All Activity

This stream auto-updates   

  1. Yesterday
  2. A home is a special place for everyone after retiring from the troubles of the outside world. Waste production, deforestation, and illegal dumping are the significant causes of pollution in our environments. According to the World Health Organization, some global deaths are as a result of pollutants. Naturally, every human being desires a clean environment. However, the environmental challenges have left many wondering how they can have an eco-friendly and stylish home at this age. Below are tips on how your home can be a haven: Use non-toxic materials Home decoration materials must be critically selected. We have things like paints, carpets, or even blankets that have been known to contain toxic and allergic toxins. These toxins are harmful to humans. Therefore, it is vital to make inquiries before the purchase of any item coming to your home. Growing of House–plants House plants have been known to offer several benefits. They import the natural world into the house and brighten up space. They are a significant enhancement to every photographic opportunity within the home. One can also grow useful plants that are naturally suitable for natural remedies as well as beauty purposes. These houseplants can be placed at either the bookshelves or picture ledges or wall hangings. Use of natural cleaning products Harmful chemicals are the biggest threat to any environment. This is because even after washing them, they go down with water. Later on, this water takes a very long time to be purified before it's safe for consumption. However, the good news is that there are several natural cleaning products. They include citric acid, vinegar, and bicarbonate of soda. These natural products also leave the air fresh. Embrace vintage or retro furniture New furniture contains chemicals that are slowly released to the air for years, leaving toxins in your space. Contrarily, recycled furniture or vintage rarely gives out compounds. The reasons are that vintage items don’t have chemicals while the retro furniture had already emitted the chemicals years ago. Many shops sell these types of furniture. Ventilate Many homes have windows that are energy-efficient, sealing the house well. Sadly, most people rarely open their windows. This means that indoor toxins and chemicals remain trapped inside the house. Lack of fresh air inside the home makes it stinky and uncomfortable. In addition to these tips, one can buy luxaflex blinds from a blind and shade company. The blinds will give your rooms a perfect balance of light filterings, privacy, and heat control. Once you employ these tips, you will be assured of a toxic-free environment.
  3. Last week
  4. There's little doubt that humanity is adversely affecting the environment with trash. Home remodeling projects produce a lot of old materials that can find their way into landfills and waterways unless homeowners try to recycle or repurpose them. When you're responsible with these materials, you keep harmful chemicals and debris out of the environment. If you've ever wondered how easy it is to extend the life of old materials like bricks, cardboard, concrete, glass, green waste, metal, plastic and timber after you tear them out of your home, consider the following three ways you can quickly make a difference during your next remodel: Make a Donation Plenty of non-profit organizations need construction materials. Talk to representatives at a local school, community center, fire station or church about making a donation of your supplies. Another option: Post online ads on a free recycling network, classified ads site, or free, thrifty or community group on a social networking platform. Always make certain that you're as detailed as possible about the state of the materials to guarantee that recipients understand that there might be broken or irregular pieces. Explore DIY Projects Many homeowners and renters decide to upcycle materials from remodeling projects. Old floorboards that are in good shape can become a patio table or plant stand. Use old windows to build a greenhouse or solar dehydrator. If you have a lot of old tiny tiles, you can find a lot of online guides about using them to create mosaics for wall art, stepping stones and even patio floors. To find a project that matches your materials, perform a keyword search on an online search engine, craft-based app or handmade craft market site. Use a Service When you don't have the time to make a donation or explore your DIY craft dreams, the next option is to simply toss the materials. Yet, you don't have to send them off to a landfill. Hire a company to provide you with skip bins for responsible recycling. Many companies recycle and/or resell old materials that they receive in their skip bins. These firms build relationships with other companies that recycle and reuse these materials as well. Although you pay to rent the bin, you're paying for more than the company hauling away old debris and trash. You're paying for the guarantee that most of the materials will be reused so that they don't become part of the growing global trash problem. At the end of the day, you can be a part of the environmental waste problem or seeking solutions. Many old materials from remodels can even be torn apart and remade into new aggregate materials. For example, old bricks, stones, mortar and concrete can be turned into new construction and even home decor products. The process starts with a homeowner who takes extra steps to protect the environment. By trying one or more of these ideas today, you can get rid of old remodeling waste and help improve the world.
  5. Is your home ready for a new roof? Replacing your worn or damaged roof not only keeps your head dry but also presents an opportunity to make your home a little greener. Making sustainable and energy efficient decisions for your new roof can lower your carbon footprint and keep a little more money in your wallet. Here are four eco-friendly roof upgrades to consider for your next roof renovation. Choose a Cooler Color If you live in a hot, sunny climate, cooling down your roof can make a big difference in your monthly energy bill. Picking a lighter color that reflects heat and light away from your home is a simple way to make your roof greener that doesn't add any cost to your project. You can also coat your roof in reflective paint or a sheet covering if you don't plan to replace your shingles. Get a Metal Roof Metal is another cool roofing option that's also lightweight and durable. Choosing metal can save a lot of money on roof repair because it lasts many times longer than a shingle roof and requires little to no maintenance. With a combination of energy efficiency, longevity, and an affordable initial cost, metal roofing is an all-around great option. Metal is also highly recyclable and sustainable. Go Natural Do you prefer a more traditional look? Consider a sustainable, natural material like wood, clay, or slate. For homeowners who prefer a classic cottage style, wood shingles are eco-friendly and last as long as their asphalt counterparts. Clay tiles are another natural option that keeps your home cool and provides a Spanish villa vibe. If it's durability you're seeking, you can't go wrong with long-lasting slate. Install Solar Panels One of the most eco-friendly upgrades you can add to your roof is a set of solar panels. Solar panels allow you to generate your own electricity, and some states even pay you for the energy that your panels put back into the grid. If you live in a climate with lots of sun, solar panels can potentially reduce your monthly electricity bill to zero. Is your budget tight? You can still have an eco-friendly roof on a shoestring by making a few simple upgrades. Adding some extra insulation or choosing light grey over black shingles can significantly lower your home's energy consumption at little to no cost. You can also look for grants and tax incentives to lower the cost of your new sustainable roof.
  6. Are you looking at your utility bill and are flabbergasted at the amount? Are you wondering what you can do to reduce energy costs without sacrificing comfort or convenience? If you answered yes, then you may need to upgrade your home appliances. Here is how upgrading your home appliances can reduce your energy consumption to save money. Refrigerator Every time you open your refrigerator, a light comes on so you can see the items stored in it. If you have had your refrigerator for more than ten years, then the bulb that is in there is likely contributing to your expensive energy cost. Newer makes and models of refrigerators now use LED lighting technology, providing bright light while reducing energy consumption. This is how upgrading your home appliances will reduce your energy consumption to save money by upgrading to appliances that utilize LED lighting systems. HVAC System One of the most used appliances in your home is your HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system. It is also one of the most expensive appliances to operate as it is used throughout the year, cooling your home during the summer and heating it during the winter season. Upgrading your HVAC system can reduce your energy consumption as newer systems were designed to operate efficiently and effectively. This means new techniques and technology are now being used in modern systems to help you reduce energy consumption without sacrificing comfort or convenience. Washer and Dryer Upgrading and replacing your washer and dryer is probably something that did not cross your mind, especially if they are still both in working order. However, just like your refrigerator and HVAC system, upgrading your washer and dryer would be advantageous to help you reduce energy consumption and to save money. As with many newer appliances, energy-saving features are now included to maximize and optimize the washing and drying processes. Stove Another home appliance that is often used and one that contributes to a high energy bill is your stove. Older stoves were built for only one purpose, and that is to produce heat for you to cook your meal. This means precious heat that your older stove is producing may be escaping because they were not designed with efficiency in mind. This is causing you to consume more energy. Upgrading your stove is how you can lower energy consumption as newer stoves are built and designed to focus heat where you need it the most, preventing it from escaping. These are only to mention how upgrading your home appliances can reduce your energy consumption. Remember, take advantage of all the benefits newer technology has to offer by upgrading your home appliances to not only reduce energy consumption but to also save you time and money.
