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  2. This article is intended to provide several analysis methods of a few important substances that they are well known. The first is bile acids analysis. Bile acid is an important component of bile and plays an important role in fat metabolism. Bile acid mainly exists in the intestinal and liver circulation system and acts as a protective role during recycling. Only a small amount of the bile acid enters the peripheral circulation. Bile acid analysis is of great importance to the research and development of clinical chemistry and bile acid drugs. As early as the ancient Chinese " Shennong's Herbal Classic " recorded the efficacy of carp gall. In addition, many important prescriptions, such as Bezoar powder and liushen pill, contain animal bile acids. Studies on bile acids in western countries began in the early 19th century, and quantitative studies began in the 1970s. The second is Catecholamines acids also known as pyrocatechol. Catecholamine is a neurotransmitter including catechins and amines. Catechins and amines are bound by an enzymatic process of l-tyrosine with sympathetic nerve, adrenal medulla and chromaffin cells. In general, catecholamine refers to norepinephrine (NA), adrenaline (Adr) and dopamine (DA). All three catecholamines are converted from tyrosine as precursors. As a neurotransmitter and hormone, catecholamine is closely related to people's health and disease. It is not only directly involved in behavioral activities or the regulation of neural functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and sleep, but also associated with some functional diseases such as schizophrenia and depression. Catecholamines Analysis began in the 1940s.With the deepening of the research on catecholamine, the analytical methods have been developing and improving all the time. At present, the research methods of molecular electrochemistry have become the leading one The third one is eicosanoids. Eicosanoids is a kind of bioactive unsaturated fatty acids, it is an important inflammatory factor, widely exists in body fluids and tissues, regulating many physiological and pathological processes. There are many kinds of eicosanoids in vivo, the content is low, and there are a lot of isomers. Therefore, the separation and analysis of eicosanoids in vivo are facing great challenges. As for eicosanoids analysis, Although there have been a lot of research on analytical methods, but still many problems waiting to solve. Neither extraction method has formed a standard extraction scheme for different biological samples. Therefore, the establishment of standardized extraction methods for different biological samples will greatly facilitate the eicosanoids analysis. The most powerful tool for analysis is the combination of chromatography-mass spectrometry. The characteristics of high sensitivity, high selectivity, high flux and high speed provide a good technical platform for the establishment of fast analytical methods. With the continuous development of various technologies, analytical methods will be continuously optimized and play a greater role in the research of biomarkers discovery, pathological mechanism and drug action mechanism. The last one is vitamins. There are two parts of vitamins analysis: water soluble vitamins analysis and fat soluble vitamins analysis. Vitamin is one of the important elements of human growth and development. At present, many foods are added with water-soluble vitamins, but there is a serious question whether they meet the requirements. Therefore, the development of research on it has certainly guiding significance for people's scientific intake and scientific control of the additive amount in food. Fat soluble vitamins are insoluble in water but soluble in fats and some organic solvents, including vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K. Fat soluble vitamins can be stored in large amounts in the body, mainly in the liver, so excessive intake will cause poisoning. Fat-soluble vitamins are becoming increasingly popular in clinical field. Thus, it is necessary to give reasonable attention to the analysis of the content and function of fat-soluble vitamins so that ensure the safety of use, maintain physical health.
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  4. Fibroblast growth factor (FGFs) is a polypeptide composed of about 150-200 amino acids and exists in two closely related forms, namely, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF). Its receptor (FGFR) belongs to the receptor protein tyrosine kinase, currently known FGFR mainly includes four types, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Clinically, FGFR overexpression and activation in tumor tissues are found to be associated with the occurrence of a variety of cancers, which can promote tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Therefore, FGFR is widely considered as an important drug target for anti-tumor, which has attracted extensive attention from pharmaceutical scientists in various countries. In vitro experiments, both types of FGF stimulated the DNA synthesis of osteoblast-like cells isolated from rat cranial cap. Meanwhile, bFGF stimulated the colony formation of differentiated chondrocytes in AGAR, playing a role in mitogen and morphology. AFGF can be formed by macrophages, cartilage and chondrocytes, which can stimulate the proliferation of immature chondrocytes and their progenitors. In vivo studies, FGF has been observed to promote the repair of articular cartilage. The expression of FGF was also found in the mouse fracture model by immunohistochemistry. In addition, fibroblast growth factor has the following main effects on the human body: 1. Effects on the skeletal system: It promotes the generation of a large number of osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclasts. To treat osteoporosis, femoral head necrosis, arthritis, rheumatism and diseases caused by calcium deficiency. 2. Effects on the digestive system: It can strengthen gastrointestinal function, promote the digestion of enzymes, increase appetite, treatment of chronic gastritis. 3. Effects on the blood system: It can strengthen the hematopoietic function of bone marrow, promote the generation of stem cells, and then generate a large number of red blood cells and white blood cells. Strengthening left ventricular thickness, enhancing myocardial elasticity, effectively treating heart disease. Effectively removing low density protein in the blood, preventing deposition in the blood vessel wall, and treating thrombosis. Here are some important FGFs members and their main functions below: 1. FGF2 Fibroblast growth factor 2(FGF2), also called the basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF), is widely involved in cell growth, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. The FGF2 gene is located at 4q26 of human chromosome, the length of which is 38kb, contains 3 exons and 2 introns. The active FGF2 can be combined with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) which has the nature of tyrosine kinase receptor (FGFR) through heparin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), activate PKC, Ras /Raf /MEK/ERK, P13K, JAK/STAT and other signaling pathways, and participate in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and malignant transformation. In the cardiovascular system, studies have shown that FGF2 is involved in cardiac hypertrophy caused by stress load and angiotensin. However, some studies also have shown that FGF2 can cause cell chromatin concentration, inhibit proliferation and cause cell apoptosis. Clearly, the cardiovascular role of FGF2 is not fully understood. 2. FGF18 FGF18 is a highly conserved protein composed of 207 amino acids, with 30% to 70% homology with other members of FGFs found. FGF18 exists in a variety of cell types, and its function is not limited to skeletal development, but can stimulate the proliferation of numerous mesenchymal cells, epithelial cells and tissues, including lung, kidney, heart, testis, spleen, skeletal muscle and brain. As a member of the growth factor family, FGF18 plays an important role in morphogenesis, tumor growth and other cellular and tissue development. Compared with other growth factors except wound surface repair, FGF18 has potential clinical value in the treatment of skeletal diseases such as chondrodysplasia, chondroplasia and bone repair, with a wider range of effects. The decreased expression of FGFR3 was also observed by studying the FGFR3 and STAT1 signaling pathways, suggesting that FGF18 may play a role independent of FGFR3. 3. FGF23 FGF23 is an endocrine protein synthesized by osteoblasts and osteoblasts. It has been confirmed that the main role of FGF23 is to regulate the level of blood phosphorus as a hormone, which plays an important role in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, parathyroid gland, as well as participates in the regulation of bone mineral metabolism. FGF23 is a protective factor for kidney, promoting urinary phosphorus excretion and maintaining stable blood phosphorus metabolism. In addition, FGF also has powerful functions and deep repair effect. The study of FGFs plays an immeasurable role in modern clinical medicine, surgery and cosmetic surgery.
