the characteristics of tumor stem cells. Therefore, CD133 is not a reliable marker for brain tumor stem cells. Nestin, which belongs to the intermediate microfilament, is expressed in undifferentiated neural pluripotent stem cells and was once considered a marker of brain tumor stem cells. However, the study found that the same group of tumor cells, Nestin-positive ratio is much higher than CD133-positive ratio, which indicates that Nestin is also expressed in progenitor cells that have just begun to differentiate, and is not a reliable brain tumor stem cell marker. Sox-2 belongs to the Sox (Sry-related HMG Box) gene family and is located at 3q26.3-q27 of the chromosome. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that can regulate the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. It is the only Sox gene found in current research that plays an important role in maintaining the differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells. It is also a key to induce adult cells to become pluripotent stem cells. 3. Brain tumor stem cells The research of brain tumor stem cells has become a new hot spot in the field of brain tumor research. Although great achievements have been made in the successful isolation and culture of brain tumor stem cells, no complete theoretical system has been formed so far. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the pathogenesis and biological behavior of brain tumors and to find new treatment options for malignant brain tumors that target tumor stem cells in the future. It can be imagined that the detection of tumor stem cells will become a new classification and judgment of brain tumors in the future. It is possible to use various treatment schemes for brain tumor stem cells to specifically kill brain tumor stem cells, instead of killing all tumor tissues, in order to achieve radical cure and prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis. With the continuous research on brain tumor stem cells, it will inevitably have a profound impact on the pathogenesis, pathological grading, prevention of recurrence and treatment options of brain tumors, making the radical cure of malignant brain tumors possible.
  18. According to previous data, CD19 was a hot CAR-T treatment target, and has achieved great success in relapsed and refractory B-cell malignant blood diseases, and there are already two commercial products for the treatment of relapse fefractory B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) and relapsed refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). But not all patients benefit from CD19 CAR-T therapy. For example, most clinical data reports indicate that CD19 CAR-T has an objective response rate (ORR) of 80% and a complete response rate (CR) of approximately 50% in patients with relapsed and refractory NHL, and nearly 20% of non-responses and more than half of the patients fail to achieve sustained remission. Why can't some non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients benefit from it? Why is it? Because the CD19 antigen is lost on the cancer cells of these patients, for these patients, CD19 CAR-T no longer has the ability to target and attack cancer cells, which in turn can lead to the recurrence of cancer. How to solve this problem? CAR-T therapy targeting CD20 may be an alternative solution. CD20 is a human B lymphocyte restriction differentiation antigen, encoded by the MS4A1 gene (located at 11q12). This antigen is a hydrophobic 4-pass transmembrane protein with a molecular weight of approximately 35 kD, Leukocyte surface antigen Leu-16, transmembrane 4 domain subfamily A member 1 and so on. This protein function may be involved in regulating B cell activation and proliferation, and may function as a calcium ion channel. CD20 antigen is mainly present on pre-B and mature B lymphocytes, and is expressed on most B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells, but not on stem cells, pro-B cells, normal plasma cells, or other normal organizations. Plasma cells naive and stimulated plasma cells may express CD20. According to the expression characteristics of CD20 in the development stage of B lymphocytes, it has been selected as one of the targets for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma and leukemia, and many antibody drugs have been successfully developed based on this target. Research progress of CD20 CAR-T therapy 1. In China As early as the end of 2012, the Molecular Immunology Department / Biotherapy Ward of the General Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army launched a clinical trial of CD20 as a target for CAR-T cell therapy for relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The study, completed in 2014 and first reported the results of a phase I clinical study in 7 patients, showed that CD20 CAR-T cells combined with a tumor-reducing pretreatment regimen can prolong tumor regression (Wang Y, et al. ClinImmunol. 2014). At the same time, the team also applied to the State Intellectual Property Office for a CD20 CAR-NKT patent (engineered CD20-targeted NKT cells and its preparation method and application, patent application number: 201410062069.7). At the beginning of 2015, Sibeman chose to cooperate with Han Weidong, director of the Molecular Immunology Laboratory of the Life Sciences Institute of the General Hospital of the PLA, to help Professor Han Weidong develop CD20 as a representative by leveraging his successful experience in translational medicine in the biomedical field and sufficient R & D funding advantages. Based on the phase I clinical research, Han Weidong's team launched a phase IIa clinical study of CD20 CAR-T in the treatment of relapsed and refractory NHL. The results of related studies in 11 patients were included and the results were published in "Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy" in October 2016. Six of the 11 patients were evaluated as CR after CAR-T infusion (1 of whom was transferred from Phase 1 to Phase IIa and continued CD20 CAR-T alone), 3 were PR, and 2 were stable (SD ), 2 patients (1 PR, 1 SD) also received CR after local radiotherapy in the later stage. In early October 2017, the Han Weidong team published a research report again in the "Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy". Based on a retrospective review of the clinical outcomes of 16 patients who can be evaluated after the test, the article highlights that 8 patients achieved CR after CAR-T infusion (or combined local radiotherapy), with the exception of 3 patients who had recurrence. As of the end of July 2017, 5 patients were still in the state of continuous CR (1 from the stage I subjects and 4 from the stage IIa subjects), of which 1 patient continued the CR stage and it has lasted 57 months, 3 cases exceeded 40 months, and 1 case exceeded 20 months. At the same time, in July 2017, the NCI in the United States reported the long-term follow-up results of CD19-CAR-T in the treatment of NHL in Molecular Therapy, showing 5 of 7 patients with CR, 4 of whom had a continuous CR period of 56, 51, 44, 38 months. These two studies show that CAR-T treatment can not only achieve short-term efficacy in patients with relapsed and refractory NHL, but also can obtain long-term CR efficacy in most patients who obtain CR after CAR-T. It also indicates the long-term effectiveness of CAR-T therapy for CD20 in patients with relapsed and refractory NHL. In terms of long-term safety, Han Weidong's team also observed that patients with continuous CR after CAR-T treatment are often accompanied by longer-term B cell deficiency or low, and low immunoglobulinemia. Of the 5 long-term CR patients, except for one patient who developed grade 3 shingles infection in July after CAR-T treatment, the remaining patients can effectively prevent the occurrence of grade 3 infectious diseases through regular supplementation of gamma globulin . 2. In US In September 2017, Fred Hutch, a top cancer center, licensed a CD20 CAR-T therapy developed by Mustang Bio to the clinic as soon as possible. Phase I / II clinical trials with partial support from Mustang Bio will be led by Dr. Mazyar Shadman, Clinical Research, Fred Hutch. The trial will recruit approximately 30 patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Eligible patients will first undergo a biopsy to ensure that their tumors have a CD20 marker. The researchers expressed hope that as shown in preclinical studies, CD20 CAR-T therapy could even be more effective than CD19 CAR-T.