  7. Earlier
  8. As long as it's working properly, you probably never give your septic tank much thought. After all, it doesn't exactly have a glamorous job. What it lacks in glamour, though, it makes up for in importance, silently working to remove the waste from your home. What you may not realize is that, in addition to performing a vital task, your septic tank is actually quite environmentally friendly. To help give you a greater appreciation for your septic tank, here are a few ways that septic tanks help the environment. A Natural Process Unlike so much in today's world, a septic tank still relies on natural processes to do its job. Using naturally occurring bacteria, your septic tank works hard to break down the waste from your home. This prevents potentially harmful chemicals from being released into the environment, helping to protect the soil and water in your area. Reduces Pressure on Garbage Dumps Since it works independently of the city sewer system, your septic tank helps to reduce pressure on your local garbage dump. This is because many sewer-based systems are forced to dispose of the solid waste in the garbage dump because there is too much waste for bacteria to break down naturally. Given the already-crowded conditions at many dumps, anything that can be done to divert waste away from the dump is a welcome advancement for environmental protection. Diverts Pollution from Oceans Another advantage of being independent of a public sewer system is that there's no risk of anything you send down the drains in your home ending up in the ocean. City sewage treatment plants do what they can to remove potential pollutants from wastewater. However, most wastewater is only filtered to a certain point before it is sent to rivers and oceans. If you have a septic tank, though, your waste collects in the tank until the tank is full. When the tank is emptied, you can be sure that with your own wastewater treatment system, all of the waste products will be dealt with in an environmentally friendly manner. Less Electricity Usage Although it doesn't take any electricity to send wastewater down the drain, when that wastewater arrives at a treatment plant, a lot of electricity is used. When it comes to a septic tank, though, there is no electricity required since everything happens thanks to gravity and chemistry. This helps to reduce your carbon footprint even as you're contributing to the health of the ecosystem around you. Though septic tanks have considerable environmental benefits, they must be properly maintained in order for these benefits to be realized. That means maintaining the health of the bacteria population, avoiding pouring harmful substances down your drains, and having your tanks professionally cleaned and inspected on a regular basis. If you follow those simple steps, though, you will be able to rest easy knowing that your septic tank is helping the environment
  9. Drinkable water is the Earth’s most precious resource. It is essential to life, but often in short supply. And despite what the steady stream coming from our taps suggests, it is a finite resource. It is incumbent on all of us to do what we can to limit our water usage, allowing us to build a sustainable future together. But what can you do to help reduce your usage? What adjustments need to happen? What habits need to change? There are countless little things you can do that add up to make a major difference. These three ideas are a good place to start. Fix Leaks If you have leaky plumbing, then you could be wasting gallons and gallons of water every week without even noticing. A drip here and there might not seem like much, but if it’s constant it can add up to a major source of waste. If you can’t fix the leak yourself, contact a plumber to get the issue taken care of. Don’t Let Faucets Run It’s become perfectly normal behavior to let faucets emit a constant stream of water that we only use occasionally during the completion of a task. Take washing dishes, for example. You most likely leave the faucet running not just while you apply the water to the dish, but also while you scrub, while you dry, and while you place the dish on a drying rack. All that time, unused water is needlessly falling down the drain. If you respected water for the precious resource it is, you’d be a lot more careful. Only turn the faucet on for those moments when you actually need the water. This same mindset can be adopted for brushing teeth, washing your face, and so many other activities. Use an Energy-Star Washing Machine Doing laundry accounts for a huge proportion of a household’s water use. You can greatly diminish your usage just by switching to a more efficient machine. Energy efficient washers also use less energy, meaning they’re an overall slam dunk when it comes to environmental responsibility. You should also steer clear of top-loading washers, which tend to use much more water than their front-loading counterparts. Water gives us life, and we should respect it as a resource. If you want to do your part to avoid wasting water, take the aforementioned tips to heart. When it comes to conservation, a little effort goes a long way.
  10. It’s no secret that garbage dumps are filling up faster than ever. Therefore, it’s important to do all you can to divert as much away from landfills as you can. One crucial part of this is ensuring that large appliances are recycled instead of thrown away. If you’re not sure how to do this, here are a few tips on how to recycle large appliances like water heaters. Check with Your City Many cities, understanding the need to save space at landfills, have a very robust appliance recycling program in place. If this is true of your city, all you have to do is schedule a time to have your old appliance hauled away and then let representatives from the city do all the hard work. In some cases, you may even be eligible for a rebate for your old appliance, which can make recycling a win-win situation. Haul it to a Scrapyard Most appliances contain a decent amount of metal. This fact makes them attractive to scrapyards that take this metal and recycle it for future use. Typically, you are eligible for payment based on the weight of appliances that you bring to the recycling facility. Just be sure to ask about harmful chemical disposal to be sure the facility you choose won’t put the environment at further risk. Easy in and Out If an appliance requiring professional installation stops working, then you can usually count on the installation company to haul away your old appliance when your new one is installed. For example, when you need a new gas water heater installation, it’s important to let your water heater installers disconnect your old water heater to prevent any gas or water leaks and then let them haul the old water heater away. They will be well-versed on where to take your old water heater to ensure it stays out of the landfill. Put it Out By the Curb Most cities have people who make at least part of their income by collecting scrap metal and taking it to the scrapyard. If you have someone like this in your neighborhood, then recycling your old appliances is as simple as setting them by the curb. If your street isn’t well-traveled, it’s usually a good idea to post about your appliance on a neighborhood group so that scrappers know there’s something available for them to haul away. Donate It In some cases, your old appliances may still have some life left in them. If that’s the case, rather than recycling your appliances, you can donate them to someone in need. Even if your appliances aren’t the most efficient or aesthetically pleasing, they can mean the world to someone who doesn’t have the money to buy their own appliances. This approach allows you to make space for new appliances while helping someone in need.
  11. The Earth can be harmed the by the actions of people. Human civilization has created pollution and destroyed natural ecosystems and wildlife habitats. It may even lead to worse problems like global warming that could threaten everyone. The one sector of human civilization that contributes the most to this destruction is industry. Thankfully, you can take steps to lower your company’s impact on the planet. Here are some ideas for making your workspace greener. Implement Renewable Energy Most factories and other industrial workplaces use a great deal of energy to complete their work. Thankfully, you no longer have to completely rely on energy sources that create pollution or put a great strain on the local power grid. Implementing power produced by solar panels or wind turbines is one option. Choosing fuels that create a lesser impact on the environment like ethanol or natural gas is another good choice. Recycle Everything You Can Recycling is something else companies must implement if they want to be greener. Not recycling creates waste that fills up landfills. In certain cases, that waste can even harm animals and human beings. Consider all the different materials that are part of your industrial processes that you can recycle. For example, you may have not considered copper recycling for the copper left over from a certain production process. Eliminate Paper Something most companies use is a lot of paper. There’s paper used for correspondence, memos, record keeping, meetings and much more. It’s no longer the 1980’s. Everything that can be expressed in a paper document can be very easily recreated in a digital file. Doing so saves trees and eliminates waste. It can even save a good deal of money over the course of a year. Going paperless is a strategy that works for many businesses. Perform Efficiency Audits Not running your factory or other industrial facility as efficiently as possible can also lead to wastefulness. One thing you should do is perform efficiency audits multiple times a year. The data produced can help you find ways to save electricity and fuel and cut down waste. It can make your company greener and help you save a good deal of money simultaneously. Industrialization has done a lot of harm to the environment. However, this doesn’t have to be the case today. Thanks to improvements in technology and methodology, there are many ways a company can greatly lessen its impact on the environment. The list above is only a starting point.