  5. 1.Definition of vaccine adjuvant? What is a vaccine adjuvant? Before answering the question, let’s see what is an adjuvant. Adjuvant, also known as immunomodulator or immunepotentiator, originated from the Latin word "Adjuvare" and is meant to aid or enhance. An adjuvant is an additive of a vaccine. When it is mixed with an antigen and injected into the body, it can enhance the body's immune response to the antigen or change the type of immune response. It is a non-specific immunopotentiator and itself has no antigenicity. The ideal adjuvant not only enhances the immune response, but also provides the body with optimal protective immunity. 2.Application of vaccine adjuvant (1) Enhancing the immunogenicity, immune response rate and tolerance of purified or recombinant antigens; (2) Reducing the amount of antigen or the amount of inoculation required to achieve immunoprotection; (3) Improve the immune efficacy of vaccines in infants, the elderly or people with impaired immune systems; (4) As an antigen delivery system that takes up antigen through the mucosa, it can promote the absorption of the vaccine by the gastrointestinal mucosa. The concept of adjuvants is derived from ulcers formed at the site of inoculation and promotes the production of high levels of specific antibodies, even those produced by inoculation of unrelated substances can induce the production of highly specific antibodies; (5) Adjuvants can increase the infiltration of cells, prevent antigen degradation, transport antigens to specific antigen-presenting cells, enhance antigen presentation or induce cytokine release. 3.Classification of adjuvants At present, there is no uniform standard for the classification of adjuvants in the world. According to the chemical composition, it can be divided into aluminum salt adjuvant, protein adjuvant, nucleic acid adjuvant, lipid-containing adjuvant and mixed adjuvant. (1) Aluminum salt adjuvant Aluminum salt has been used clinically for more than 80 years and is the first classic adjuvant approved by the US FDA for human use. Many vaccine ingredients contain aluminum salts such as DTP vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae vaccine. Depending on the preparation process, vaccines with aluminum salts as adjuvants can be divided into two types: aluminum adsorption vaccines and aluminum precipitation vaccines. The aluminum adsorption vaccine is to add an antigen to an aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate solution; and the aluminum precipitation vaccine is to add an aluminum suspension to the antigen solution. Aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate is an aluminum adjuvant that is often used. The study found that aluminum adjuvant vaccine can reduce the amount of antigen used and enhance the strength and durability of the body's immune response. The mechanism of action of aluminum salts is still not clear. It is generally believed that the antigen-adsorbed aluminum salt particles form a gel state and are injected into animals to form an antigen reservoir. These insoluble particles can adsorb antigenic substances and increase the surface area of the antigen. In addition, the adjuvant can form a macrophage-rich granuloma at the injection site, delaying the absorption of the antigen, thereby prolonging the stimulation time of the antigen, and retaining the antigen for several days under normal conditions for a few weeks, and the antigen is taken at the injection site. Ability is enhanced. Studies have shown that aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant can also activate Th2 cells to secrete IL-4, induce the expression of CD83, CD86 and MHC-II molecules, and then produce a Th2 type humoral immune response. Aluminum salts have many advantages as vaccine adjuvants, but there are also deficiencies. Although it can effectively induce a humoral immune response, it does not act on cellular immunity and cannot induce a cellular immune response. (2) Protein adjuvant Most of protein adjuvants belong to small molecule polypeptides or glycoproteins. A class of biologically active substances synthesized and secreted by immune cells and certain non-immune cells, generally cytokines, play an important role in the differentiation of Th cells. It can also enhance the function of NK cells and T lymphocytes, and has a wide-ranging effect on the immune response of the body. The use of a protein adjuvant in combination with an antigen enhances the immunogenic efficacy of the vaccine, and it can also be assembled into a plasmid and mixed with the antigen for injection. IL-12 is produced by monocytes and B cells and has a variety of biological activities. It can significantly reduce the number of bacterial invasions and increase the expression levels of IgG2a and IgA in the mucosa and immune system. It is a cytokine with broad application prospects. Adjuvant. It induces a Th1-type immune response, and the treatment of tumors and AIDS is in clinical trials. (3) Nucleic acid adjuvant In the process of researching vaccines, some nucleic acid substances are also found to have the characteristics of adjuvants. The most representative one is CPG DNA, in which the unmethylated cytosine deoxynucleotides and guanine deoxynucleotides are Unit oligomers, agonists of TLR9, are currently a hot spot in adjuvant research. It plays an important role in enhancing specific immune responses, inducing non-specific immune responses in the body, and regulating the type of immune response. The characteristic sequence of CPG-ODN can activate a variety of immune effector cells, such as T cells, B cells and NK and other immunocompetent cells, so CPG-ODN is used in more experimental studies. Bacterial DNA is a source of CPG-ODN, and its role includes enhancing both humoral and cellular immunity. It is more likely to be used in tumors and infectious diseases. It has not been reported that CPG-ODN has serious side effects on humans, but it has been found in animal models that CPG-ODN can induce autoimmune diseases. (4) Lipid-containing adjuvant Lipid-containing adjuvants include lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and liposomes. LPS is a Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane lipopolysaccharide, and lipid A is the main component of adjuvant action in LPS. The researchers co-immunized mice with LPS as an adjuvant to pertussis vaccine. The results showed that LPS not only improved the immune efficiency of the vaccine, but also reduced the occurrence of type I hypersensitivity. Liposomes are similar to biofilms. Ultrafine spherical preparations, usually formed by bilayers of phospholipids and cholesterol coated with antigens, are capable of transporting antigens and as adjuvants for vaccines. Liposomal adjuvants are not toxic and can reduce the toxicity of the antigen and can degrade in the host itself. Studies have shown that liposome vaccine delivery can enhance the body's humoral and cellular immune responses, and the structure of the liposome facilitates the presentation of antigens to antigen-treated cells. Studies have also shown that liposomes combined with Freund's reagent or aluminum hydroxide have a multiplier effect. However, it also has shortcomings, such as poor stability, easy oxidation, and high production costs. Therefore, current research on the application of liposomes has been suspended for medical research. (5) Mixed adjuvant MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion which is a uniform droplet emulsion formed by mixing Tween 80, sorbitol trioleate and squalene under high pressure conditions. This mixed adjuvant can induce a local immune stimulating environment at the injection site, increase chemokines, cytokine levels, and accumulate MHC+ cells in the muscle. In addition, MF59 is also able to enhance the ability of dendritic cells to take up antigen. Because MF59 enhances the immunogenicity of influenza in people with low immunity, it was certified as an adjuvant to influenza vaccines in the 1990s. A large amount of data shows that MF59 is safer for influenza vaccines. (6) Aggregate structure adjuvant The researchers compared the immunopotentiating effects of three novel molecular aggregate formula adjuvants [RAM1, Glycolamide (RAM2) and 5th generation dendrimer (RAM3)] and evaluated these adjuvants ability of an adjuvant to enhance a Th1 or Th2 response when applied with a soluble protein antigen. In this study, ovalbumin (OVA) was used as an antigen, and the above three new aggregates were adjuvants, and tuberculin, Al (OH)3, and Freund's incomplete adjuvant were used as controls. Results RAM1 was superior to other adjuvants in the three adjuvants, and the induced cytokines were mainly Th1 type, and induced a Th2-type response in the late stage of inoculation. In this study, ovalbumin (OVA) was used as an antigen, and the above three new aggregates were adjuvants, and tuberculin, Al (OH)3, and Freund's incomplete adjuvant were used as controls. Results RAM1 was superior to other adjuvants in the three adjuvants, and the induced cytokines were mainly Th1 type, and induced a Th2-type response in the late stage of inoculation. To be continued in Part Two. Reference [1] Aguilar J C, Rodríguez E G. Vaccine adjuvants revisited[J]. Vaccine, 2007, 25(19):3752-3762. [2] Coffman R L, Sher A, Seder R A. Vaccine Adjuvants: Putting Innate Immunity to Work[J]. Immunity, 2010, 33(4):492-503. [3] Mata-Haro V, Cekic C, Martin M, et al. The Vaccine Adjuvant Monophosphoryl Lipid A as a TRIF-Biased Agonist of TLR4[J]. Science, 2007, 316(5831):1628-1632. [4] O'Hagan D T, Valiante N M. Recent advances in the discovery and delivery of vaccine adjuvants[J]. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2003, 2(9):727-35.