  19. Most European food production companies, fortunately, have strict regulatory requirements and specifications which make the foods safer and more eco-friendly. However, there is more that we can be doing than following the letter of the law. If food companies are interested in making a difference, here are a few ways to ensure their products are as eco and customer-friendly as possible. Avoid toxic additives Additives are added to food during production or preparation to improve the appetizing appearance and flavor of dishes, keep food edible for a longer time, and increase the shelf and storage life. Studies have found that more than 90% of the average American food budget is spent on over-processed foods, and more than 400 additives are used in various recipes. There are three types of additives: · Natural ones extracted from natural food sources. · Synthesized copies of substances that occur naturally. · Artificial ones which are chemically synthesized. Although not all of the additives are dangerous and can be consumed with possible minimal risk, some chemically synthesized ones can be harmful in various ways and cause adverse reactions such as allergies, digestive disorders, respiratory issues, skin problems, hyperactivity in children, a significant reduction in one's IQ level, and other ailments. Artificial sweeteners in sugar-free foods particularly have a harmful carcinogenic effect and can reduce intelligence, affect short term memory, and can also result in brain or kidney tumors, diabetes, depression, anxiety attacks, migraines, and other disorders. Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is used in savory dishes, canned soups, frozen dinners, and salty snacks. The substance excitotoxin can lead to obesity, weight gain, headaches, fatigue, depression, and more. Trans fat is formed by hydrogenation and is added to increase shelf life but can also increase a bad cholesterol level. A general tip would be to read ingredient labels, cut back on additives, and replace processed foods with fresh ingredients that do not contain such additives. Improve sanitation techniques If you are in the food production business, you should be concerned about the quality of the products and the cleanliness of the production facility. A great step towards better sanitation in your production is to use a complete line of industrial 3A sanitary filtration products that include certified strainers, replacement parts, assemblies, and filters that are suitable for a wide range of capacities and applications such as those manufactured by SaniClean Strainers, a Newark Wire brand, and similar companies with their products. You can also use food-quality conveyor belting that is designed to be sanitary, safe, and easy to thoroughly clean. The maintenance of proper sanitation and cleanliness on a food production line is critical as well. Setting up a schedule of cleaning times is important whether it is every few hours or at the beginning or ending of shifts. Finally, give employees sanitation training and update refreshers from time to time so they will be aware of food handling and sanitation practices. Use eco-friendly food packaging Also called green packaging, sustainable packaging, and environmentally-friendly packaging, it should be non-toxic, biodegradable meaning it will break down in a landfill, compostable, reusable, recyclable, sustainable, and manufactured from natural products or recycled products or through low-impact means. Safely dispose of wastes Be sure that the process you use for food waste disposal is consistent with your food safety management system such as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point HACCP), Environmental Health team of the local authority, or to the Food Standards Agency that governs your area. Make sure that your waste is taken by an authorized collector and that it goes to a legitimate treatment disposal site. Countries around the globe have realized that we must all act to reduce the impact of trash on our planet. When trash doesn’t compost or biodegrade, it has already become a long-term problem to find space for it, plus it is an eyesore and a logistical nightmare. Being part of the solution will help to save the planet and demonstrate corporate responsibility and values.