  12. From rising sea levels, extreme weather conditions and greenhouse gases, today’s climate change speakers ask hard questions. How will all these changes affect species across the globe and communities? And, most importantly how much time do we have to change our ways? Around the globe environmental speakers and young people are mobilizing to demand greater action on environmental issues. More than a million young people have tuned out for global strikes that are also driving home the links between social injustice and climate change, economic inequality, seeking the opportunity of these strikes to collectively raise their voices for a grater desire in defense of the defenseless and at-risk communities impacted but the unimpeded environmental changes. These climate change speakers say yes highlighting what we, as individuals must do on a political, personal and environmental level to ensure a healthier and greener future. Naomi Klein A journalist, award-winning columnist and bestselling author, climate change advocate, Naomi Klein’s This Changes Everything disclosed the long-lasting myths of the climate debate. Born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Naomi is known to be one of the most prominent voices in the antiglobalization movement. In “This Changes Everything” Naomi has exposed the conflicts between the unimpeded capitalist initiative and the mitigation of global warming. While exposing the climate crisis, Nomi said that it’s always easier to reject reality than to allow our worldview to be shattered. Much of her book is concerned with exposing the fact that those powerful, well-financed and lobby groups are responsible for the denial of climate change in the last few years. Due to human activities, considerable environmental changes are under way, and if left unchecked, it will alter the world in which our kids will have to live. Chris Hines MBE Chris is an authoritative figure on climate change and former Sustainability Director of the Eden Project. As an environmental campaigner and a highly appreciated communicator, Chris Hines uses his deep understanding of the equilibrium between environmental, social and financial aspects of sustainability to encourage others to take action. He aims to find solutions through communication which eventually led him to drive a £5 billion investment on the U.K.’ coastline. In February 2020, Chris Hines was invited by Beyond Skin to Northern Ireland to sustain a workshop but also to do some talks. During his stay in Northern Ireland, Chris mentioned that while living in times like this, we feel scary as we become increasingly aware of the fragility of our environment and the level of destruction we have caused. But as an optimistic-activist, Chris feels lucky to be a part of a campaign that leads to a massive environmental change and keen to share the lessons and knowledge he had learned from almost 30 years of the campaign. Andy Pag Famous environmentalist and public speaker, Andy Peg is no stranger to the speaking circuit. Any is an experienced TEDtalk speaker, who spent almost two decades doing torus and witnessing the impact our carbon footprint has on the planet. Andy is also known as an Eco-Adventurer and reporter to BBC who spent two years driving around the world in a bus-powered by cooking oil. Peg was inspired to change all things in his life that were unsustainable, which eventually led him to experiment with all kinds of power resources during his journeys. Today, Andy Peg relies on his entertaining talks to share how all his adventurous and experimental journeys have taken him closer to understanding what sustainability really means and even more insights on how to achieve it. Greta Thunberg There is no social media platform or News channels who don’t mention her name. Greta Thunberg is a 16-years-old Swedish climate activist famous for striking outside the parliament building in Stockholm. Greta is now the founder of the Fridays for Future, a climate change movement famous among young people. Although diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder, Asperger and selective mutism, Greta inspired many other young people with speech impediments to take action and raise their voice. Her ardent speeches left powerful politicians speechless, and many young people inspired around the world. Famous for her “only speak when necessary”, made young activists around the globe to credit Greta’s unyielding dedication and bravery to advocate for climate change for inspiring them to take action in their own cities. Through her name, bravery and dedication Greta has helped mobilize the young mind movement that has brought more than 1.6 million people into the stress around the work to ask for greater defense for our planet. According to Greta “you are never too small to make a difference no matter where you come from.” Vic Barrett Vic comes from New York, and she first felt our impact on climate change after witnessing Hurricane Sandy. Vic is now a partner with the Alliance for Climate Education, and he spoke for the climate change at the U.N. headquarters in New York City. Soon after she marched for solidarity with more than 500.00 people at the People’s Climate March, he started to organize all kinds of local climate campaigns. He is currently an undergraduate student at UW-Madison and can be found among 21 youth activists who are vigorously charging the government to take a stand in climate change. Severn Cullis-Suzuki Since she was only 12-year-old, Severn Cullis Suzuki was eager to grab international attention. She delivered a speech at the Rio Earth Summit, asking for the delegates to take greater actions at preserving the planet. Since then she continued to fight for environmental changes – justice for future generations – sharing to people around the world the view of returning back to our most profound human values and taking action with the future in mind. In 2000, Cullis took part in a cycling trip across Canada for climate change awareness and clean air to the gratitude of responsibility agreement, which she took to the World Summit on Sustainable Development.
  13. One of the biggest challenges facing mankind is the threat posed by pollution and global warming. If this challenge is to be overcome, the biggest contributors to these problems must change course. This certainly includes industry which accounts for a very big portion of the pollution released into the atmosphere. Thankfully, industrial processes can be altered so they are more eco-friendly and sustainable. One way to do this is by retrofitting your company's equipment. Here are a few examples of how to accomplish this. Data Analytics One way you can retrofit your industrial equipment with the environment in mind is to integrate data analytics into its operation. This would involve installing sensors on equipment that transmit data regarding its operation in real time via Wi-Fi or some other kind of internet connection. Powerful data analytics software can then be used to crunch this data so you can have direct insight into how much energy your equipment is using and how much pollution or other negative byproducts are being produced. You can then use this information to make adjustments and increase both the efficiency and sustainability of those industrial processes. SCR Systems SCR is a technical term that stands for Selective Catalytic Reduction. This a system that can be used in equipment and industrial systems to reduce harmful nitrogen oxide, also known as NOx for short. It accomplishes this by creating a chemical reaction known as reduction that transforms NOx into water and tiny amounts of CO₂. It, in essence, removes pollution through this chemical process. An SCR system can be installed on different kinds of equipment, such as SCRs for water tube boilers. Sustainable Energy Sources Another option you could choose to implement is to retrofit your equipment to run on more sustainable energy sources. Options you should give serious consideration include solar energy, ethanol gas, biomass, hydrogen fuel cells and wind power. Determine what options are feasible for your own equipment. Variable Frequency Drives Retrofitting your equipment with variable frequency drives, VFDs for short, is another option that can make your industrial operations more environmentally friendly. A VFD works by varying the level of voltage and frequency supplied to an engine depending on different circumstances. It can help to lower an engine's energy consumption, increase the efficiency of equipment and extend the equipment's lifespan as well. Companies have a responsibility to do what they can to lower their carbon footprint. This is required to fight pollution and preserve the planet for future generations. One way you can do this is by retrofitting your equipment. Consider the four options above as well as others for making your equipment more environmentally friendly.
  14. As the most extensive renewable energy (23,000 TW/year) in nature, how to realize its efficient and reasonable development and utilization has always been a research hotspot for scientific researchers. From the current development stage, the utilization of solar energy mainly focuses on three aspects: solar power system, solar thermal system and solar fuel system. However, the intermittent problem of regional light source caused by Earth rotation greatly limits the continuous conversion of solar energy to other energy sources, so that it cannot meet the continuous energy demand in daily production and life. In response to the problem, scientists put forward the corresponding energy reserve strategy. By combining the photoelectrochemical system with the secondary cell or liquid flow cell system, the conversion and storage of solar energy are realized, and the energy supply and demand caused by the intermittent light source are effectively solved. However, the multi-system connection has the disadvantages of complex system, high cost and serious energy transmission loss. Therefore, how to design the integrated solar energy storage system rationally has become the next research problem that researchers need to solve. Recently, Shaojun Dong’s team at Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences realized the continuous transformation and storage of solar energy under an integrated system by constructing a bio-photoelectrochemical model based on water/oxygen circulation, providing a new research idea for the efficient use of renewable energy. The team designed the bio-photochemical system to use polypyrrole solid-state capacitive electrodes as energy storage modules to make the energy storage process safer and easier. In the process of solar energy storage, the water/oxygen molecules in the system can spontaneously form a cycle without the participation of additional sacrifice reagents and other redox pairs, which greatly improves the safety of the equipment and reduces the cost. In addition, the modular and integrated structural design of this system enables it to be adjusted and optimized according to different circumstances and better meet the practical application needs of many aspects. Experimental data analysis showed that the conceptual model obtained maximum power density outputs of 0.34 ± 0.01 and 0.19 ± 0.02 mWcm-2 under light and dark field conditions, respectively, and showed stable solar accumulator cycle performance. By changing the capacitance of the energy storage module (polypyrrole capacitive electrode), the charge/discharge time can be effectively regulated. In this research work, the construction of bio-photoelectrochemical model of water/oxygen cycle promotes the development of cross-integration among photoelectrochemical system, bioelectrochemical system and capacitor system on the one hand, and also provides certain guiding significance for the future research and development of green rechargeable devices on the other hand. The results were recently published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, (2019, 141, 16416-16421), and were supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China. About Author As a biotechnology company, Lifeasible is specialized in agricultural science, offering a wide variety of agro-related services and products for environmental and energy solutions. Our plant breeding and culture services support increasingly stringent safety and quality standards in the agricultural industry. Relying on our revolutionary techniques, various molecular breeding services and molecular diagnostic methods are offered for a wider range of agriculture-related sectors.
  15. If you are reading this, then CompTIA is expectedly quite clear with you now. Moreover, assuming you already know about the core certifications like CompTIA IT Fundamentals, CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+, and CompTIA Security+, we will further tell you about the alternatives if any. You should also find it useful to know that CompTIA has some segregations based on Infrastructures as well. These are Cloud, Linuxs, and Server+. CompTIA CASP This is an advanced Security Practitioner CASP + and is an ideal certification for technical professionals who want to grow in their domain. It is more than the management function. Moreover, it is a performance-based function and is for all those practitioners who are separate from the management cadre. You should have a clear understanding of the domain and understand the functional demarcations. Cybersecurity managers aim to identify the loopholes in the infrastructure, whereas these CASP professionals actually implement the solutions and policies into the framework. Successful candidates in this domain can take care of Enterprise Security, including operations, and architecture concepts, and other techniques. Analysis of risk is another important facet of the domain. If the company needs advanced security, then this is a viable option for any company. CASP may not be as well-recognized as CISSP. However, there are some advantages. There are substantial discounts that make this a lucrative certification. Academic institutions also get leverage over others, with these certifications. The certificate maintenance fee is also quite low. The CASP Examination is a lot easier than CISSP. However, several simulation questions challenge people at the onset. The knowledge also increases substantially. That is a huge advantage in today’s market. Moreover, in CASP, you just get a pass mark or comment. No marks have been attributed to it so far. Differences Between The CASP And CISSP If the information from certain quarters is to be believed, then both certifications are somewhat similar. However, they have their pros and cons. Both of these certifications prove without a doubt that the candidate has both advanced technical, as well as advanced IT skills. Moreover, any company about these areas can take candidates with a combination of these qualifications. However, the CISSP certification does indeed deliver some additional skills, like aces and identity management, security assessment, and testing functions. Whereas, CASP takes care of two additional areas in security and research management. These are not included in CISSP. Therefore, you can say that CompTIA CASP, An Alternative to CISSP Certification, is not entirely true. You can make both of these qualifications work in conjunction. They are two separate entities. There are differences in job roles, as well. CISSP covers a wider gamut of functions, like network architecture, security management, consultancy, architecture, the direction of security resources, and other higher-level positions. However, CASP covers a smaller range in comparison. It includes roles like surety architecture, application engineering, technical analysis, and security engineering. The segregation of the examination schedule and syllabus is also different in both cases. There are similarities, as well. There are some common topics in these two, and that includes security architecture and operations. There are some common job roles as well in these two areas. They have an architect role in security and engineering. Whatever the case, one is not a replacement of the other. CISSP proves that you have technical and advanced skills in developing, designing, and managing an organization’s defense. Moreover, it includes risk management, security architecture, security operations, security assessment, and networking, to name a few. CASP stresses advanced-level skills, including risk management, operations, research and collaborations, and enterprise security architecture. So, CompTIA CASP, An Alternative to CISSP Certification, is not correct.