  6. What is TCR? T cells are the main functional cells in the acquired immune system, which are responsible for identifying antigens and directing other immune cells to carry out immune responses. T cell antigen receptor on T cell surface plays a key role in antigen recognition. T cells play an important role in the immune system and can attack pathogens and cancer cells. T cell receptor (TCR) can recognize different ligands with wide affinity and participate in activating various physiological processes. TCR cell therapy customizes functional TCR, which has the best antigen recognition characteristics and uses the human immune system to fight cancer. The structure of TCR Figure 1. The structure of TCR T cells are the main components of adaptive immune response. The structure of their antigen recognition receptors has been confirmed. The cloned TCR consists of alpha and beta chains as heterodimers. TCR heterodimers mainly bind to several signal transduction subunits of CD3, CD3gamma, CD3delta and CD3E heterodimers and CD3delta homologous dimers. Different subunits of CD3 contain the activation sequence of tyrosine, the immune receptor, ITAM, but the number of each subunit is different. CD3gamma, CD3delta and CD3epsilon contain one, respectively, while CD3delta contains three tandem ITAMs, so that each T cell receptor can produce 10 ITAMs. Tyrosine phosphorylated ITAM can couple TCR with intracellular signal transduction pathways and recruit SH2 domain proteins, such as tyrosine kinase ZAP70, from TCR. However, there are still two hypotheses to explain why TCR complex contains so many signal transduction subunits and ITAM. One is that CD3 or ITAM alone may perform different signal transduction functions by recruiting unique effector molecules, and the other is that the main function of multiple TAMs is to amplify TCR signals. TCR signaling pathway TCR recognizes a peptide that binds to MHC molecules presented by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Single TCR can recognize different ligands (auto-peptide and foreign-peptide) with wide affinity. TCR is involved in triggering different functional outputs. In thymus, the binding intensity of pMHC and TCR signals determines the process of cell development and differentiation. When the binding force is between the minimum and the maximum, it promotes the survival of thymocytes and transforms into the mature stage of CD4*CD8 or CD4CD8*. If the TCR and pMHC are too low or too high, cell apoptosis will occur. Peripherally, the low affinity binding of autologous pMHC to TCR provides the strong survival signal necessary to maintain the initial T cells, and also promotes the full activation of autologous pMHC in high affinity encounters with foreign antigens. The intensity of TCR signal is crucial for the production of appropriate T cells. TCR signal transduction response guides the successful differentiation of CD4* T cells into different T helper cell subsets, and plays a key role in specific T helper cell subsets. The intensity and duration of TCR cells are related to the differentiation of memory T cells, and are also the basic determinants of T cell impotence or depletion. TCR signal is regulated by biochemical and molecular mechanisms, leading to signal amplification or attenuation. The mechanism of TCR regulation is complex and diverse, but it can be divided into three basic levels: early signal transduction effector molecule; signal molecule development stage; and dynamic regulation of TCR signal intensity. TCR binds to the MHC complex expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC) to activate TCR signaling pathway. SRC family protein tyrosine kinase LCK binds to the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 and CD8 common receptors, and is recruited to TCR through the co-binding of CD8 or CD4 with MHC or MHC class I complexes, respectively. LCK phosphorylation enables protein tyrosine kinase ZAP70 to bind to the CD3 chain. T cell activation cohesion factor LAT is phosphorylated, activated T cells, recruited multiple cohesion factors and effector molecules, forming LAT signal transducers. Activation of LAT-related effector molecules leads to signal transduction through three main signaling pathways: calmodulin, MAPK and NF-KB signaling pathways. Calmodulin signal transduction activates T cell nuclear factor (NFAT) for nuclear translocation; MAPK signal transduction leads to actin aggregation and activation of transcription factors FOS, JUN, AP-1; and NF-K B signal transduction causes nuclear translocation of REL and NF-K B transcription factors: These transcription factors synergize to cause T cell proliferation, migration, cytokine production and effect function. TCR is also usually associated with the activation of its common receptor CD28 or cytokine receptors (such as PI3K, AKT, PIP3, PTEN, JAK, STAT) and other signaling pathways. Application of TCR Tumor therapy T cells were modified by TCR gene to exert specific immune regulation or cytotoxic activity. It has great potential in the treatment of malignant tumors and other diseases. Tumor-associated antigen-specific TCR gene was transduced into T lymphocyte for the treatment of tumors, starting with melanoma. In addition to melanoma, some scholars have recently attempted to extend TCR gene therapy to the treatment of colorectal cancer, synovial cell carcinoma, neuroblastoma, lymphoma and other tumors. TCR DNA vaccine TCR gene can be used as a target gene for therapy besides being a guide gene for targeted therapy. In recent years, the use of TCR DNA vaccine to treat some diseases has been gradually carried out. TCR DNA vaccine is a kind of gene vaccine. Through the expression of antigen protein in the body, the body can induce specific immune response, selectively kill pathogenic T cells or inactivate them to play a therapeutic role. The future of TCR At present, two research hotspots in the field of TCR gene therapy are: (1) mutation of CDR region to improve the affinity of TCR transduction; (2) pairing of TCR A and beta chains. There are three main problems in TCR gene therapy in the future: (1) in vivo environment of T cells after transfusion; (2) quality problems of T cells after transfusion; (3) safety of transduction of TCR. In TCR gene therapy, antigen-specific TCR gene modified T cells in tumors and infectious diseases have achieved exciting results, which has proved to be a promising therapeutic strategy. Antigen-specific TCR gene-modified T cells have replaced the traditional effector cells and become the hotspot of this field. Although there is still some distance from large-scale clinical application and becoming a conventional treatment method, it is believed that TCR gene therapy will become more and more perfect and play a greater therapeutic role with the deepening of research.
  7. Abstract: As a key genetically engineered antibody, single-chain antibody consists of three parts, the antibody light chain variable region, the heavy chain variable region and a segment of the bridge polypeptide chain. The single-chain antibody not only has strong targeting, but also is not easy to dissociate, has a simple structure, is easy to operate and transform, and is advantageous for antibody library screening. At present, there are two main ways to construct single-chain antibodies: 1. Amplification of antibody light chain and heavy chain variable regions from hybridism cell lines, but the construction of single-chain antibodies has a rejection reaction. 2. RNA was extracted from canine spleen B lymphocytes, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and antibody variable region was obtained. The phage display antibody library technology is a new technology currently available for the preparation of human monoclonal antibodies. It uses the RT-PCR method to amplify the human immunoglobulin full set variable region gene and then recombine into the prokaryotic expression vector, and forms a fusion protein with the phage coat protein to express the antibody fragment on the surface of the phage, and screens by panning. The specific variable region gene can conveniently and efficiently perform high-throughput screening of antibodies, and opens up a simple and rapid production route for the preparation of human monoclonal antibodies. A key aspect of this technology is the construction of a library of human phage antibodies. Keywords: antibody library, single-chain antibody, construction Phage single-chain antibody library for pancreatic cancer Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant tumors known to date. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in Europe and America due to the insidious pancreatic cancer and lack of specific symptoms and signs. The phage antibody library technology has opened up new fields for the research of genetically engineered antibodies, and has been used in the diagnosis and prevention of infectious diseases, the identification of autoimmune diseases and viral diseases, imaging analysis of tumors and targeted therapy or gene therapy. The field shows great potential and broad application prospects. Compared with the traditional hybridism technology, the technology is simple, easy to produce, low in production cost, large in screening capacity, and can be prepared in large quantities by fermentation. The total RNA of peripheral lymphocytes of patients was extracted, and the H chain and L chain variable region genes were amplified by RT-PCR. The VL fragments were randomly spliced into ScFv fragments by SOE-PCR. The ScFv fragment was then cloned into a specific vector and electroporated into a competent strain, rescued by the helper phage M13K07, and a human phage single-chain antibody library of pancreatic cancer was obtained, which aims to lay a foundation for the biological treatment of pancreatic cancer. Pneumoconiosis phage single-chain antibody library At present, pneumoconiosis is still the most common type of occupational disease in China with the highest incidence rate, the risk of death, and the most serious harm to workers. So far, there is no cure for it, which can only be eliminated or reversed according to the condition. Delaying the progression of the disease, therefore, active prevention and early diagnosis are particularly important to improve the quality of life and prolong life. The construction method is similar to the above and will not be described again. Ribosomal display single-chain antibody library Ribosomal display is a new technology for the screening and identification of functional proteins completely isolated, avoiding the drawbacks of traditional in vivo screening techniques, resulting in increased library capacity and enhanced molecular diversity. It binds the correctly folded protein and its mRNA to the ribosome, forming an mRNA-ribosomal-protein trimer that links the genotype and phenotype of the protein of interest. In recent years, ribosome display technology is built on a single-chain antibody library and applications have made great progress. The main processes of ribosome display technology include: Construction of ScFv ribosome display template ScFv single-chain antibody in vitro transcription and translation Affinity screening and enrichment of ribosomal complexes Evaluation of screening efficiency In vitro evolution of ScFv molecules The ribosome display technology is completely in vitro, and has the advantages of simple database construction, large library capacity, and simple screening method, no need to select pressure, and the like, and the introduction of mutation and recombination technology to improve the affinity of the target protein, so it is a large-scale construction. Because it can screen high-affinity protein molecules in a short period of time, its emergence opens up a new way to prepare small molecule antibodies. It is believed that with the continuous solution of shortcomings such as system stability in ribosome display technology, it will have great application value for the construction of antibody libraries and the screening of small molecule antibodies. Anti-canine parvovirus single-chain antibody library According to the larger bacterial display technology of bacterial particles, antibodies can be displayed on the surface of bacteria and the binding of antigen and antibody can be monitored by flow cytometry (FCM) in real time by fluorescent labeling, and the antibody-expressing strain with high affinity can be sorted. Using bacterial endometrial display technology, the foreign gene is expressed together with the NlpA signal peptide, and the target protein is displayed in the bacterial inner membrane. The NlpA signal peptide can transport the fusion gene of interest to the bacterial periplasmic space, and utilizes 6 specific amino acids to form a serotonin bond with the outer membrane of the bacterial endometrium during the transmembrane process, anchoring to the outside of the bacterial inner membrane to form a bacterial display antibody library. The outer membrane of the bacteria is treated with lysozyme, and the antibody library is screened by fluorescent labeling specific antigen binding to FCM. The method utilizes a 6 amino acid short peptide to anchor the foreign protein, has no effect on the conformation of the expressed antibody protein, and maintains genotype and phenotypic association. The aim is to screen recombinant antibodies with affinity anti-CPV gene, and lay a foundation for neutralizing active antibodies in subsequent studies. The neutralizing antibodies can bind to neutralizing epitopes on the virus, prevent the virus from binding to the corresponding receptors on the cell surface, and prevent diseases. Evaluation The ultimate goal of building a library is to screen out various specific antibody molecules. Whether the antibody of interest can be screened, in addition to the affinity of the antibody of interest and the target antigen, the quality of the library is also a determining factor. A library of antibodies with greater capacity and diversity will ensure the success of the screening. In general, the storage capacity is positively correlated with the affinity of the antibodies screened. High-affinity antibodies can only be screened in a high-capacity antibody library. At the same time, it must have good diversity. For natural antibody libraries, a wider range of antibody gene sources can better ensure the diversity of antibody libraries. References [1] Baca M, Presta LG, O 'Connor SJ, et a1. Antibody humanization using monovalent phage display [J]. J Biol Chem, 1997, 272:10678-10682. [2] Lowenfels A B, Maisonneune P. Epidwminology and prevention of pancreatic cancer [J], Jpn J Clin Oncol, 2004, 349(5):238-242
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  9. If you’re looking to save money and energy, small home improvements can help a lot. Choosing to upgrade your home to make it more energy efficient can help you save on your heating and cooling costs. It may even increase the value of your home. Here are the three most important updates to make to ensure your home is as energy efficient as possible. Replace Your Appliances This is probably a more expensive route, but ensuring your home has energy efficient appliances is a good first step. You can start by replacing your old appliances with energy efficient ones when they die. In addition to appliances like dishwashers and refrigerators, heating and cooling systems in homes that are over 15 years old may be in need of an upgrade. While you’re upgrading appliances, you may want to think about a programmable thermostat. This can allow you to regulate the temperature within your home, whether you are there or not. Add Insulation You’ll need to decide if the amount of insulation that’s currently in your home is acceptable for the climate you live in or for your personal needs. If your home is poorly insulated, adding an extra layer of insulation can help keep heat inside in the winter or cool down your home in the summer. All this leads to savings in your heating and cooling bills. Replace or Repair Garage Doors The garage is one room in your home that typically isn’t insulated very well. Rooms that are attached to or above the garage can suffer as a result. While you could add some layers of insulation to your garage, if you have garage doors that are not energy efficient, the air will enter through the cracks. This leaves the entire wall your garage doors are on without insulation. Installing or repairing garage doors to ensure they are insulated will ensure your home is more efficient, increase home value, and help regulate the temperature within your home. Energy efficiency in your home is important in ensuring you’re comfortable and not shelling out hundreds of dollars per month in heating and cooling costs. Following these tips will ensure that hot and cold air don’t just escape your home. If you’re not sure where to start with energy efficient home improvements, be sure to consult with a professional contractor. They’ll be able to help you determine what you can do to make your home more efficient and how you should execute the upgrades.