  20. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) is a classical method for studying protein-protein interactions based on the specific role of antigens and antibodies. The development of co-immunoprecipitation technology has gone through several stages. In the early days, researchers used gel electrophoresis to isolate co-immunoprecipitated proteins: the antigen solution was added to small wells such as agarose, and antiserum was added to adjacent wells. With the antigen and antibody diffusing, large molecules entered in the gel, and an interaction occurs between the two to form a complex. A concentration gradient is formed by diffusion of the antigen and antibody, and a multi-molecular network complex is formed at the optimal concentration. Finally, the large-molecular protein complex is precipitated from the solution. With the development of society, the co-immunoprecipitation technology has been continuously improved. The method of isolating the immune co-precipitation complex is improved to promote the multimer reaction, so that the immune complex is precipitated from the solution. In the mid-1970s, people began to use solid-phase reactions, using protein A immobilized on the surface of S. aureus to adsorb antibodies, and then bind to the corresponding antigens. With the development of science and technology, this method has been improved to use the surface-immobilized protein A or protein G microspheres to separate antigen-antibody complexes in order to achieve the purpose of detecting antigens or target proteins. Principle of co-immunoprecipitation The experimental principle of co-immunoprecipitation is: if X is immunoprecipitated with an antibody to protein X, the protein Y bound to X in the body can also be precipitated. At present, prorein A is often pre-bound and solidified on agarose microbeads and reacted with the solution containing the antigen and the antibody. Prorein A on the agarose microbead specifically binds to the antibody Fc. Due to the specificity of the antibody antigen, protein X is precipitated; There are substances that interact with protein X, and they can precipitate. Application of co-immunoprecipitation Determine whether two target proteins are bound in the body Identify a new role for a particular protein Isolate and obtain the interaction protein complex in its natural state With the continuous deepening of protein research, people have combined immunoprecipitation methods with other methods, and based on them, many more complicated technologies have been derived, which makes the analysis methods more diverse and its application range is quite wide. Co-immunoprecipitation is a technique used to study protein-protein interactions and can be applied to the study of protein complexes. It can verify the existence of protein complexes, and then discover new protein complexes. Co-immunoprecipitation technology is combined with immunoblotting or mass spectrometry to determine the binding of bait protein-target protein in its natural state and specific proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments can also be applied to the enrichment and concentration of low-abundance proteins. At the same time, co-immunoprecipitation is a relatively classic technique for exploring protein-protein interactions. It has a wide range of applications and high credibility in modern medical research. Protein interactions permeate the life activities of every cell in the body. Many phenomena in biology such as replication, transcription, translation, shearing, secretion, cell cycle regulation, signal transmission and intermediate metabolism are all affected by proteins. Some proteins are composed of multiple subunits, and protein-protein interactions are particularly prevalent. Some proteins bind very tightly, while others interact only briefly. However, no matter what kind of situation occurs, they control a large number of events of cell life activity, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death. And through protein-protein interactions, it can change the dynamic characteristics of intracellular proteins, such as substrate binding properties and catalytic activity. It can also generate new binding sites, which has an effect on changing the specificity of proteins on substrates. Therefore, only by allowing the interaction between proteins to proceed smoothly, the normal life activities of cells can be guaranteed. Because protein-protein interactions are so significant, the study of their detection methods has also received much attention. Since then, the research on protein interrelationships will intensify. In the future, it will not only be confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation technology, but more and more advanced technologies will be worth applying and developing. The pros and cos Advantage: The protein exists in a natural state after modification and translation; Detects interactions in vitro and in cells; Antigens and interacting proteins are present at similar concentrations in cells, avoiding human effects caused by overexpression; It is possible to isolate the interacting protein complex in its natural state. Disadvantages: The sensitivity is not as high as that of affinity chromatography; High false positive rate, correct control is necessary; The binding of two proteins may not be directly combined, but a third party may act as a bridge in the middle; It is necessary to predict what the target protein is before the experiment in order to select the antibody to be detected at last, so if the prediction is incorrect, the experiment will not yield results, and the method itself is risky; After the protein forms a complex, some epitopes will be masked, which may lead to the use of a pull-down antibody. No matter how the antibody concentration is increased, less than half of the target protein complex can be precipitated. If necessary, it is best to use multiple different antibodies for Co-IP respectively; Since the natural state is detected, the protein complexes pulled down by Co-IP may be different under different times and different treatments. Of course, as the number of experiments increases, the members of the obtained protein complexes will also bedifferent. Authenticity of co-immunoprecipitation results To ensure the authenticity of experimental results in co-immunoprecipitation experiments, the following points should be noted: Make sure that the co-precipitated protein is obtained by precipitation of the added antibody, not a non-exogenous non-specific protein. Monoclonal antibodies have the advantages of strong specificity, mass production, and easy standardization. The use of monoclonal antibodies can help avoid contamination; To ensure the specificity of the antibody, if the antibody cannot bind to the antigen in the cell lysate, it will not cause a co-precipitation reaction; Make sure that protein-protein interactions occur in cells, not because of lysis of the cells.