  16. Is your office cluttered with several items that hinder your productivity? Are you looking for ways to do your part in saving the environment by starting a recycling program at the office? If you answered yes, then you are probably thinking about other items that can be recycled outside of aluminum cans, paper waste, magazines, newspapers, shipping supplies, file folders, and cardboard. Here are 4 overlooked items found in your office that can also be recycled to help you boost productivity while helping the environment. Electronics Do you remember that microwave tucked away in one corner of the break room that has been broken for ages? Do you also remember passing by that unrepairable bulky printer in the hallway? Do you remember when someone said the laminator malfunctioned but you forgot about it, until now? The microwave, the printer, and the laminator are all electronic items that can be recycled and are called e-waste. Other e-waste items that can be recycled are fax machines, VCRs, computers, and cellphones. Light Bulbs Like a scene from a horror movie, that flickering and buzzing fluorescent light fixture has just been bothering everyone at the office for quite some time. Now it is time to get rid of it. Fluorescent bulbs can also be added to your list of items that can be recycled. Food Perhaps someone forgot that they brought their lunch and decided to eat out during their break. Weeks later, their lunch is rotting away in the break room fridge, which is starting to emit a foul smell. Maybe your coworker forgot that they threw a banana peel in their paper wastebasket, and now the office is being invaded by fruit flies. Food waste is another overlooked item that can be recycled. Keys Has your office recently changed its locks? Do you now have a set of keys that can no longer be used? Any keys that are made of metal can be recycled. Door keys, file cabinet keys, and office keys are often overlooked office items that can be added to your recycling list. These are only to mention 4 commonly overlooked items that can be recycled. Perhaps you have done a walkthrough of the office and found an overwhelming amount of items that you can recycle. You have probably just found out that the trash receptacles you currently have will not suffice. Consider a dumpster rental to help you save time and save money when recycling these overlooked recyclable items in your office.
  17. As a modern business, it's likely that you have a large amount of electronic equipment that helps to keep your business going. As important as this equipment is, it will eventually become too outdated to efficiently meet your needs. When that happens, it's important to dispose of these old electronics in a responsible manner to prevent harm to the environment. To give you direction on what to do, here are a few ways that businesses can properly dispose of broken or old electronic equipment. Donate Them Even though the electronics you're getting rid of may not suit your needs, that doesn't mean that they are no longer usable. By donating your electronics, you give them a chance at a second life to fulfill a noble purpose. In some cases, non-profit organizations use old electronics to teach those in need the necessary skills to help them find a new career. However they're used, donating your electronics is far better than throwing them in the trash. Sell Them If you've taken especially good care of your electronics, there's a chance that they may still have some value. Since people can find value in unexpected places, attempting to sell your electronics is a great option because it helps to recoup some of your investment. To sell electrical equipment, you can try to sell them separately to individual buyers, or you can use a third-party buying service that will buy large lots of electronics at once. Repurpose Them Even if a certain electronic item is no longer usable, its individual components may be able to be used by your business. For example, an old computer may not have a place in your company, but the monitor from that computer can still be repurposed to provide a dual-monitor set up to help increase productivity. Therefore, before you make the move to get rid of your old electronics, it's a good idea to look at them in terms of how they can be used in different ways around your office. Recycle Them If there is no longer any use for your old electronics, then it's important that you make an effort to recycle them. Electronics recycling helps keep potentially harmful substances out of landfills and allows the base materials to be reused and made into something new. The key when recycling your electronics is to be sure to use a certified electronics recycler that won't simply ship your electronics overseas, contributing to pollution in other countries. When you purchase new electronics, it's important to think through your purchases with an eye to the end of their lifecycles. You want to be sure that it's as easy as possible to dispose of your old electronics in a manner that benefits your company and the environment. In many cases, this means buying higher-end electronics initially, as these tend to be constructed in such a way as to make them easier to recycle or resell. In every case, though, know that there are plenty of options available when your electronics no longer meet your needs.
  18. According to reports, the rapid spread of COVID-19 has led to a surge in the number of suspected infections and close contacts. The early detection of the virus can not only enable the infected person to be treated in time and reduce the risk of death, but also can effectively control the source of the infection and cut off the transmission route through isolation. Generally, there are two detection strategies for infectious diseases: nucleic acid detection and immunological detection. Nucleic acid detection is the detection of viral RNA genome, including gene sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, digital droplet PCR, gene chip and Loop-Mediated isothermal amplification. Immunological detection is the detection of specific antibodies produced by viral antigens or by human immune responses, including immunochromatographic strips, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). The following compounds provieded by BOC Sciences can be used in the production of COVID-19 test kits: Guanidine thiocyanate Guanidine thiocyanate is a colorless crystal or white powder, soluble in water. It is an anticoupling agent and a strong protein denaturation agent, which can dissolve proteins, and quickly separate the nucleic acid from nuclear proteins. The combination of guanidine thiocyanate and mercaptoethanol is able to inhibit the activity of RNase. The combined action of guanidine thiocyanate and sodium dodecyl sarcosine can denature proteins and release RNA. Guanidine hydrochloride Guanidine hydrochloride, white or yellowish in color, is used as a protein denaturator. As a strong denaturation agent for extracting total RNA from cells, guanidine hydrochloride solution can dissolve proteins, destroy the secondary structure of nucleoproteins dissociated from nucleic acids. In addition, guanidine hydrochloride and other reducing agents can inactivate RNA enzymes. Using dicyandiamide and ammonium salt (ammonium chloride) as raw materials, crude guanidine hydrochloride products can be obtained at 170-230℃. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane is a common buffer in molecular biology and cell culture. Tris buffer has a high buffering capacity, high solubility in water, and is inert to many enzyme reactions, which makes Tris a very satisfying buffer for many biochemical purposes. It is generally used to stabilize the pH of reaction system and has a strong buffering capacity between pH 7.5 and pH 9.0. Tris-HCl buffer system can also be used to stabilize the pH value in the gel. Tris buffer is widely used as a solvent for nucleic acids and proteins. Due to the low ionic strength, Tris buffer can also be used for the formation of intermediate fibers in nematodes. "TE buffer" prepared by adding EDTA into Tris hydrochloric acid buffer can be used for DNA stabilization and storage. HEPES HEPES buffer, mainly composed of 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanesulfonic acid, is a non-ionic amphoteric buffer with good buffering capacity in the pH range of 7.2-7.4. Its greatest advantage is that it can maintain a relatively constant pH value in open culture or cell observation. Under these conditions, the cap of the cell culture bottle should be tightened to prevent the small amount of carbonate needed in the culture solution from being dispersed into the air. HEPES is difficult to dissolve in any other solvents, but it is readily dissolves in water, and does not precipitate with polyvalent metal ions. In addition, most natural factors such as temperature, concentration, medium salinity, and ion composition do not affect the dissociation of HEPES, so the stability of HEPES is excellent. DTT DTT, short for DL-dithiothreitol, is used to block the formation of intramolecular or intermolecular disulfide bonds between cysteines in proteins. The effect of DTT on proteins is that it can reduce disulfide bonds in proteins. One of the uses of DTT is as a reductant for sulfhydrylated DNA. Sulfur atoms at the ends of sulfhydrylation DNA tend to form dimers in solution, especially in the presence of oxygen. This dimerization greatly reduces the efficiency of some coupling experiments, such as DNA fixation in biosensors.