  10. Wholesale Cat Food means that the prices of cat food are sold at a reduced price, meaning that you get a discount. You can get wholesale cat food which is sold on discount in many stores. Chicken & Brown Rice Dry Cat and Kitten food is one of them, it is combination of simple ingredient to meet needs and satisfy your cat. This is a real utilization of chicken meat and chicken meal as its core ingredient. The whole brown rice in the formula is a high source of carbohydrates and natural fiber. While sunflower oil provide Omega 3 and Omega 6 which are essential fatty acids for a healthy skin. This wholesale cat food is designed to meet the nutritional values that are set and leaves your cat full. It's packed on 5lb to 15 lbs and it's available for shipping when ordered on large quantity this way you save your money. Herring & Sweet Potato Dry Cat Food is another food that can be found on wholesale cat food kit, this is a unique single source animal protein which is in herring. Sweet potato are good provider of antioxidant such as Beta-Carotene, vitamin A,C, and E, as well as potassium, Iron and other mineral more to this they add a sweet taste to the food. The presence of Oatmeal provides good source of carbohydrate energy. The natural source of this food is maintained by use of natural antioxidant this ensures that the package is fresh and the nutrition is intact and by this your cat gets a shiny coat. Salmon & Sweet Potato is a combination of fresh wild-catch salmon and mackerel this gives your cat a simple meal. The use of Mackerel provides a high quality protein and it's a magnificent source of omega 3 fatty acids, which helps in structure of cell membranes. Fatty acids support growth, assist in development of nervous system. This diet is best for cats that do not like grains since it contains no grains. Article Source: https://www.import-express.com/apa/pet_.html
  11. Plastic pollution is growing into one of the most pressing concerns of the 21st century. An estimated 8.3 billion tonnes of plastic have been created to date, and trends show that if we don't curb our use of plastic soon then there will be upwards of 12 billion tonnes of plastic in landfills and our environment by 2050. Single-use plastics are pervasive in our society, from straws handed out with every drink to throw-away coffee cups, and it can be difficult to know where to start. Below is a guide to plastic alternatives that can help guide you in helping to prevent further pollution. All Plastics Are Not Made Equal It is a common misconception that all plastic goods are recyclable, but in fact some are more likely to be recycled that others. Traditional, oil-based plastics are the most prevalent, but only around 9% of the produced plastic is being recycled. Luckily, there are other, more sustainable options. Plant-based plastics, such as those created with corn, potato starch, and cellulose, are both compostable and recyclable. They contain the same durable and versatile qualities of today's plastic, while being made from natural materials that will breakdown, rather than persist indefinitely, in the environment. Companies such as Full Cycle Bioplastics are beginning to experiment with plant-based plastics, also called 'bioplastics,' because they see them being the way of the future. Switching away from plastics entirely might be unrealistic but swapping out current plastics with the more environmentally-friendly bioplastics is a step in the right direction. Plastic-waste providers will then work with commercial waste disposal collectors to ensure that businesses can easily dispose of this recyclable waste. Choose Reusable Waste Options Ramping up recycling practices and choosing plant-based plastics will make a dent in pollution, but there is still a deeper problem to be addressed. Single-use products are unsustainable, and even 'environmentally responsible' waste is still waste. Cutting down on the use of disposable drink cups, bottles, straws, and bags is an important lifestyle change that can be made in order to halt current pollution patterns. Choosing to purchase reusable and more 'recycling friendly' options such as tin or glass will both cut down on pollution, and send a message to businesses. Use Your Purchases To Create Change Businesses rely on consumers like yourself for success, and if people begin to demand bioplastics at their coffee shops and recycled plastics in their stores, the demand for unsustainable plastic-waste will decrease. Together we can create a more sustainable future.
  12. What is Pallet Wrapping?

    Pallet wrapping goes under a lots of alternative names, some you may have hear of before, including stretch wrapping and stretch film wrapping. Pallet wrapping sometimes referred to as these other names is an incredibly common packaging method within an entire range of industries, and a method that is used worldwide. Pallet wrapping is renowned for its unique ability to tight secure products together, stretch wrap film is wrapped tightly around batches of goods to secure them tightly together, with pallet wrapping machines (pallet wrappers) available to ensure that pallets can be secured as efficiently and effectively as possible. Choosing the best stretch film: When it comes to wrapping pallets there are many different stretch film varieties available, and the one that will be the best for you depends on what you are going to be using it for. In general, the stretcher the film is that you choose the more tightly it will be able to secure product loads. One top tip for purchasing stretch film is to always buy high quality film, this is because quality film is less likely to damage and tear. Choosing the best pallet wrappers: Again, the pallet wrapper that you will choose will depend on your individual needs and requirements. Before you go out looking for a pallet wrapper you are going to need to understand what your exact needs and requirements are – Knowing what you are going to be wrapping, how much you are going to be wrapping and how often you will be wrapping will allow you to obtain the most suitable pallet wrapping machinery. Pallet Wrappers If you require more information to ensure you can purchase the best equipment for your business then it is highly important for you to contact a leading pallet wrappers supplier today such as Pallet Wrappers who will no doubt be delighted to assist you.
  13. A beautiful and stylish garden will bring your outside space a sense of tranquillity and relaxation. To create a perfect garden, you have to come up with a plan for your garden. You can either contact a garden designer to plan the layout of you, or you can do it on your own then involve a designer to actualise your plan. A layout plan is the first step to creating a stunning garden. Decide the purpose of your garden and proceed to create a blueprint for your garden. Involving a professional designer will make your work easier as they will help you come up with a great design that will transform your garden into a stylish outside space. Why you need a Garden Designer • A professional garden designer understands various design structures that will be suitable for your outdoor space. They will save you the time for creating a blueprint and come up with a great design. • They also have plants and soil knowledge to identify the perfect spot to plant various types of flowers. • A designer has knowledge of landscaping service. They will suggest the different types of paving suitable your patios and pathways. • Garden design is an art. You, therefore need an expert to bring in creative designs for your garden. Getting the best Designer for your Garden For your ideal garden, it is best to find a designer with expertise in various garden designs. Find one who will bring in ideas on the best paving stone or the best plants to use according to the pH level of your soil. Your budget should help you find the best designer. Identify what you are willing to spend on your garden and contact a designer and discuss your budget. For great results, clearly explain to your designer the kind of design you want and the type of paving to be used. Natural stone paving is a simple yet stylish design, but some paving designs such as coping stones and stone slabs could be great alternatives. Find a designer who can deliver the expected garden design within the agreed time. Give a realistic deadline according to the size of your garden and the unexpected weather changes; then the designer should work towards completing your task within the agreed time. Garden design should be artistic enough to give the intended results. Seeking help from a designer will not only transform your outdoor space into a stunning beauty, but it will also save you a lot of time used in planning and actualising your dream garden.