  21. 3. Optimal dosage The optimal dose of MSC depends on the different disease and severity and the route of entry. In the clinical research and application of MSC, cell dose may belong to the most clueless and most scientific aspect. Even if there are some clinical studies involving dose climbing experiments, they are not based on animal experiments. MSC is different from traditional medicines, because: first, after MSC enters the body, it does not conform to the typical distribution and metabolism model of traditional medicines; traditional medicines are passive distribution, and MSCs have the function of actively chemotactic to the injury site, and the distribution of MSCs in healthy and diseased organisms is different. Second, animal experiments of traditional medicines require multiple administrations to maintain a stable blood concentration, and animal experiments of MSCs are often single injections, so that clinical studies of MSCs often adopt a single injection scheme. In fact, a single injection of MSC cannot achieve a good stable long-term treatment effect, even if there is a significant improvement in the short term. For a certain disease, in the preclinical studies, animal experiments have not fully demonstrated the minimum and maximum saturation doses at which MSCs work, and the cell doses in different laboratories differ. Factors such as the culture system of different laboratories and the source properties of MSC often lead to differences in the quality of MSC, which directly affects the results of animal experiments and clinical studies of MSC. Therefore, data from preclinical studies of MSCs do not provide a good guide for determining clinical research protocols. In current clinical studies, the dosage range of MSC used is very large, and the number of MSC cells used per patient ranges from more than 4,000 MSCs to hundreds of millions of MSCs. For local intervention, the lowest dose appears in the clinical case of MSCs for femoral head necrosis. Each clinical study in Korea and France used more than 4,500 MSCs. The highest dose of interventional therapy appeared in a clinical study in China, which used 860 million cells for MSCs to treat diabetic limb bullae; the second highest dose was 200 million MSC myocardial injections. Clinical studies of more than 100 million MSCs injected locally include: 120 million MSCs for Crohn's disease intestinal fistula, 100 million MSCs for intraarticular injection of knee osteoarthritis, and 100 million MSCs for ischemic cardiomyopathy. Intravenous doses of cells are relatively stable, and millions of MSCs per kilogram of body weight are often used, ie (1-10) x 10 * 6 / kg. The highest intravenous dose is 10x10 * 6 / kg co-transplanted with hematopoietic stem cells. According to a weight of 60 kg, that also requires 600 million MSCs; and 8x10 * 6 / kg for GVHD. The lowest dose of intravenous injection appeared in clinical trials of MSC and hematopoietic stem cell co-transplantation, which was 0.3x10 * 5 / kg. The failure of the Phase 3 clinical trial of Prochymal (bone marrow MSC) in the treatment of refractory GVHD in 2009 was a catastrophic event in the clinical application of MSC, which almost denied the clinical efficacy of MSC. Prochymal is derived from the bone marrow of healthy people, and MSC itself has a strong immunosuppressive ability. However, why can't Prochymal be significantly better than the control group in the phase 3 clinical trial? At that time, Prochymal's indication was hormone-resistant and refractory GVHD. This indication itself was very difficult. If Prochymal did not optimize the treatment plan, especially the breakthrough in conventional thinking in terms of dosage, then failure would be inevitable. Later increasing the dose of MSC cells to 5x10 * 6 / kg and 8x10 * 6 / kg, the effect of treating hormone-resistant refractory GVHD was better than that before 2009, making the UK and EU treatment guidelines recommend MSC as a treatment for grade 2-4 Third-line treatment for acute GVHD. But Prochymal is still not approved by the US FDA. Interestingly, a meta-analysis article in 2016 suggested that the "dose" factor did not affect the survival rate of MSC in patients with acute GvHD. Although some experts believe that 5x10 * 6 / kg and 8x10 * 6 / kg are high doses, there is no discussion and proof of what kind of dose is defined as "high dose". If MSC is regarded as a "medicine", then there must be a range. In this range, the higher the dose, the better the effect; then after reaching a saturated dose, continuing to increase the cell dose does not bring more efficacy, but may bring some adverse reactions. To be continued in Part Four…
  22. As more and more people become aware of the importance of a sustainable lifestyle, we are discovering new ways to reduce waste and pollution in every aspect of our lives. Increasingly, people want to feel good about the goods that they buy. Whether that means using a refillable travel mug to buy fair-trade coffee in the morning or shopping online for vegan footwear, people are waking up to the fact that sustainability is a must. Here are a few ways we can integrate eco-friendly solutions into the arts and entertainment? Non-toxic Oil Paints Unlike other forms of visual arts that can use reclaimed or sustainably harvested materials, oil painting seems to be unable to shed its toxic plumage. Even with eco-friendly brushes and canvases, the heart of the matter, the paints themselves, are an eco-nightmare. As an alternative to resigning yourself to working with toxic sludge, non-toxic paints have become available to the aspiring Picasso. These paints deliver the same quality without polluting our water and soil when you have to dispose of them. Vegan Ballet Shoes The ballet is a world built on tradition, hard work, and timeless beauty. Choosing a good ballet shoe, whether it's a point shoe or ballet flats, is an important and deeply personal issue. Even the constructions of a ballet shoe is an artform draped in tradition and centuries of craftsmanship. Unfortunately, not all of those traditions are eco-friendly. For those who are trying to live a more sustainable lifestyle, choosing ballet flats can be even more difficult. Luckily, several brands have come along to offer you vegan ballet flats that couple excellent performance with sustainable high-quality materials. Natural Bamboo Reeds Bamboo as a construction material is an eco-wonder. It's easy to farm and grows quickly. It's also incredibly strong and can be used in everything from scaffolding to home furnishings. Bamboo fibers are used to make paper, cloth, crafts, and even bicycles. The next time you are shopping for art supplies, choose supplies made from natural bamboo reeds. Sustainable Yarn Sustainable and ethically sourced yarn is not limited to yarn made from recycled fibers. Yarn from ethically sourced wool or other sustainable fibers is also an acceptable alternative to have a more sustainable craft. While availability might be a concern for some, the quality of these yarns is on par with their less ethically sourced competitors. The desire to create beauty is one of the most basic of human instincts, but people are increasingly aware that there is no beauty in a thing that creates suffering. With a few changes in how we produce art and use resources, we can make our art not only beautiful but a source of greater good.