  19. 3.2 The immunoregulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on B cells B cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from bone marrow. With the stimulation of antigens and T cells, they proliferate in large quantities and further differentiate and develop into plasma cells capable of secreting antibodies. Mesenchymal stem cells have a certain inhibitory effect on the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can induce B cell proliferation and differentiation through cell contact. These conclusions may be related to the cell purification method, culture environment and detection time point, etc., and further research is needed. In addition, the functions of B cells secreting antibodies and expressing chemokine receptors CXCR4, CXCR5, and CCR7 are inhibited by mesenchymal stem cells, while the secretion of B cell costimulatory molecules and cytokines is not affected by mesenchymal stem cells. The effect of mesenchymal stem cells on B cells is achieved through cell contact, and PD-1 / PDL-1 pathway is an important way for mesenchymal stem cells to inhibit B cells. Studies have shown that PD-1 can dephosphorylate some key signal transducers of BCR signaling by accumulating phosphatase, thereby hindering BCR signaling and inhibiting B cell activation. In addition, there are studies suggesting that T cells play an important role in the immune regulation of mesenchymal stem cells to B cells. Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of B cells, but require the interaction between T cells and mesenchymal stem cells. In addition to the key role of cell contact, mesenchymal stem cells regulate B cell function. Soluble cytokines also play a role that cannot be ignored. The study found that mesenchymal stem cells secrete CCL2, and achieve immune regulation of B cells by suppressing transcriptional activator protein 3 and inducing the production of paired box protein 5 (PAX5). In the mesenchymal stem cell co-culture system, the m RNA expression of Blimp-1 is significantly reduced, and the m RNA expression of PAX-5 is increased. Inhibiting the expression of Blimp-1 and promoting the expression of PAX-5 can inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. 3.3 The immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on NK cells NK cells are short for natural killer cells. It is different from T cells and B cells; it does not require specific antibodies to participate in the killing of target cells or antigen-specific sensitization. The main role of NK cells in the innate immunity of the human body is to distinguish normal and abnormal cells by recognizing the ligands of corresponding activated receptors and inhibitory receptors on target cells. They also play a role in immune surveillance. Mesenchymal stem cells can inhibit the proliferation and function of NK cells. NK cells are stimulated by activated cytokines, resulting in high expression of NK cell surface activated receptors NKp30, NKG2D, NKp44, CD69. The activated receptors on the surface of these cells are closely related to the function of NK cells. When NK cells and mesenchymal stem cells are co-cultured, the expressions of NK cell activation receptors NKp30 and NKG2D will be reduced, and NKp44 will not be expressed. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the cytotoxicity of NK cells by inhibiting the expression of NK cell activation receptors. FN-γ plays a key role in the inhibition of mesenchymal stem cells on NK cells. The sensitivity of mesenchymal stem cells to NK cytotoxicity can be reduced by the presence of IFN-γ. The role of IFN-γ may be to induce mesenchymal stem cells to overexpress HLA molecules and interact with the inhibitory receptors of NK cells, thereby inhibiting the cytotoxicity of NK cells. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, HLA-G play a major role in the inhibition of mesenchymal stem cells on NK cells. The HLA-G receptor is expressed on the surface of a leukocyte called LILRB, and can be expressed on the surface of T, B, and NK cells. The interaction of HLA-G / LILRB2 blocks the MEK / ERK signaling pathway and inhibits the cytotoxicity of NK cells. Adding indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase or prostaglandin E2 to the mixed culture of mesenchymal stem cells and NK cells can restore the proliferation of NK cells to a certain extent. In the presence of IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor alpha, mesenchymal stem cells interact with NK cells, mesenchymal stem cells secrete prostaglandin E2, and subsequently prostaglandin E2 can promote indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase synthesis. In addition, the inhibitory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on NK cells is concentration-dependent. As the ratio of NK / mesenchymal stem cells increases, the inhibitory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on NK cells weakens. 3.4 The immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dendritic cells Dendritic cells are important antigen-presenting cells, derived from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. Immature dendritic cells have extremely strong antigen uptake, processing and processing capabilities. After ingesting the antigen or being stimulated, immature dendritic cells (CD14-, CD1a +) can differentiate into mature dendritic cells (CD80 +, CD83 +, CD86 +), and during this process, their antigen uptake and processing capacity will be significantly reduced, and their ability to present antigens and stimulate immune responses will be enhanced. Dendritic cells are presented to the corresponding CD8 + T cells and CD4 + T cells through the abundant antigen peptide-MHC class Ⅰ molecular complex and antigen peptide-MHC class Ⅱ molecular complex on their membrane surface, thereby activating T cell response and allowing T cells provide costimulatory molecules to fully activate T cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can inhibit the differentiation of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells into dendritic cells and the maturation of dendritic cells. Under the stimulation of granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor / interleukin 4, the co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells and monocytes reduced the expression of CD1a and the high expression of CD14, indicating that the differentiation of dendritic cells was inhibited. In addition, under the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide, mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with dendritic cells, the expression of maturation marker CD83 of dendritic cells was decreased, the expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 on the surface of dendritic cells was decreased, and the expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 on the surface of DR was decreased, the expression of antigen presentation molecule HLA-DR was decreased, and the secretion of interleukin 2 was decreased, indicating that mesenchymal stem cells inhibited the maturation of dendritic cell. When the ratio of mesenchymal stem cells / monocytes is high (1:10), the inhibitory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells can be completely achieved by soluble factors. When the ratio of mesenchymal stem cells / monocytes is low (1:20 or 1:40), mesenchymal stem cells exert their inhibitory effect mainly through cell contact. Mesenchymal stem cells can inhibit the differentiation of CD34 + -derived CD14 + precursor cells and monocytes into CD1a + dendritic cells, and inhibit the maturation and function of dendritic cells. The addition of macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin 6 antibody can reduce the expression of CD14, but cannot restore the expression of CD1a, suggesting that macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin 6 are involved in the suppression of mesenchymal stem cells. The inhibitory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells indirectly leads to the inhibition of T cell activation, thereby suppressing the adaptive immune response. Mesenchymal stem cells have an inhibitory effect on dendritic cells through cell contact and soluble factors. This inhibitory effect may also involve macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin 6 and prostaglandin E2, and its specific mechanism needs further study. At present, there are many clinical trials on the immune regulation of mesenchymal stem cells, and different mesenchymal stem cell isolation methods and different mesenchymal stem cell sources have different effects on the immune regulation of mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells play an immunoregulatory role in the microenvironment, and different microenvironments also have different effects on their immune regulation. References [1] Che N, Li X, Zhang L, et al. Impaired B cell inhibition by lupus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is caused by reduced CCL2 expression. J Immunol.2014;193(10):5306-5314. [2] Ribeiro A, Laranjeira P, Mendes S, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord matrix, adipose tissue and bone marrow exhibit different capability to suppress peripheral blood B, natural killer and T cells. Stem Cell Res Ther.2013;4(5):125. [3] Nekanti U, Dastidar S, Venugopal P, et al. Increased proliferation and analysis of differential gene expression in human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells under hypoxia[J]. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 2010, 6 (5) :499-512. [4] Boxall SA, Jones E. Markers for characterization of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells[J]. Stem Cells International, 2012, 2012, 975871.
  20. Potential therapies for SARS-CoV-2 can be divided into two categories: one directly targets the novel coronavirus, and the other is human-oriented. Viruses must enter the host cell to replicate in order to function. Therefore, antiviral drugs can be designed for a series of targets in the process of virus interaction with cell receptors, gene replication, transcription and translation when the virus invades host cells and completes its life cycle. In addition to the above drug research and development against the virus, we can also take the human body as a guide to find therapeutic drugs for the immune response caused by the virus. In the early stage of viral infection, the human body's own immunity can be appropriately improved/activated by the activation of interferon or innate immune receptors to fight the virus. For severely advanced/immune hyperactive patients, since patients are attacked by their own immune system, they can consider using immunosuppressive drugs or mechanisms to adjust. In addition, it can also be treated against the mechanism/target where the host and the pathogen interact with each other. Currently, the main treatment methods for the disease include small molecule drugs, biomacromolecule drugs, gene therapy, cell therapy, traditional Chinese medicine therapy, and medical devices. The potential applications of them in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 are as follows. Chemical small-molecule drugs: Small-molecule drugs are currently one of the types of drugs that are expected to be used for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. There are now multiple small-molecule drugs in clinical trials, and their effectiveness and safety against the coronavirus needs to be further verified. Biomacromolecule drugs: These drugs have high specificity and strong continuity and compliance in the body, but their production cost is high, and because they only act on the cell membrane and outside the membrane and cannot enter the cell, so the target is limited. At present, no specific antibodies have been found to conduct clinical trials in the research of the coronavirus. At the same time, by extracting neutralizing antibodies from the plasma of some recovered covid-19 patients with sufficient concentration of effective antibodies, the potentially harmful components can be removed to treat critically ill patients, but it is unlikely to be promoted on a large scale. Gene therapy: A disease treatment method developed in recent years. It usually uses transgenic methods to make up for missing functional genes or strengthen gene functions. A variety of methods have been developed, such as precise gene editing. However, there is no gene therapy for the coronavirus. This method is generally for chronic, long-term viral infections, such as gene editing of human cells, so that the pathogens lose the ability to infect the cells, or suppress the virus gene expression through RNA interference. Cell therapy: Also a disease treatment method developed in recent years. One of the cell treatment methods is to supplement and replace the missing cells, such as the use of stem cells; one is to regulate the body's immunity by cytokines secreted by the transplanted cells, and this way is not to supplement or replace the cells, and then the transplanted cells will disappear; the other is that the transplanted cells can target and attack specific harmful cells, such as the specific recognition and removal of cancer cells by CAR-T cells. Cell therapy has been studied in the treatment of the SARS-CoV-2, such as the use of mesenchymal stem cells for immune regulation. In the future, we can also consider using specific stem cells for tissue repair and regeneration; organoids derived from stem cells can be used for disease modeling and drug screening. Medical device treatment: In addition to drug treatment, respiratory support treatments that rely on medical devices, such as oxygen therapy, invasive mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and circulation support, also played an important role in the treatment of severe and critically ill patients with COVID-19. Traditional Chinese medicine treatment: SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the category of "epidemic" diseases of traditional Chinese medicine. Its research idea is different from Western medicine. It does not aim at a specific target but cures the disease in a systematic way. Through in-depth observation and treatment of patients, on the basis of summarizing and analyzing the diagnosis and treatment schemes of traditional Chinese medicine across the country, combing and screening the treatment experience and effective prescriptions in various regions, it is necessary to judge its effectiveness and safety through rigorous clinical trials.