  14. Have you ever pondered what your feline is stating? I'm certain most pet managers have every once in a while. When you figure out how to read non-verbal communication you can! Give careful consideration to what her tail, ears, and hide are doing and you can read their feelings.Your felines' tail is the most vital part to watch to figure out your felines emotions. You can figure out whether your feline is cheerful or not by examining her tail.Tail straight up: When your feline is strolling to you and her tail is straight up it is an indication of kind disposition, this is her method for welcome you in a well disposed way.Tail straight up and shuddering: When your feline shows this she is exceptionally upbeat to see you, however in the event that your feline is a male be wary he may be getting primed to stamp his region when you get excessively close you may mourn it.Tail straight up yet with a snare: This is normally seen when she is seeing a new individual or when approached by an alternate feline. When you see this she is readied to be agreeable yet readied to safeguard herself also.Tail straight up and puffed: Look out on the grounds that your feline is pestered, furious, or startled. Better provide for some opportunity to cool off before approaching her.Tail straight up and at a slight plot: She is unsure, readied to be agreeable additionally primed to flee or if important to battle.Tail straight out and down: This feline is primed to battle, it could be she is prepared to play yet normally you can tell which one quite rapidly. So be extremely mindful when you see this conduct.Tail goes up and afterward hangs down: Your feline is getting primed if important to shield herself.Tail is tucked in: Your feline is frightened, assuming that she isn't cornered she will presumably fled, if cornered she will likely battle.Tail whipping: Large abate swings typically mean she is energized however more diminutive swings and quickly moving shows outrage.Your feline's ears are additionally a method for telling your feline's enthusiastic state. while not as evident as the tail when perusing both the tail and ears together you can show signs of improvement picture of how your feline feels.Assuming that your feline's ears are back this typically implies animosity, assuming that they are both up and back this normally implies a test is constantly given.The point when your feline's ears are out she is either apprehensive or exceptionally troubled, if the ears retreat significantly more she is undermined and may respond with animosity.There are different signs your feline may provide for you, for example, murmuring, working, and rubbing with her head of face which we all know is an indication of warmth, however rubbing the head or face is likewise her method for fortifying her bond with you by exchanging some of her fragrance to you. Rubbing around your legs is likewise considered fondness which obviously it is however again she is holding with you by getting her aroma on you. If you want to wholesale pet supplies with very low price & free shipping, Importx can help you. Featuring more than a million styles and designs, you'll find everything for different pets, unique design dog collar, dog cloth, dog toy, cat toy, cat house ect...
  15. A household consists of a thousand moving parts. If you count trinkets and paraphernalia into that mix, then the number of constituents is pretty much endless. This is why every home needs reasonable storage solutions, especially if you are prone to hoarding. Thankfully, in the times of eco-friendly trends, there are many storage ideas out there that are truly inventive. If you are thinking about the balance between storage and sustainability, here are the most sensible solutions for your home. Go vertical There are many sensible green home renovation techniques out there, some of which are obscure while others are known around the world as go-to practices that simply work. For example, vertical storage is warehousing 101 and a solution that can virtually save your household should you choose to implement it. Simply speaking, the amount of square footage and resources you can save by going vertical is immense – it is the most logical eco-friendly step. On the one hand, you will invest in the future, on the other, you won’t have to spend money on the additional building. Furthermore, storage that spreads floor to ceiling and across the wall can also serve as an additional layer of sound-heat insulation. Keep the shelving modular Armoires, old cupboards and stylish vintage cabinets are perfectly fine aesthetic choices that are recommended by interior designers around the world for people who want eclectic combos. However, if you are a green thinker, the first question you should ask if whether it’s functional and space-saving? Aesthetics are secondary when you are looking into superb adjustable shelving for the most flexible solutions, though they can look absolutely crisp should you choose well. What you’ll want is a storage option that consists of numerous modular units which can easily be rearranged according to the changes in your interior. This way you’ll have future-proof durability and flexibility. Reused building materials Do you want your sustainable storage units to be built from zero? If you want to keep the process eco-friendly you should consider reused or recycled materials, especially if you require fine wood and stained wooden surfaces in order to keep the storage in sync with the rest of the room’s overall style. Thankfully, it has become so much easier to find retailers that deal in reusable goods, as well as carpenters and other building professionals that have a lot of experience with recycled materials. In addition, you can go with sustainable materials if you want them fresh – for example, cork and bamboo. However, you should keep in mind that these are not as flexible as some less-sustainable variants. Push it out into the garage Do you own a garage, a shed or an exterior storage space of some shape and form? If you do, you might want to consider moving as much as you can out of the house and pushing it into that storage. Typically, this will be a garage wall reserved for storage units. Whether it’s simple pallet racks made out of (recycled) plastic or full-fledged cabinets, keeping most of your clutter out of the house gives you more elbow space to arrange the interior according to your wishes. Plus, it will keep the otherwise cluttered rooms larger. You may also want to bring more sustainable lighting solution in the proximity of your storage so it would become easier to see what hides behind cabinet doors. Of course, only LED or CFL lights should be considered in this case, as they do not only waste less energy but last significantly longer than incandescent bulbs. A cluttered home looks messy, ugly and, let’s be perfectly blunt, downright depressing. If you want to avoid the horror of clutter, you should consider the sustainable storage solutions mentioned above. Implementing at least one of them can make a lot of difference, so you’ll probably want to go all the way with these sensible solutions for your home as soon as you try one method.
  16. How to Conserve Water Every Day

    Water is one of our most precious natural resources: not only does drinking water allow us to stay hydrated and healthy, but it also gives us the ability to grow food and plants, wash our bodies and clothes, and cook meals. Thanks to advances in water filtration techniques, we are now able to enjoy cleaner, better-tasting water than ever before! We all use water every day for so many things, but tend to take it for granted-it's easy to lose sight of just how essential water is in our lives. We must make it a priority to conserve water whenever we can, so that we can be sure to avoid water shortages and keep our natural sources of water from becoming depleted. Here are some tips for conserving water that you can do every day, in order to be a friend to the Earth and protect our water supply from vanishing in the future. Turn off faucets It sounds almost too simple, but by just making sure to turn off the faucet in your kitchen, shower, or bathroom sink when it is not in use, you can help save gallons of water each day! People tend to turn on the tap and let the water run while washing their faces, shaving, or brushing their teeth. By breaking this bad habit and turning off the water while you brush or shave, you can save up to two gallons of wasted water each minute, according to the EPA. Fix leaks If your kitchen or bathroom sink has a leak that causes the faucet to drip continuously, it's more than annoying- it's bad for the environment! According to Flatirons Plumbing of Boulder, Colorado, a slow drip from a leaky faucet can waste up to 20 gallons of water each day, while a constantly-running toilet can use up to 200 gallons a day. Imagine how much you could save in both water conservation and your utility bill if you simply fix leaks as they occur! Repurpose water Are you guilty of turning on your shower faucet and then waiting a couple minutes for it to heat up before jumping in? Don't worry, you're not alone. You don't have to switch to icy-cold showers to be a friend to Mother Nature, though- just collect the water in a bucket as it heats up and use it for something else, like watering plants in your garden. You can also do this when rinsing fruit and vegetables in a colander- rather than let it go straight down the drain, place a bowl underneath and use the water for another household chore. This way, nothing gets wasted. When you look at all the ways you use water throughout the day, it's easy to spot a number of opportunities to conserve it. There are plenty of ways to cut back on water usage without having to sacrifice your quality of life. By taking time to help conserve water, you're doing your part in creating a happier, healthier future for us all!
  17. With an innumerable number of gadgets as well as technologies available in the industry that could leverage the solar power in the present modern settings, most of the people still wonder “how the technology is used?” Be it for charging a wireless speaker or powering renewable transportation system, the list of examples for the uses of solar energy are numerous. The advancements in the technology have enforced most of the homeowners to gauge how far they can go when they choose for using solar power. Let’s have a look at some of the ultimate uses of solar energy that would make it extremely easy for the users in 2019. · Transportation Powered with Solar Energy – The Rise of Photovoltaic Energy One of the most effective ways of using the sunshine is through transportation powered by photovoltaic energy. Interestingly buses, planes, subways and even railways can have the power from solar energy. The best thing is that solar transit is becoming one of the most exciting and popular offerings in the industry that deals with renewable energy. For example, the use of solar buses in China has been successful in minimizing the carbon footprint along with maintaining the transit of the masses even in the densely populated cities in Beijing. · Solar Lighting – Innovative Way of Using Solar Power Adding outdoor solar lighting has become one of the best ways to boost the curb appeal of the house. Unlike a conventional lighting system, solar lighting is free from any complicated setup because these lights are wireless and make use of the sunlight during day time to circumvent the need for grid-supplied electricity at night. On the top of that, the aesthetic elegance of the modern solar lighting helps in improving the outdoor décor of the property. The best thing is that the overall expenses for using solar lights are 20% less than the likes of conventional lights. · Wearable Solar Tech – Personal Ways to Use Solar Power Powering consumer electronics has become one of the most common uses of solar energy in the present world. There are modern chargers available in the industry through people can charge anything, starting from a smartphone to e-reader. Some of the common yet interesting uses of solar energy are with thermostats, tablets, solar air conditioning systems, wearables, solar visor radios, dryers, rechargeable flashlights and many more. With the transition of the world from fossil fuels and the focal point shifting to renewable sources of energy for day to day living, it remains no doubt that the solar energy will continue will be common by the masses. There are numbers of companies that have already started using solar energy Los Angeles and even in other locations as a sustainable form of energy. This is the high time to understand and make solar power utmost priority to make the future bright and powerful. Get in touch with a reliable service provider that has great experience in offering quality solutions using solar energy. This will make the entire setting sustainable and unique in itself. In case there are any suggestions, make sure to share below in the comment section.