  23. Taking advantage of water, one of the planet’s most precious resources, it’s important for boating companies to be aware of how it protects the environment as a whole. One way for your company to do this is to work to reduce its carbon footprint. Changes, both small and large, are necessary to ensure a sustainable future for this vital industry. No matter the size of your company, even incremental steps are important as you work with fellow owners to preserve a beautiful and safe world for generations to come. Here are a few changes you can make to help get you started. "> Move to Digital Records Many boating companies, especially smaller outfits, are not known for their outstanding technological prowess. This is a shame, though, as companies can reap ecological and economic benefits by moving to digital records and paperwork. By keeping contracts and records digitized, you minimize the need for paper records, resulting in fewer trees used and a smaller carbon footprint. Bonus points here if you’re able to power these digital solutions using renewable energy. Clean Regularly Water in general and saltwater specifically are not kind to the many components of your company’s fleet. Over time, this exposure can lead to the necessary replacement of these components to ensure proper operation of your fleet, moving forward. Unfortunately, replacing components, as necessary as it is, also increases your company’s carbon footprint as energy is required to create the new components. That’s why regular cleaning and maintenance of your existing fleet is crucial, as this will help everything from propellers to onboard electronics to hulls to last longer, thus ensuring you don’t have to replace components or entire watercraft nearly as often. Buy Quality In tandem with taking care of what you already have, it’s important to be careful about what you purchase when you do have to buy something new for your fleet. Substandard components could lead to a quick degradation in quality, regardless of how much time you spend on maintenance and cleaning. In the case of consumables like batteries, this relentless replacement cycle will cause your carbon footprint to quickly balloon out of control. By purchasing high-quality marine batteries and other components that are specifically designed for use on the water, however, you ensure that each component will provide many years of service. Alternative Energy One of the biggest contributors to your company’s carbon footprint is greenhouse gas emissions from the fuel you burn to power your boats. That’s why any investment you can make in alternative energy can have such a dramatic effect on your carbon footprint. One major source of energy that’s available in most seaborne contexts is wind. Though a fully wind-powered option likely isn’t practical for your particular needs, even small sails can trim your fuel use fairly dramatically. In the same way that a hybrid car helps to reduce emissions even though it still uses a traditional gasoline engine, a “hybrid boat” can help to reduce emissions whether you use a standard marine engine or opt for a more efficient model. Nothing is Futile As foreshadowed at the beginning of this article, the most important idea to remember as you seek to reduce your carbon footprint is that every little change matters. Though it may not seem like you can make much of a difference through small changes on your small fleet, when you combine these changes with the changes of other fleets, it quickly turns into a big impact that can truly make a dramatic difference. Therefore, work hard to do the best you can, trusting that it will serve as inspiration for others to follow suit.
  24. The key to flipping a house successfully is to keep costs low while still creating a property attractive enough to fetch a high sales price. While you can't cut corners, you can reduce your prices by using recycled materials in many parts of the flipping process. Below are four areas in which recycled materials can make a huge difference. Recycled Wood Wood can be incredibly expensive, especially if you're looking at something that's more aesthetically appealing than what you can get at contractor-grade. Wood that's been recycled from other homes is not only far cheaper than what you could get from a lumber yard, but it may also be ready to be put in the home immediately. Certain types of recycled wood can also give a property a unique look, which in turn can raise its sale price. Recycled Metals Metal prices always seem to be on the rise. If you need metal for anything from decor to wiring, it's best to look at recycled options. Finding copper recycling vendors can be a great way to get access to a metal that's in high demand and still stay within your budget, while recycled steel might help you to undertake some great projects without having to sacrifice in other areas of your home. Always go with recycled metals when you can. Recycled Glass Yes, even glass can be recycled. While getting recycled windows might seem like a cost-saving choice, you may also want to choose these windows because of the character that they give your home. They may cost less than what's currently on the market now, but some recycled glass has a unique look that will bring in style-conscious buyers. Definitely consider recycled glass when you're on a budget but want to add some special to a home. Mulch Mulch can be surprisingly expensive when you get it from a supplier. While mulch has many practical and decorative purposes, realistic flippers know that it's essentially a replaceable resource that can eat up far too much of a landscaping budget. Given that there is virtually no difference between 'new' and recycled mulch, it simply makes more financial sense to go with the cheaper option. Not only that, but natural recycled wood mulch is much more eco-friendly than treated decorative mulches. Choosing recycled options can keep the cost of flipping a house down while adding some unique touches to a property. Whether you're seeking a look that makes use of reclaimed materials or you're dealing with a tight financial situation, recycled materials make sense. If you can spend less money on these materials, you'll be able to splurge on special features without endangering your budget.