  21. RNA interference (RNAi) is a revolutionary discovery in genetic research. RNAi can specifically silence endogenous or exogenous target genes, which is a rapidly developing gene control technology with broad application prospects. Since Tuchl et al. found in 2001 that artificially synthesized double-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) can efficiently silence the expression of target genes in mammalian cells, the life science field has set off a wave of basic and applied research on siRNA. With the gene silencing mechanism, significant progress has been made in the development of siRNA drugs to treat diseases. In August 2018, the world’s first siRNA drug, Onpattro (Patisiran) was approved by the FDA for the treatment of patients with polyneuropathy caused by hATTR. Onpattro is the world's first drug developed based on the Nobel Prize achievement RNA interference technology. In 1998, Andrew Fire and Craig Mello revealed the RNAi phenomenon for the first time in C. elegans, and won the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 2006 for this discovery. The approval of the first siRNA drug in 2018 takes 20 years. Onpattro's approval marks a major breakthrough in the field of RNAi medicines, and small nucleic acid medicines are finally dawning. According to statistics, among disease-related proteins in the human body, more than 80% of the proteins cannot be targeted by current conventional small molecule drugs and biological macromolecular preparations, and are non-drugable proteins. Gene therapy aimed at treating diseases through gene expression, silencing and other functions is considered by the industry as the third generation of therapeutic drugs after chemical small molecule drugs and biological macromolecular drugs. This kind of therapy achieves the treatment of diseases at the genetic level, not restricted by non-drugable protein. As the most mainstream type of RNA drugs in gene therapy, siRNA drugs are used to treat diseases from the level of mRNA. Compared with chemical small molecular drugs and biological macromolecular drugs, they have a higher efficiency at the protein level. In 2004, Bevasiranib, an siRNA drug developed by Opko in the United States, launched a clinical trial for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration. This is the first clinical trial related to siRNA in the world. Subsequently, many global pharmaceutical giants, including Pfizer, Sanofi, Roche, and Merck, joined the development queue of siRNA drugs. Unfortunately, the development of the Bevasiranib project has failed in phase III due to poor clinical results, and other latecomers have not been spared. The reason is that the poor targeting, off-target effects and stability of RNAi drugs are the most important constraints that affect their efficacy. Many factors have led to the efficacy of these drugs being far less than expected, but also accompanied by serious insurmountable medication side effect. From the perspective of technical requirements, siRNA after intravenous injection is easily degraded by nucleases, has high renal clearance, poor cell uptake efficiency, and clinical application is limited. The success of siRNA drugs depends on the development of drug delivery system technology, especially the ability to delivery carrier technology that transports RNAi safely and efficiently to specific therapeutic targets in the body. As the world's first approved siRNA drug, Patisiran adopts the LNP drug delivery system to encapsulate RNAi drugs in liposomes, which can be administered by intravenous injection. The liposome coating greatly improves the stability of the drug and the targeting of liver tissue can ensure that the siRNA will not be filtered by the kidney and will be gradually taken up by the target cells of the liver tissue during the blood circulation. This is the key to Patissiran to overcome the above major constraints and get approved for marketing.
  22. Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTAC) Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTAC) is currently a very hot drug development technology and is considered by the industry as a star of small molecule drug development. One end of this type of bifunctional small molecule is a ligand that targets the target protein, and the other end is a ligand that binds to E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is then connected by a linker of a certain length. In this way, the target protein and E3 ubiquitin ligase can be brought closer together, so that the target protein is labeled with ubiquitin, and then degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The main advantages are as follows: Targeted degradation "non-drugable targets", such as KRAS, STAT3, etc.; Overcome tumor drug resistance; Extend the action time; PROTACcan affect protein enzyme function and regulation Non-enzymatic function. The development history of PROTAC The technology has been developing for 20 years. Proteinix researchers submitted a patent application for the degradation of specific proteins using small molecule compounds based on the ubiquitin mechanism in 1999. Two years later, Dr. CraigCrews and Dr. Raymond Deshaies designed a series of bifunctional small molecules based on peptide compounds to induce the degradation of methionine peptidase 2 (MetAP-2), and formally proposed the concept of PROTAC. However, because these compounds, which are based on large and bulky peptides, are difficult to connect to cells, the first generation of PROTACs failed. Until 2008, the Crews team designed the second-generation PROTACs that can be used to degrade the androgen receptor (AR) based on E3's ubiquitin protein ligase MDM2. In 2015, the Crews team designed a new generation of PROTACs based on the new E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL and CRBN ligands to reduce the level of multiple proteins by more than 90%. It was also this year that James Bradner, head of research and development at Novartis, published a new generation of PROTAC molecules based on thalidomide analogues in Science, thus detonating the entire field. In 2013, Crews established Arvinas, the world's first company to develop drugs using PROTAC technology. What is optimistic about this technology is that the world's first PROTAC drug ARV-110 developed by the company is intended to be used for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. It has entered the stage of clinical phase I research. The initial data of clinical phase I indicate that ARV -110 has good oral availability and good safety and tolerability. About ARV-110 ARV-110 is the world's first oral bioavailable PRAOTC small molecule drug, which selectively targets the degradation of androgen receptor (AR). In May 2019, ARV-110 received FDA fast-track approval, mainly for the treatment of metastatic trend-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In developed Europe and the United States, mCRPC is the second most frequent malignant tumor among men, and it has also been a difficult treatment and a hot spot in clinical research in the field of prostate cancer. At present, the first-line treatment drugs mainly targeting the androgen receptor target (AR) include abiraterone and enzalutamide. In addition, in March 2020, the American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary System Cancer Symposium (ASCO-GU2020) discussed that for patients with mCRPC carrying DNA damage repair mutations (DDM), Abiraterone is more effective than Zalu for first-line treatment. Amine has a tendency to have better therapeutic effects. The use of androgen receptor targeting (ARAT) drugs (Abiraterone or Enzalutamide) for first-line treatment of mCRPC patients will result in more survival benefits for patients, especially for intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P). However, for patients with AR gene or gene enhancer amplification or AR point mutations, the current first-line treatment drugs are less effective, and 15-25% of patients do not respond to second-generation hormone therapy such as abiraterone and enzalutamide. Most patients with responsiveness will eventually develop severe drug resistance, leading to a poor prognosis. The PRAOTC molecule ARV-110 targeting androgen receptor degradation currently shows excellent activity in clinical models of AR mutation and overexpression. The mechanism of ARV-110 To overcome these challenges and improve current treatment options, ARV-110 uses the ubiquitin-protease system to degrade the AR protein that plays a key role in the development of prostate cancer. It is different from traditional inhibitors and does not need to be inhibited by "occupying" receptors. In addition, the PROTAC drug can also work repeatedly to degrade the newly transcribed target protein, so it can overcome the increase in target protein expression and mutations in the target protein. The specific molecular structure has not yet been announced. Related preclinical studies In preclinical studies, ARV-110 has shown promising activity as a targeted degradation agent for AR. In a model sensitive to enzalutamide, ARV-110 showed a reduction in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) similar to enzalutamide, and the dose was lower. In the model of enzalutamide resistance, ARV-110 can significantly inhibit tumor growth. Clinical trials On May 29, 2019, the FDA approved a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation clinical phase I trial to evaluate ARV in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had previously received at least two systemic therapies -110 safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The trial is expected to enroll 36 patients, 18 years of age or older and have received at least two approved CRPC systemic therapies (at least one must be abiraterone or enzalutamide). Patients with progressive mCRPC must undergo ADT (prostate cancer androgen deprivation therapy) or orchiectomy. The latest clinical data On May 13, 2020, the latest safety-related data and early efficacy data of the Phase I clinical trial (NCT03888612) were published in the abstract of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of ARV-110, mCRPC patients who have previously received at least 2 treatment regimens (including enzalutamide and/or abiraterone) are taken orally once daily ARV-110. Endpoints include dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), adverse events (AEs), pharmacokinetics (PK), biomarkers (eg AR mutation analysis), RECIST (evaluation criteria for the efficacy of solid tumors) and PSA (prostate specific antigen) responses. As of January 2020, there were 18 patients participating in the trial. The doses were divided into 4 groups, namely 35 mg (3 cases), 70 mg (4 cases), 140 mg (8 cases), and 280 mg (3 cases). Among them, 12 patients were previously treated with enzalutamide and abiraterone; 14 patients had received chemotherapy. One of the 18 patients had grade 4 (Gr) dose-limiting toxicity (DLT, 280 mg) while taking the cholesterol drug Rosuvastatin (DLT, 280 mg) and hepatic transaminase AST/ALT increased, followed by acute renal failure. The second patient had grade 3 (Gr) dose-limiting toxicity when taking the cholesterol drug rosuvastatin and hepatic transaminase AST/ALT also increased. After stopping rosuvastatin, ARV-110 treatment can be continued. In these two patients, in view of the significant increase in rosuvastatin plasma concentration at the same time as AST/ALT, the use of rosuvastatin and ARV-110 should be banned at the same time. In addition, there are no other relevant grade 3/4 adverse events (AE) reported. 15 patients underwent PSA response assessment (not including 1 patient who stopped treatment due to disease progression and 2 patients who had just started treatment). Eight of these patients had an initial dose of 140 mg. Two patients in the 140 mg dose group had a PSA reduction of greater than 50%. The two groups had previously received enzalutamide and abiraterone, chemotherapy, bicalutamide and radium 223, and other treatment options. One patient had 2 AR mutations known to cause enzalutamide resistance. Another patient also received an unconfirmed partial RECIST response (confirmation test to be determined). At the time of data cut-off, patients undergoing longer cycles (8 weeks and more than 21 weeks) of treatment trials are still ongoing. The latest clinical trial data shows that ARV-110 has acceptable safety. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been established and the phase 2 recommended dose (RP2D) is still being tested. In addition, for patients receiving enzalutamide/abiraterone treatment, ARV-110 has shown anti-tumor activity, of which 2 patients have been confirmed by PSA response, and 1 of them is related to tumor reduction.