  18. The world is experiencing more threats from pollution than ever before. In addition to the climate, there are other factors that are making it more dangerous to ignore green technologies. Therefore, it is important to understand the benefits of using renewable natural gas. Here are several points to consider as we move forward: Recycling There is no secret that recycling is going to be an important part of moving forward into future generations. When we simply use products one time and throw them away, it takes away from the power we have to reuse those materials. Natural gas is used in a lot of recycling projects to prevent the greenhouse gases that pollute the atmosphere, making it key to the future of a green world. Heat and Cooling If there is one kind of energy usage that is harmful to the planet, it is heating and cooling. The machines and gases that are used in this are always being emitted into the atmosphere. Even worse, the electricity that powers these in the first place is generated via harmful, polluting mechanisms. In order to have a green world, we need to find ways to reduce this. Luckily, natural gas is a much more efficient form of natural energy. It is not going to pollute as much as a fossil fuel will. Cars There are more cars than we will ever know what to do with on earth. This means that they are either going to be on the road putting out chemicals or they are going to be put in dumps where their chemicals will leak into the environment. Either way, their gas usage should be reduced or at least switched to natural gas which is better for everyone and the planet's natural ecosystem. Heavy Machinery With a steam generator powered on natural gas, you can get machinery moving. You don't have to spend as much on the extraction of harmful fuels either. This is a winning scenario for everyone involved and is an exciting glimpse into the future of green energy. Not all kind of energy is created equal. Some forms actually empower us to live cleaner lives and do better for the world in which we live. When we have the opportunity to use these, it is important to take advantage of them to full effect. So make sure to review the benefits above and see how you can us natural gas in your daily life to make an impact.
  19. A vigorous 60-minute workout on a treadmill affects the release of two key appetite hormones, ghrelin and peptide YY, while 90 minutes of weight lifting affects the level of only ghrelin, according to a new study. Taken together, the research shows that aerobic exercise is better at suppressing appetite than non-aerobic exercise and provides a possible explanation for how that happens. This line of research may eventually lead to more effective ways to use exercise to help control weight, according to the senior author, David J. Stensel of Loughborough University in the United Kingdom. Treadmill versus weight lifting There are several hormones that help regulate appetite, but the researchers looked at two of the major ones, ghrelin and peptide YY. Ghrelin is the only hormone known to stimulate appetite. Peptide YY suppresses appetite. Ghrelin was discovered by researchers in Japan only about 10 years ago and was originally identified for its role as a growth hormone. Only later did its role in stimulating appetite become known. Peptide YY was discovered less than 25 years ago. In this experiment, 11 male university students did three eight-hour sessions. During one session they ran for 60 minutes on a treadmill, and then rested for seven hours. During another session they did 90 minutes of weight lifting, and then rested for six hours and 30 minutes. During another session, the participants did not exercise at all. During each of the sessions, the participants filled out surveys in which they rated how hungry they felt at various points. They also received two meals during each session. The researchers measured ghrelin and peptide YY levels at multiple points along the way. They found that the treadmill (aerobic) session caused ghrelin levels to drop and peptide YY levels to increase, indicating the hormones were suppressing appetite. However, a weight-lifting (non-aerobic) session produced a mixed result. Ghrelin levels dropped, indicating appetite suppression, but peptide YY levels did not change significantly. Based on the hunger ratings the participants filled out, both aerobic and resistance exercise suppressed hunger, but aerobic exercise produced a greater suppression of hunger. The changes the researchers observed were short term for both types of exercise, lasting about two hours, including the time spent exercising, Stensel reported. “The finding that hunger is suppressed during and immediately after vigorous treadmill running is consistent with previous studies indicating that strenuous aerobic exercise transiently suppresses appetite,” Stensel said. “The findings suggest a similar, although slightly attenuated response, for weight lifting exercise.” Focus on active ghrelin Previous studies have been inconclusive about whether exercise decreases ghrelin levels, but this study may help explain those mixed results, according to the researchers. Ghrelin comes in two forms, acylated and non-acylated. The researchers measured acylated ghrelin, also called active ghrelin, because it can cross the blood-brain barrier and reach the appetite center in the brain. Stensel suggests that future research concentrate on active ghrelin. While the study showed that exercise suppresses appetite hormones, the next step is to establish whether this change actually causes the suppression of eating. Learn More: https://www.creative-peptides.com/
  20. When spring arrives, a new growing season begins. This is a time when you expect your yard’s dormant vegetation to become rejuvenated. Unfortunately, many people are dismayed to realize that their lawn is not as green and healthy as they hoped. If your lawn is patchy, has brown spots or is showing other signs of trouble, you may use some of these tips to revive your lawn and to get the curb appeal that you desire. Kill the Weeds With warm spring temperatures and hydrating rain showers, weeds that were dormant all winter will sprout up quickly. Weeds will crowd out your grass. Eventually, you may have a yard full of weeds rather than healthy grass. You may also have brown or bare spots as a result. There are a few different ways to get rid of weeds. You can pull the weeds out by hand. You can also apply various products to the lawn. For example, some broadleaf weed killers will kill the weeds and not the grass. You may decide to kill all vegetation by applying various household products to the soil. This will give you a blank slate to plant new grass. Aerate the Soil If your lawn is looking generally unhealthy, the reason may be because of compacted soil. Soil has a tendency to become more compact over time because of various weather conditions. When it is firmly compacted, water and fresh air will not be able to reach the plant roots as easily. Professional aeration can loosen the soil and ensure that vegetation roots have access to the fresh air and water that they need for optimal health. Plant Grass Seed or Plugs Regardless of whether you have decided to start from scratch and use lawn installation services for a brand-new lawn or you simply want to fill in some patches of dirt, bringing new grass into your space may be necessary. To determine the right approach, consider your budget as well as the current state of your lawn. It makes sense to kill weeds and prepare the soil through aeration and even fertilization before planting new grass seed or plugs. After you take these steps, remember that regular yard maintenance is required to nurture your lawn back to health and to maintain it in a healthy state. This includes regular mowing and edging, watering and fertilization. If you continue to struggle to achieve the beautiful curb appeal that you desire, using professional lawn care services is an excellent idea.
  21. If you have recently decided to build a home and want to be as eco-friendly as possible, then you should consider using recyclable materials. Many people are surprised to hear that most homes can be built from the ground up with nothing but recyclables, and that practice is great for the environment. Here is a look at four ways that you can use recyclable materials during your home construction. Glass Tile Even though porcelain is a popular building material, the tiles can give off VOCs when they are being cut to size. Glass tiles, on the other hand, are made from old pieces of glass that don’t contain any dangerous toxins or chemicals. Many companies now make these tiles out of old solar panels and windows that have been removed from skyscrapers. Ash Concrete There are a few different reasons why some constructions companies only use concrete that has been made with fly ash. In addition to being completely recyclable, ash concrete is also very easy to work with. This type of concrete is a great option for buildings that are going to be exposed to extreme temperatures as well. When the temperatures rise and drop throughout the year, traditional concrete could potentially crack. After recycled ash is added to concrete, the final material is much denser and stronger. Cypress Pine Flooring Investing in second-hand flooring is another great way to adopt recyclable materials into your home construction project. Used cypress pine is sought after by many people because it resists rot and doesn’t harm the environment. Some other good flooring options that you might want to consider include Baltic pine, bamboo, and Oregon timber. All woods used in second-hand flooring are made more durable by the recycling process, making it overall an excellent option for those who want wooden floors that last long and are environmentally sustainable. Bark Siding For many years, tree bark was an unwanted byproduct created by the lumber industry, but that has recently changed. Recycled tree bark is now being used as siding because it is eye-catching, durable, and sustainable. As an added bonus, tree bark is also a great form of insulation. When bark siding is backed by a vapor barrier, it will limit heat transfer throughout your home, and that is going to lower your monthly energy bills. Sustainable construction materials are more affordable than ever, and using those materials to build your home is a great way to reduce your impact on the environment. With a little bit of research and some planning, you might be able to design the home of your dreams with nothing more than recyclable building supplies.