  25. Immune oncology (IO) is the focus of current drug development. In recent years, the development of many IO drugs around the world has been rapidly improving not only in speed but also in quality, which brings new hope to almost all types of cancer patients, including many rare cancer types. At present, IO therapy targeting PD- (L) 1 has achieved great clinical success, and has attracted more and more research teams. Many agencies have predicted that in the next few years, the size of the global IO market will continue to grow rapidly. According to GrandView Research, the size of the IO market in 2018 was $ 58.1 billion, and it is expected to reach $ 126.9 billion in 2026. Transparency Market Research and Market Research Engine predict that the IO market will reach 124.88 billion US dollars and 173 billion US dollars in 2024, respectively. These optimistic predictions showed a significant increase in clinical activity, with the expected launch of many new treatments for IO. Last year, Incyte and Merck Epacadostat / Keytruda encountered huge failure in the clinical phase III of melanoma. This hit the development of epacadostat and other IDO inhibitors. At the same time, it also reduced the industry's enthusiasm for development of cancer immunotherapy. However, research on novel immune checkpoint targets that stop tumor cells from fighting the immune response or stimulate the body's immune system against cancer is continuing. A recent statistics from the American Cancer Institute (CRI) found that more than 1,700 joint studies involving PD- (L) 1 inhibitors are currently underway. Early and mid-term research data on these novel immune checkpoint targets may be seen at the 2019 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting. 1.Target: STING (interferon gene complex stimulant) Type: Immune stimulation Related companies: Aduro and Novartis' ADU-S100, GlaxoSmithKline's GSK3745417, Merck MK-1454 Aduro and Merck's STING pathway candidate drugs are administered by intratumoral injection, meaning they can be used for melanoma, but may not have much applicability for cancers deep in the body. The MK-1454 data released at the 2018 European Society of Oncology Medical Association showed that the efficacy of combination with Keytruda was not obvious. GSK3745417 from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) can be administered by intravenous infusion, and early drug trials are currently underway. Data from the combined use of ADU-S100 and Novartis anti-PD-1 therapy spartalizumab will be presented at this year's ASCO Annual Meeting. 2.Target: LAG-3 (lymphocyte activating gene-3) Type: Immunosuppression Related companies: GSK TSR-033, Regenerative REGN 3767; Bristol-Myers Squibb BMS-986016, F-Star Corporation FS118 TSR-033 is one of GSK's $ 5.1 billion acquisition of Tesaro's oncology assets. The clinical progress of the drug has received much attention. Regeneron and BMS will also show the latest progress of their drug candidates and their respective PD-1 inhibitors at the ASCO Annual Meeting. F-Star's FS118 is a bispecific antibody that targets both PD-1 and LAG-3. The drug has signed an option agreement with Merck, but recently Merck abandoned its option and F-Star re- Obtained full development rights for the drug. 3.Target: TIM-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3) Type: Immunosuppression Related companies: Eli Lilly LY3321367, BeiGene BGB-A425, Symphogen SYM023, Novartis MBG453 This class of drugs is a classic match with PD- (L) 1. All of the above drugs are in Phase I clinical trials, in combination with experimental PD- (L) 1 drugs from each company and with externally approved immune checkpoint inhibitors. Early safety data provided by Eli Lilly showed high levels of anti-drug antibody response (without affecting pharmacokinetics) and evidence of tumor response. At present, no other data on this class of drugs has been released. 4.Target: TGFβ Type: Immunosuppression Related companies: Merck and GSK's bintrafusp alfa (bispecific PD-L1), Forbius Avid200, Lilly Galunisertib, University of Pennsylvania CART-PSMA-TGFβRd. Of all the oncology challenges, the biggest bet may be Merck's decision to confront Merck in frontline non-small cell lung cancer. The hypothesis of this study is that bispecific bintrafusp alfa can block the PD-1 pathway as effectively as Keytruda, while inhibiting TGF-β provides additional benefits by blocking another mechanism that tumors use to shut down the immune response. Meanwhile, Eli Lilly has been evaluating galunisertib for the past few years and has reported some promising phase II data for pancreatic cancer. TGFβ also appears to be the only novel immune checkpoint target on the list considered a potential therapeutic technology, and the University of Pennsylvania is currently testing metastatic castration resistance to prostate cancer. 5.Targets: OX40 Type: Immune stimulation Related companies: Pfizer PF-04518600, Bristol-Myers Squibb BMS986178, Incygn IncAGN1949 These drug candidates are in very early human clinical trials testing dose levels and biological responses. BMS research combined BMS986178 with Opdivo and Yervoy and found that BMS986178 stimulated the immune response. Pfizer's PF-04518600 has achieved disease stabilization in some patients. Creative Bioarray possesses a research team, which has been focused on Immune-Oncology for decades. Since there are still lots of incomplete scientific understanding of tumor immunology, which gives rise to little widespread use of I-O therapies in clinic, Creative Bioarray is always ready to help and cooperate with customers on their I-O research or preclinical experiment. With multitudinous tumor cells, diverse animal tumor models, and various tumor research related services, such as cell cycle assays, apoptosis assays, proliferation assays, migration assays and toxicology assays, Creative Bioarray could offer professional design and experiment for customers to facilitate their I-O program.