  23. Something not many people probably have a great fondness for are landfills. However, landfills are actually an important component of human civilization. They give mankind a place to dispose of trash where it will do least harm to the environment, wildlife and people. Certain facts regarding the benefits of landfills may surprise you. Landfills Are a Safer Option In regards to the many different waste management systems that have been implemented by people over the course of human history, the use of landfills is one of the safest in regards to its impact on people and the environment. It is, for one, much safer than incinerating or burning trash. Doing so can release harmful toxins and pollution into the atmosphere. The risks of landfills are comparatively much smaller in magnitude. Landfills Protect People Landfills allow trash to be collected and buried away from places where people live. They help to make communities cleaner and healthier in general. Many of the items found buried in landfills would be harmful if improperly disposed near residential communities. This is especially the case for landfills that have been designated as a superfund site that store harmful industrial waste. If disposed of closer to people instead of in the landfill, these materials would certainly lead to death and disease. Landfills Can Produce Renewable Gas Energy One benefit of landfills you may not be aware of is the fact they can be used to produce gas energy. This is one strategy for transforming trash into something useful. It’s a form of recycling in a way. The kind of gas produced by landfills is primarily composed of methane. This gas can then be burned to produce electricity and power nearby communities. It can also be collected and sold as fuel offsite or even transported by pipe to other areas. This approach is particularly beneficial since methane can become a harmful greenhouse gas if released into the atmosphere. The use of it as a fuel source is an eco-friendly solution. Landfills Don’t Waste Energy Certain methods of disposing of waste require expending a lot of energy. Landfills typically do not. They are located close enough to the communities they service that they do not require a lot of gas to be used to ship the trash there. This is not the case for trash that may need to be transported to far off locations. Even recycling requires a good amount of energy to perform. Overall, landfills perform a very important service for endless communities. They allow trash to be disposed of in a way that greatly lessens its negative impact on people and the environment. In certain cases, landfills can even be used to create renewable energy. They play an important role in modern society.
  24. Residential solar panels are more popular than ever, and that type of energy source could save you quite a bit of money in the coming years. If you are still on the fence about having solar panels installed, then you might want to take a look at these four unique things that your new panels will be able to power. A Residential Well Those who truly want to live off the grid will need to consider drilling their own residential well. That type of resource might be able to provide your family with fresh water for decades, but you will need to figure out how you are going to power the pump. Attaching the pump and filter to your solar roof is going to save you money and ensure that you have a constant supply of fresh water even during rolling blackouts. Your Electric Car There are now millions of electric cars out on the road, and practically every auto manufacturer has released one fully electric vehicle. While charging stations are being built throughout the world at a very fast pace, many people want to be able to charge their vehicles at home. With a solar roof and home charging station, you could essentially drive your electric vehicle for free, and that will result in huge savings. Water Features One of the reasons why many people never even consider installing pools, spas, and other water features is because they don’t want a huge increase in their energy bills. Modern water pools and spas tend to have relatively efficient pumps and filtration systems, but they could still increase your energy bills by a significant amount. Your solar roof will be able to offset that new expense so that you can fully enjoy your new water feature. Sump Pumps Sump pumps are extremely important safety features, and those devices can greatly reduce your risk of serious water damage. Unfortunately, your sump pumps could turn off entirely if a storm or flood knocks the power out. With a residential solar roof, you can rest assured that your sump pumps will continue to work even if the energy grid goes down. While solar panels can be added to a building at any time, those who are building a home from the ground up should consider including panels in their initial build. Incorporating solar into your home loan will make this type of upgrade very affordable, and you should be able to enjoy the benefits of your new green energy system for many years to come.
  25. C5 is the first complement molecule that forms the membrane attack complex (MAC). C5 is composed of ax and β chains connected by disulfide bonds. alpha chain is 115 KDa and the β chain is 75 KDa. There is no intra-chain thioester bond molecular weight of 190 KDa. The 74-75 arginine-leucine bond near the N-terminus is where C5 convertase acts. Under the action of C5 convertase, a small fragment C5a with a molecular weight of 11 KDa was cleaved into the liquid phase. C5a is the most potent mediator of complement lysis fragments with allergic toxins." Current studies indicate that high concentrations of C5a may reduce tumors by increasing Gr4 CD11b bone marrow cells in peripheral blood. Surface CD4, CD8T cells promote the formation of tumor blood vessels and inhibit apoptosis to promote tumor growth. Low concentrations of C5a can inhibit tumor growth by stimulating immune cells and blocking the cell cycle, or low concentrations of C5a can stimulate M1 phagocytes and NK cells to tumor. On the surface, both M1 phagocytes and NK cells have a certain anti-tumor effect and thus exhibit an indirect anti-tumor effect. Therefore, the tumor-related value of C5a has a certain concentration dependence. The concentration of C5a on the tumor surface may be the key to inhibition or promotion its performance. In addition, it has also been reported that the C5a receptor expressed on the surface of the tumor can significantly enhance the tumor's invasiveness, and the cytokines stimulated by C5a such as hepatocyte growth factor can also enhance the tumor's invasiveness. At present, the research on the relationship between C5 and parenchymal organ fibrosis has been widely carried out. Boor et al.6 found that the mechanism of C5 involvement in parenchymal organ fibrosis may be related to the C5a receptor expressed on the cell surface, C5a stimulation-related cytokines and changes in parenchyma. Organ hemodynamics is related, on the other hand, there are studies that C5a has a biological relationship with liver regeneration. The three sites included in this study are all SNPs that are currently confirmed to be functional in the C5 gene. The rs17611 allele A was mostly severe cirrhosis patients and the rs2300929 allele C was mild cirrhosis patients. The C5 gene polymorphism has a clear relationship with the cirrhosis process. In another aspect, studies have indicated that the C5 serum concentration of carriers of rs17611 allele A and rs2300929 allele T is significantly higher than that of non-carriers. There is no relationship between C5 activity and C5 gene polymorphism, which suggests that there may be other factors affecting C5 activity. The gene polymorphism at rs25681 has also been shown to be associated with susceptibility to periodontitis. As in previous studies, this study also verified that there was a linkage disequilibrium among the three sites included, so that haplotype analysis was performed to obtain more genetic specificity than unit site analysis. The results of this study show that the risk of HCC is significantly increased in those who carry the rs17611 allele G, rs25681 allele C and rs2300929 allele C, and the haplotype rs17611G-rs25681C-s2300929C can increase the risk of HCC. However, study showed that the C5 serum concentrations of carriers of rs17611 allele G and rs2300929 allele C were significantly lower than those of non-carriers, and low concentrations of C5a showed a certain anti-tumor growth effect, which is obvious different from this study. Different clinical phenotypes due to different diseases in different populations have been confirmed in a number of clinical genetic studies. In addition, Halangk et al. did not find C5 gene polymorphism and the degree of cirrhosis is related. This also shows that genetic polymorphism and clinical phenotype are not the same-there are many influencing factors in the corresponding relationship. How the C5 gene polymorphism affects its serum concentration is still unclear, and the tumor-related role of C5a is still unknown. Since the liver is the main place for complement synthesis (80% to 90% of the complement components in plasma are synthesized in hepatocytes), hepatic stellate cells, Kupffer cells, and hepatic sinusoidal epithelial cells all express C5a receptors. These objective conditions clarify the role of the complement system in liver diseases, this study is the first to propose a correlation between C5 gene polymorphism and HCC susceptibility. In the future, screening and follow-up can be carried out in high-risk populations under the premise of improving the correlation between C5 gene polymorphism and C5 serum concentration and the pathogenesis of C5a serum concentration and HCC, to accurately assess the risk of HCC in individuals, so as to reach the early stage of preventing HCC. Early detection and early treatment in the prevention and treatment of malignant tumors can significantly improve the patient's prognosis and quality of life. With the extensive use of genome-wide scanning technology, linkage analysis, family analysis and SNP as the third-generation genetic markers, we can gradually achieve early screening of malignant tumors or other diseases to obtain better clinical results. At present, C5a receptor blockers have been confirmed in experiments that can significantly slow down the progress of liver cirrhosis and reduce the content of collagen in liver cells. In addition, C5a-containing tumor vaccines can be used to inhibit tumor growth. Therefore, based on individualized early treatment considerations, if the C5 gene polymorphisms shown in the results of this study can be used as one of the basis, it may be more helpful for the development of related biological agents. The development of interrupted HCC helps to strengthen the prevention and treatment of HCC, further reduce the incidence of high-risk patients, reduce the mortality of HCC patients, and improve the prognosis of patients.