  22. According to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), building materials, electronic items, and a wide range of other sources such as cigarettes, pollen grains, pesticides, caustic chemicals, etc. release huge amounts of pollutants, continuously hamper quality of indoor air, and in turn pave way for many serious health conditions. Well, rather than spraying fragranced air fresheners, which does not help much, modern-day individuals must try to resolve the said issue by executing below-mentioned techniques. · Taking shoes off before entering house under all circumstances is extremely essential because a normal person’s footwear tends to carry some disgusting stuff such as fecal matter, fungi, caustic chemicals, dust mites, etc., which besides undesirably impact flooring can also compromise the air he or she is breathing. · Many modern-day consumers are purchasing essential oil diffusers because it alleviates quantity of contaminants present in air. According to latest research, eucalyptus, clove, lavender, rosemary, tea tree, peppermint, and sandalwood oils readily available in market can promote sleep, offers protection against flu, clears lungs, hones cognitive function, and boosts mood. · Dust particles float inside house because they are positively charged ions. Top-notch professionals have conducted comprehensive research and found out that burning beeswax candles can create plenty negatively charged ions, which reacts with the said positive ones, compelling them to fall down. · Pet fur and dander can unfortunately lower overall standard of indoor air leading to asthma and other complicated respiratory impediments. Thus, people are advised to keep their cats and dogs thoroughly groomed as well as vacuum floors and furniture with a high efficient cleaner regularly. · Many over-the-counter cleansers contain a series of extremely toxic compounds, which can cause throat, eyes, nose, and lungs irritation. For decreasing air pollution, consider making your own household cleaner by mixing beneficial ingredients such as baking soda, vinegar, citrus juice, etc. · Air filter, also known as air purifier, has garnered immense popularity for successfully eliminating different types of solid particulates like dust, bacteria, mold, etc. If the said device has a catalyst or absorber, it can also provide relief from volatile organic compounds and obnoxious odors. For getting special discount on air filters, rely upon well-known online stores. Central air conditioning system is also much effective. It successfully extracts air out of house, cools, and then pumps it back in. When operated and maintained properly, ACs can remove harmful allergens, enhancing a person’s overall physical wellbeing. · Latest studies have effectually manifested that having houseplants can enhance indoor air in absolutely no time. For example, spider plants can help get rid of carbon monoxide, xylene, formaldehyde, and benzene. Other popular choices include Aloe Vera, Gerbera Daisy, Golden Pothos, Snake Plant, Dracaena, Chrysanthemum, etc. · Finally, yet importantly, the easiest and most affordable way of allowing entry of fresh air is by opening windows during the day. Doing so would also reduce accumulation of unwanted pollutants. Keeping all eight techniques specified above in mind, and carrying them out with maximum caution would most surely improve air’s quality to a great extent, and make house a cleaner as well as safer place to reside. Now isn’t that simply amazing?
  23. Remodeling your kitchen is an excellent chance to upgrade it in term of eco-friendliness. You will finally get a chance to separate waste and apply natural cleaning solutions in order to cause the least amount of harm to the environment. The best thing is that these changes will not require a huge amount of money because you can work with what you’ve got and the little you do need to invest is a small investment compared to the benefits you get. You will see how a remodeled kitchen will soon turn into a hub of social activity in the house as even the children will want to join the whole ecological hype that their parents became part of. We provide you here with a 5-step checklist that will help you transform your kitchen into an eco-friendly space that will work with Mother Nature, not against it. 1. The labels have to be green Whatever additions you decide to introduce into your kitchen, whether it is something as simple as a new teapot or even a brand new countertop, this product must bear a green label. This means that the product has been subject to testing on how the ingredients of materials for it were produced. A label of the color green usually stands for sustainability, like the Follow to Frog sign and the Forest Stewardship Council stamp that indicates that fruit or timber have been outsourced from regions that care about protecting the local environment. 2. Cork for flooring The bark of the cork tree is used for kitchen flooring as a cheap and efficient replacement for linoleum, hardwood floors, and tiles. It is fairly easy to install, as it is simply glued to the existing surface, like concrete. Once in place, it is coated with acrylic that will ensure cork is waterproof and slip-resistant. Because it has a rather soft texture, it will act as a natal spring that will adjust to the weight of your body, so you can even walk barefoot over it. This can come in handy when children play around the kitchen and if one of them falls down, the cork will cushion the blow. 3. Plexiglas in the kitchen? The material you never thought belonged inside the kitchen is Plexiglas. Well, the automotive industry does not have exclusive rights over it as kitchen walls can benefit from it too. A thin layer of Plexiglas over the kitchen tiles impregnates their joints and ensures they are 100% waterproof, so no mold or mildew will ever form. The best thing about Plexiglas, that you can outsource from Plastic Wholesale Online is the fact that it is an eco-friendly material that does not hurt the environment. Basically, anything around the kitchen that needs waterproofing could be treated with Plexiglas in order to decrease the impact on the environment. 4. Reducing energy consumption In terms of reducing the carbon print, you want to make sure your new kitchen is as energy efficient as possible. This is done by introducing green energy through house appliances and the reduction of total energy used. For the latter, a simple change in the type of light bulbs you use can make a huge difference. Replace the incandescent light bulbs with LED ones and just look at your energy consumption going down. As with everything else, when shopping for new appliances look for the Energy Star logo that ensures the manufacturer took great care of energy inefficient. 5. Composting The last item on our checklist concerns the way we manage organic waste. Recyclables should go into separate bins but food leftovers should end up outside, not in the trash can but in the garden compost. You can create it in order to decrease the total amount of waste you generate and later use the compost in your garden instead of buying hummus from the local garden center. Finally, going eco-friendly is more than possible in the kitchen and in every other room in the house. Use our 5-step checklist as the guide during the initial phases of the kitchen remodeling project.
  24. Superoxide dismutase, alias liver protein, abbreviation: SOD. SOD is an active substance derived from living organisms, which can eliminate harmful substances produced in the process of metabolism. Continuously replenish SOD on human body has special effects on anti-aging. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was first isolated from bovine red blood cells in 1938. People have studied SOD for more than 70 years. McCord and others rediscovered the protein in 1969, and found its biological activity, and clarified its catalytic properties of peroxide anion disproportionation reaction, so it was formally named superoxide dismutase. Superoxide dismutase is a new enzyme preparation. It is widely distributed in the biological world, almost from animals to plants, even from people to single-celled organisms, have its existence. SOD is regarded as the most magical enzyme in life science and technology, and garbage scavenger in human body. SOD is the natural enemy of oxygen free radicals, is the number one killer of oxygen free radicals in the body, is the basis of life and health. The oxygen free radicals is an atomic group containing an unpaired electron, it spread in a lots of biocatalyst, such as lignin peroxidase, lactoperoxidase and so on. As atoms form molecules, electrons in chemical bonds must appear in pairs, so free radicals grab one of the electrons of other substances everywhere and form stable substances themselves. In chemistry, this phenomenon is called "oxidation". Our biological system mainly encounters oxygen free radicals, such as superoxide anion free radicals, hydroxyl free radicals, lipoxy free radicals, nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide free radicals. Hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and ozone are commonly referred to as reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species in the body have certain functions, such as immunity and signal transduction. However, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause damage to normal cells and tissues, leading to a variety of diseases. Such as heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. In addition, sunlight radiation, air pollution, smoking, pesticides and so on in the external environment will cause the human body to produce more reactive oxygen species free radicals, so that nucleic acid mutation, which is the root cause of human aging and disease. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is naturally formed in the human body. It can antagonize and block the damage caused by oxygen free radicals and repair damaged cells in time. With age, the body's ability to form superoxide dismutase is getting worse and worse, and disease and aging are catching up. This shows how superoxide dismutase acts very miraculous and important. SOD is a natural scavenger of oxygen free radicals in living organisms. It has a wide range of medical value and can be used as additives in medicine, food and daily chemical products. SOD is approved for clinical use and shows a powerful regenerative repair capability for some tissue sclerosis and fibrosis caused by age, disease or injury. SOD has been successfully applied to adjuvant therapy after radiotherapy, to control the progression of heart disease, and to treat severe rheumatoid arthritis. In Denmark, SOD is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is widely used in cosmetic additives, such as SOD mask, SOD honey, SOD snake powder and other cosmetics manufactured by superoxide dismutase. SOD is used as a supplementary food, and people try every possible way to maintain a high level of SOD in the body, that is, to provide appropriate nutrients for the liver to synthesize SOD while consuming food, or directly wrap the exogenous SOD in food protein, through the digestive system without being digested, into other parts of the body. The development of SOD in medical application depends on the further study of its mechanism of action and production, and we expect to find the factors promoting SOD production. Because of the different sources of SOD and different detection methods, SOD activity is not comparable. It is expected that international standards should be standardized with scientific, simple and practical principles. Due to the blockage of animal blood SOD in the European Union, the development of plant and microbial SOD has become a promising industry direction. As for the industrial enzyme production of the superoxide dismutase, it is a complex access, so for more information, you can click here to visit our website.