  26. The effect of denaturing enzyme protein and causing loss of enzyme activity is called enzyme inactivation. The effect of reducing enzyme activity without causing enzyme protein denaturation is called inhibition. Enzyme inhibitory effects include irreversible inhibition and reversible inhibition. Some substances do not cause the enzyme protein to denature, but they can change certain essential groups (some groups on the active center) on the enzyme molecule, causing the enzyme activity to decline or even be lost, which are called enzyme inhibitors. Scientists can use inhibitors to study enzymes; drug manufacturers can use inhibitors as drugs to treat diseases; and inhibitors can also be toxic. Here in this article, enzyme inhibition are mainly discussed. Enzyme inhibition refers to the effect that the functional group of an enzyme is affected by a certain substance, resulting in a decrease or loss of enzyme activity. This substance is called an enzyme inhibitor. Enzyme inhibitors are selective for enzymes and are an important tool for studying the mechanism of enzyme action. Many drugs, poisons and poisons used in chemical warfare are enzyme inhibitors. In addition, some biological macromolecules that exist in animals and plants with certain functions are also enzyme inhibitors. When the enzyme is inhibited, its protein portion is not denatured. Enzyme inactivation due to enzyme protein denaturation, and the reduction or loss of enzyme activity caused by the removal of activators (such as metal ions necessary for enzyme activity) are not included in the scope of enzyme inhibition. Inhibitors can be divided into reversible inhibitors and irreversible inhibitors. Irreversible inhibitor Irreversible inhibitors are mainly covalently bound to enzymes, reducing enzyme activity. Covalent binding is tightly bound, and physical effects such as simple dialysis and dilution cannot be used to remove the inhibitory effect. Reversible inhibitor Reversible inhibitors bind through non-covalent bonds and have weak binding power, so they can both bind and dissociate easily, and quickly reach equilibrium. Reversible inhibitors are divided into two categories: competitive inhibitors and non-competitive inhibitors. (1) The structure of competitive inhibitors is similar to that of substrates. It mainly binds to the binding groups of essential groups and competes with substrates for enzymes. The ability of the inhibitor to compete with the substrate for the enzyme's binding site depends on the concentration of both. If the inhibitor concentration is constant and the substrate concentration is low, the inhibitory effect is most obvious. As the substrate concentration increased, the enzyme-substrate complex concentration increased, and the inhibitory effect weakened. When the substrate concentration is much higher than the inhibitor concentration, almost all enzymes are taken by the substrate. At this time, the Vmax of the enzymatic reaction remains unchanged, but the Km value becomes larger. Many drugs are competitive inhibitors of enzymes. Sulfa drugs have a similar structure to para-aminobenzoic acid, which is a substrate for dihydrofolate synthetase. Therefore, sulfa drugs competitively inhibit dihydrofolate synthase, causing bacteria to lack dihydrofolate or even tetrahydrofolate. Inability to synthesize nucleic acids and inhibit proliferation. (2) The combination of non-competitive inhibitors with sites outside the active center of the enzyme does not affect the binding of the enzyme to the substrate, and the substrate does not affect the binding of the enzyme to the inhibitor. There is no competitive relationship between the substrate and the inhibitor. However, the substrate-enzyme-inhibitor complex cannot further release the product, so it is called non-competitive inhibitory effect, which shows a decrease in Vmax value and constant Km value. (3) Anti-competitive inhibitors only bind to enzyme-substrate complexes, reducing the amount of intermediate products. The significance of studying enzyme inhibitors Helps to study the catalytic mechanism of enzymes and the design and development of inhibitor-type drugs,such as anticancer drugs; Artificially regulate the metabolic pathways of the organism; It is helpful to study the relationship between the structure and function of enzymes. Creative Enzymes gladly supply various enzyme inhibitors of premier grade to the customers. We persist in being the most reliable supplier for enzyme products in the global market. Today, Creative Enzymes is a leading company in enzymes and enzyme-related products, and is well known for the high level of customer satisfaction. We deliver the products in a momentary span of time from order placement to final delivery. Our prompt service, dedicated customer care, and reliable approaches have made us the most preferred vendor.
  27. Biological or chemical substances originally added or artificially added to foods that have acute or chronic hazards to human health is the so called food contamination. Classification of food contamination According to the nature of the source, food contaminationis divided into biological contamination, chemical contaminationand radioactive contamination. (1) Biological contamination of food includes microorganisms, parasites and insects, toxic biological tissues, and insects. The main contamination is microbial contamination, which is more harmful, especially bacteria and bacterial toxins, mold and mold toxin. (2) The source of chemical contamination is complex and various. For example, ① Pollutants from production, life and environment, such as pesticides, harmful metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, N-nitroso compounds, dioxins, etc. ② From the production, processing, transportation, storage and sales of tools, containers, packaging materials and coatings and other materials into the food materials, monomers and additives and other substances. ③ Substances generated during food processing and storage, such as harmful alcohols and aldehydes in alcohol. ④ Abuse of food additives. (3) Radioactive contamination: the man-made radionuclide contamination in the environment mainly comes from the following aspects: nuclear explosion, discharge of nuclear waste, accidents. Radionuclides in the environment can be transferred to food through the food chain. The main transfer pathways are: transfer to aquatic organisms, to plants, and to animals. Harm to human body caused by radioactive contamination of food include long-term irradiation effects of low-dose radiation on various tissues, organs and cells in the human body after ingestion of contaminated food. It shows damage to the immune system and reproductive system, as well as carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects. According to the way of food contamination, it is classifiedas: 1). Endogenous contamination (1) Endogenous contamination (2) Endogenous biological contamination: Livestock and poultry are infected with zoonotic diseases (meat, eggs, and milk are contaminated); Livestock and poultry are infected with inherent diseases, and their resistance decreases to cause secondary infections. During the life of livestock and poultry, some microorganisms are contaminated, and the decline in the resistance of livestock and poultry causes these microorganisms to infiltrate into muscle, liver and other parts, causing meat contamination. (3) Endogenous chemical contamination (4) Endogenous radioactive contamination 2). Exogenous contamination Exogenous biological contamination: food processing, transportation, storage, sales, cooking and other processes due to non-compliance with operating procedures, resulting in contamination by microorganisms, etc. (1) through water contamination (2) through air contamination (3) Contamination through soil (4) Contamination during production and processing (5) Contamination during transportation / storage (6) Contamination by vector pests Exogenous chemical contamination: Food is contaminated by toxic chemicals during processing, transportation, storage, sales, cooking, etc. The affected link include: (1) air (2) water (3) soil 4) transportation (5) production and processing Characteristics of food contamination Food is becoming more and more contaminated, and chemical contamination is the main cause. When pollutants are transferred from one organism to another, the concentration can be continuously accumulated and increased, which is the so-called bio-accumulation effect, and even the slight contamination process can cause serious harm to the human body after bio-accumulation. The hazards caused by food contamination today are more common than chronic toxicity, in addition to acute toxicity. Due to a small amount of human exposure for a long time and a long biological half-life, food contaminants have played a role in DNA in the body. The harm of food contamination to the human body Affect the sensory characteristics of food; Cause acute food poisoning; Cause acute and chronic hazards to the body; Teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on humans. The hazards of biological contamination: cause animal food corruption and deterioration; human infectious diseases; microbial poisoning. Harm of chemical contamination: acute, chronic poisoning; mutagenicity; teratogenic and carcinogenic.