  26. Did you know that the amount of waste generated from construction and demolition is more than double that of household garbage collection? However, you can significantly reduce your next project's carbon footprint by using recyclable materials. Many eco-friendly materials also offer other advantages like exceptional strength and durability. If you're planning to build or remodel, consider these four recyclable materials that can make both your home and the environment stronger. Bamboo Flooring You're probably already familiar with bamboo in things like cooking utensils and bath accessories, but did you know that it's also great for hardwood floors? Bamboo flooring is durable, easy to clean and maintain and can be refinished when it gets worn or damaged. Bamboo is also a highly sustainable crop, and bamboo floor tiles can be recycled into composite bamboo, which is often used for high-traffic areas and outdoor applications like decking. Cork Flooring If bamboo flooring doesn't strike your fancy, how about cork? Soft and comfortable to walk on, cork is an excellent choice for bedrooms and playrooms. Cork is allergy-friendly and easy to clean, which makes it a great alternative to carpet. Plus, it's one of the most eco-friendly flooring materials on the market because it's not only recyclable but also biodegradable and made from renewable resources. Metal Roofing Because of their high value, metals are among the most commonly recycled materials in use today. If you're looking for an eco-friendly roofing option, look no further than metal. A metal roof is easily recyclable, energy efficient and exceptionally durable with a lifespan of up to 70 years. Whether you're building a new home or just remodeling, consider calling your local metal roof installers for a roof that's approved by Mother Nature. Glass Tiles Used in a wide variety of consumer products, glass is another material that's commonly recycled. Despite its fragile reputation, glass can be strong and durable in many applications, including floor and wall tiles. Choosing glass tile for your kitchen backsplash or walk-in shower is a great way to lower your home's carbon footprint and raise its aesthetic appeal. Glass tile is also highly customizable because it can be easily cut into different shapes and sizes. Remember, using recyclable materials is only half the picture when planning an eco-friendly construction project. It's also important to seek out recycled and reclaimed materials whenever possible, and don't forget to choose a waste management company that recycles leftover waste and debris instead of dumping it in a landfill.
  27. Maintaining a large garden is a great way to supply yourself with fresh vegetables and spend plenty of time outdoors. The one problem is that large gardens can get out of control easily if not tended properly. It might take extra effort, or even specialized outside help, but you can make your large garden as beautiful as you dreamed. Here are five ways to make keeping your garden under control simple. Mulch All Unoccupied Spaces Weeding is the single most labor-intensive aspect of garden maintenance. Using grass clippings, wood chips or another mulch medium in all the areas around your plants will help to keep weeds down and save you time pulling them by hand. As mulch breaks down, it will also add valuable nutrients back into your soil. This can give your garden a reset, to let you set a regular, manageable schedule for weeding. Install an Irrigation System If you have a large enough garden, installing an irrigation system can be worthwhile. Irrigation systems allow you to automate your watering schedule, rather than having to manually water your crops. Keep in mind that this is only a good solution if you’re growing in more or less fixed bed spaces. If you primarily grow vegetables, or want a more controlled garden space, this can be a good idea. Use Tight Spacings It’s a common myth that spacing plants farther apart results in higher yields. The reality, though, is that putting your plants closer together can raise your yields and help your crops block out weeds. While you still want to keep enough space to allow for good growth, planting closer together can make your garden much easier to manage. The proper distance will vary from plant to plant, so please look up an individual planting guide for each addition to your garden. Prune to Avoid Disease If you’re growing tomatoes or other plants that are prone to fungal infections, strategically pruning the lower limbs to allow for air flow is usually a good idea. Good pruning can also promote fruit production and keep your plants from putting all of their energy into leaves and stalks. Set a regular schedule for pruning. That way you can keep a close eye on what’s developing in your garden. Harvest on a Schedule Like watering and weeding, harvesting your vegetables can be labor-intensive in a large garden, even if it is fun. A good way to manage your harvests is to pick on a regular schedule. If you have a pepper patch, for instance, you might decide to harvest your fresh peppers on a particular day each week. This will keep you from trying to harvest from all of your patches each day, which can turn into quite a chore. By sticking to these five basic principles, you can easily manage even a fairly large home garden. Garden management is all about simplifying the tasks that have to be done to keep your garden healthy. Done properly, good garden maintenance will allow you to have a productive garden without devoting hours of work to it each week.
  28. A group of proteins that make up connective tissues and interstitial cells of animals are mainly collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. Tissues and organs are formed by cell adhesion and connection of these three components. They not only have the functions of maintaining cell morphology, mechanical support and weight bearing, but also play a role in defense, protection, nutrition and repair. The initial process is to synthesize on the cytoplasmic ribosomes, and then enter the endoplasmic reticulum through the signal peptide sorting pathway to continue to synthesize, and some continue to synthesize in the cytoplasm. Generally, secreted proteins must go through the ER pathway through the Golgi It is secreted by the body, and the structural protein itself has a retention signal that will not be secreted and reaches the point of action through the intracellular transport pathway. British scientists wrote in the latest issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that they have discovered the origin of the protein structure responsible for the metabolism of Earth's life. These simple molecules provide power for the early life of the Earth and can serve as chemical signals for Teams such as NASA use it to find life on other planets. According to a report from the Physicists' Organization Network on the 16th, in the latest research, scientists at Rutgers University's "Evolution of Nanomachines in Geosphere and Microbial Ancestors" (ENIGMA) team traced the enzyme (protein) The evolutionary process found 3.5 to 2.5 billion years ago, the earliest two metabolic proteins in the evolution of life. The ENIGMA project aims to reveal the role of the simplest proteins that catalyze the earliest stages of life. In the latest study, the ENIGMA team studied two protein "folds": a ferredoxin fold that binds to iron-sulfur compounds, and a "Rossman" fold that binds to nucleotides (a component of DNA and RNA). They believe that these two folds are likely to be the earliest structures of early metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence that the two folds may have a common ancestor. If true, this ancestor may be the first metabolic enzyme in life on Earth. Researchers explain that proteins are amino acid chains, and the 3D path of amino acid chains in space is called folding. Ferredoxins are metals found in modern proteins that allow electrons to shuttle around cells to promote metabolism. Electrons flow through solids, liquids, and gases and power living systems. Other planetary systems must also have the same electricity in order for life to thrive. ENIGMA principal researcher Paul G. Folkovsky said: "We believe that life is made up of very small parts, which then make cells and eventually produce complex organisms like humans. Now we have found It is these building blocks that ultimately lead to the evolution of cells, animals and plants. " Research collaborator Vicas Nanda, a professor of biochemistry and molecular biology, said: "We know very little about how life originated on Earth, and the latest research allows us to understand and discover the earliest metabolic proteins. " It is reported that researchers will conduct tests in the laboratory to better understand the origin of life on Earth, and hope to observe how the life of other planets originated accordingly. Many proteins are important substances that make up the structure of cells and organisms, and are called structural proteins. For example, the components of feathers, muscles, hair, spider silk, etc. are mainly structural proteins.
  1. Load more activity