  28. It's always a good idea to be a conscientious consumer. If you know that companies are producing dangerous products, for example, you should hold them responsible for those actions. Doing so, though, can seem difficult. If you're looking for ways to make a difference, you may want to try undertaking the actions below. Do Research on Toxic Materials The best place to start is to know what's really causing harm. Don't just take the internet's word on what constitutes a harmful material - do some research on your own to figure out what's really dangerous and what's not. You might find that companies are using materials that can cause a great deal of harm, yet their actions fly under the radar. Arm your self with knowledge before you do anything else. Buy Natural Products Your next step is to avoid giving money to those companies that actually make harmful products. A good way to do this is to find natural alternatives that don't use toxic materials. While the cost can be a bit higher, you'll be sending a message to other companies that their practices aren't acceptable. The actions of a single person might not make a huge difference in a corporation's bottom line, but they'll start to listen when enough people make the switch. Sue When They Cause You Harm If you are harmed by a company's products, you need to hold them directly accountable. This means retaining personal injury attorney services and suing them for the damage that they've caused. Not only do you deserve restitution when you have been hurt, but the company deserves to be punished when it's taken actions that can hurt consumers. By bringing a suit, you'll be helping the rest of the market. Spread the Word If you really want to make a change, you can't be silent. Instead, make sure to both talk about what you've learned through research and about the alternatives that you have found. You certainly don't need to spend all of your time proselytizing, but you should speak up when you think doing so can make a difference. If you are willing to share what you've learned with others, you can turn a small act of defiance into a real movement. Remember, holding companies responsible for their actions requires a real effort. Do the research, find alternatives, and hold them directly accountable when necessary. If you're able to spread your message, you can make a legitimate change in the world.
  29. Common reasons for the temperature rise of TPE injection molding machines include the following: (1) The volume of the oil tank of the injection molding machine is too small, the heat dissipation area is insufficient, and the cooling device has a small capacity. (2) The fixed pump oil supply system that selects the oil pump capacity according to the fast forward speed, the excess flow will return from the relief valve under high pressure and generate heat during work. (3) The unloading circuit in the system fails or because the unloading circuit is not set, the oil pump cannot be unloaded when it stops working, and the entire flow of the pump overflows under high pressure. Overflow loss occurs and heat is generated, resulting in excessive temperature. (4) The system piping is too thin and long, too much bending, local pressure loss and pressure loss along the process are large. (5) Insufficient component accuracy and poor assembly quality, and large mechanical friction loss between relative movements. (6) The mating clearance of the mating parts is too small, or the gap is too large after use, the internal and external leakage is large, and the volume is lost. For example, the volumetric efficiency of the pump is reduced, and the temperature rises quickly. (7) The working pressure of the hydraulic system is adjusted much higher than the actual need. Sometimes it is because the seal is too tight, or because the seal is damaged, and the leakage increases, it is necessary to increase the pressure to work. (8) High climatic and operating environment temperatures cause the oil temperature to rise. (9) The viscosity of the oil is not selected properly. If the viscosity is too large or too small, it can cause heat generation and the temperature is too high. Approach: 1. According to different load requirements, check and adjust the pressure of the relief valve from time to time. 2. Reasonably select hydraulic oil, especially the viscosity of the oil. When the conditions allow, use a lower viscosity to reduce the loss caused by viscosity friction. 3. Improve and improve the lubrication conditions of moving parts to reduce friction loss, which is conducive to reducing work load and reducing heat generation. 4. Improve the assembly quality and accuracy of hydraulic components and hydraulic systems, strictly control the clearance of the mating parts and improve the lubrication conditions, use sealing materials with low friction coefficient and improve the sealing structure, and reduce the starting force of the hydraulic cylinder as much as possible Heat generated by mechanical friction losses. Add cooling device if necessary
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