  25. Laccase is a polyphenol oxidase containing four copper ions (p-bisphenol oxidase, EC1.10.3.2), belonging to the copper blue oxidase, in the form of monomer glycoprotein. Laccase exists in mushrooms, fungi and plants, and can also exist in the air. The only product after the reaction is water, so it is essentially an environmental-friendly antioxidant enzymes. Laccase has a wide range of applications in biological detection because of its unique catalytic properties. As an efficient biodetector, laccase has become an effective tool and means for the analysis of substrates, coenzymes, inhibitors and other components. Laccase has become the research object of many scholars in recent years because of the importance of environmental protection consciousness. Laccase is the largest type of blue poly-copper oxidase, which has the catalytic properties of oxidizing polyphenols by comt and reducing oxygen to water. As early as 1883, Yoshida first discovered laccase in Japanese lacquer tree, becoming one of the earliest discovered enzymes in the world. Plant laccase has been neglected for a long time due to its lack of industrial application value. In the continuous development of biotechnologies such as removing polyphenols from industrial wastewater and lignin and pigments from textile printing and dyeing, laccase can oxidize polyphenols, lignin and other chemicals by using oxygen as an electron acceptor and produce the only by-product water. High quality conditions make the catalytic properties of laccase have wide application prospects in environmental protection, textile, printing and dyeing, food, chemical synthesis, and become one of the focus of scientific circles in the last decade. The research and development of new laccase, the space structure of laccase and its catalytic mechanism, the properties and application of laccase have become the focus of scientific research. Researchers in China have gradually realized the advantages of laccase in industrial applications, and the research momentum in recent years is swift and violent. Large-scale industrialized production of microbial enzymes, which is a kind of whole cell biocatalysis and known as biotechnology or green chemistry, is one of the major areas of bio-economy advocated by Europe. Enzymes that can be used in industrial production must have some good properties, such as high temperature resistance, strong alkali resistance, resistance to shear force, and no inactivation during a certain storage period. The application range of fungal laccase is pH 4-6, temperature 30-50 C, and many substances are sensitive. Chloride, azide compound, hydroxide and so on can inhibit the activity of fungal laccase. In order to improve the properties of laccase and reduce the enzyme production cost, it is an effective method to express heterologous laccase by genetic engineering. However, because fungal laccase is a glycoprotein, and its glycosyl group has an important influence on the properties and activity of laccase, the heterologous expression of fungal laccase is difficult. Up to now, no successful expression of fungal laccase in E. coli has been reported. In a word, laccase is a kind of polyphenol oxidase, because it is widely distributed in nature, and has a wide range of applications in environmental protection, textile, printing and dyeing, food, chemical synthesis and so on, in recent years has been widely concerned and studied. Bacterial laccase can make up for the shortcomings of lipoxygenase, which generally does not have glycoprotein, and is easy to heterologous expression, genetic modification and large-scale fermentation production. The optimum pH for bacterial laccase is alkaline environment, high temperature resistance, and insensitive to inhibitors. As Wang reported, the half-life of laccase produced by Bacillus subtilis WD23 was 2.5 h at 80 C and 15 d at pH 9. A laccase was obtained from Bacillus C-125. The optimum pH of laccase was 7.5-8. Chloride did not inhibit laccase but stimulated laccase activity. Bacterial laccase shows great potential for application. But there are too few studies on bacterial laccase that seriously hamper the application of bacterial laccase. Therefore, it is of great significance to carry out extensive research on bacterial laccase.
  26. Hydrogen peroxide, chemical formula H2O2. Pure hydrogen peroxide is a light blue viscous liquid that is miscible with water in any proportion. It is a strong oxidant. The aqueous solution is commonly called hydrogen peroxide and is a colorless transparent liquid. Its aqueous solution is suitable for medical wound disinfection and environmental disinfection and food disinfection. Under normal circumstances, it will slowly decompose into water and oxygen, but the decomposition rate is extremely slow, and the speed of the reaction is accelerated by adding a catalyst such as manganese dioxide or the like, or irradiating with short-wave radiation. Oxidation and reduction in different cases. Used for photographic decontaminants; color positive blue thinning; film over-scale thinning. Very easy to break down, not easy to live for a long time. On October 27, 2017, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer published a preliminary list of carcinogens, hydrogen peroxide in the list of three types of carcinogens. Physical properties The aqueous solution is a colorless transparent liquid, soluble in water, alcohol, ether, and insoluble in benzene and petroleum ether. Pure hydrogen peroxide is a light blue viscous liquid with a melting point of -0.43 ° C and a boiling point of 150.2 ° C. The pure hydrogen peroxide will change its molecular configuration, so the melting point will also change. The solid density at the freezing point was 1.71 g/cm3, and the density decreased as the temperature increased. It has a greater degree of association than H2O, so its dielectric constant and boiling point are higher than water. Chemical properties Oxidative Pure hydrogen peroxide (Lead white in the oil painting [basic lead carbonate] will react with hydrogen sulfide in the air to form black lead sulfide, which can be washed with hydrogen peroxide) Principle: lead sulfide→lead oxide→basic lead carbonate (requires alkaline medium) Reducing The reaction with a strong oxidizing agent such as chlorine or potassium permanganate is oxidized to form oxygen. In 10 mL of 10% sample solution, 5 mL of diluted sulfuric acid test solution (TS-241) and 1 mL of potassium permanganate test solution (TS-193) were added. There should be bubbles and the purple-red potassium permanganate disappears. It is acidic to litmus. In case of organic matter, it is explosive. Take 1 g of sample (accurate to 0.1 mg) and dilute to 250.0 mL with water. Take 25 mL of this solution, add 10 mL of dilute sulfuric acid test solution (TS-241), and titrate with 0.1 mol/L potassium permanganate. 0.1 mol/L per ml. Potassium permanganate corresponds to 1.70 mg of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In the case of organic matter and heat, it releases oxygen and water, and reacts violently with chromic acid, potassium permanganate, metal and carbonic acid. [2] In order to prevent decomposition, a trace amount of a stabilizer such as sodium stannate, sodium pyrophosphate or the like may be added. Hydrogen peroxide is a very weak acid: H2O2 = (reversible) = H++HO2-(Ka = 2.4 x 10-12). Therefore, the peroxide of the metal can be regarded as its salt. Pure hydrogen peroxide is very unstable, and it is violently decomposed into water and oxygen when heated to 153 °C. Use The use of hydrogen peroxide is divided into three types: medical, military and industrial. The daily disinfection is medical hydrogen peroxide. The medical hydrogen peroxide can kill intestinal pathogenic bacteria, pyogenic cocci, and pathogenic yeast, which are generally used for surface disinfection of objects. Hydrogen peroxide has an oxidation effect, but the concentration of medical hydrogen peroxide is equal to or lower than 3%. When it is wiped to the wound surface, it will burn, the surface will be oxidized into white and bubble, and it can be washed with water. After 3-5 minutes Restore the original skin tone. Hydrogen peroxide bleaching mechanism The chemical industry is used as a raw material for producing sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate, peracetic acid, sodium chlorite, thiourea peroxide, etc., oxidizing agents such as tartaric acid and vitamins. The pharmaceutical industry is used as a bactericide, disinfectant, and an oxidant for the production of thiram and 40 liters of antibacterial agents. The printing and dyeing industry is used as a bleaching agent for cotton fabrics and for chromogenic dyeing. Removal of iron and other heavy metals when used to produce metal salts or other compounds. Also used in electroplating baths to remove inorganic impurities and improve the quality of the plated parts. Also used for bleaching wool, raw silk, ivory, pulp, fat, etc. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can be used as a rocket power improver. Civil use: to deal with the smell of kitchen sewers, to the pharmacy to buy hydrogen peroxide plus water plus washing powder poured into the sewer can be decontaminated, disinfected, and sterilized; 3% hydrogen peroxide (medical grade) for wound disinfection; About us Starting from a small supplier of proteins and enzymes for academic institutes and biotech companies, Creative BioMart has always been focusing on developing high quality protein products and efficient protein manufacturing techniques. Here are some products:JAG1, LIPG, MAPK13, Mcl1,etc.
  27. Installing solar panels and enjoying the benefit of free green energy is a common goal shared by many homeowners. Now that you have decided to finally move forward with this project, you may be eager to get the ball rolling. Some homeowners in your shoes have been dismayed to run into issues when installing solar panels that may have otherwise been prevented with forethought and planning. These are some of the more common solar panel installation problems that may affect your upcoming project. A Weak Roof Solar panels may look relatively light, but their appearance is misleading. The actual weight depends on the type of panels that you select, but many roofs have not been designed to withstand the weight of a full set of typical solar panels. You can avoid learning about this problem in the middle of a solar panel installation project by consulting with a roofing contractor ahead of time. A Roof that Requires Replacement Soon The solar panel installation process takes time, energy and money, so you understandably want to maximize the benefit of this effort. A typical asphalt shingle roof has a lifespan of approximately 25 years, although there is a considerable variation to this based on weather conditions, maintenance, and many other factors. Installing new solar panels on an older roof that requires replacement soon is not wise. If your roof is close to the end of its life, it makes sense to replace it before installing new panels. Not Planning for Water Flow When your roof was constructed, its purpose was to protect the home from exposure to the elements by creating an impermeable barrier. Its design is based on the concept that water will flow downward without hindrance. Solar panels create blockages that your roof was not designed for initially. Consulting with a roofer will help you to determine if any additional steps need to be taken to ensure the integrity of your roof. As beneficial as solar panel installation can be for the environment and for your budget, it is not without challenges. These are a few common problems that you may run into, and you can see that they pertain to the roof. Because solar panels are mounted to the roof, it makes sense to ensure that your roof is in good condition and can tolerate this installation before beginning the project. Now is a great time to contact a licensed roofer for more information about preparatory steps that may be needed.
  28. The development of nucleic acid vaccine marks the arrival of the third vaccine revolution. In 1995, the New York Academy of Sciences held a conference on nucleic acid vaccines, which was called the new era of vaccines and the third revolution of vaccines. Nucleic acid vaccine, also known as gene vaccine or DNA vaccine, is also called naked nucleic acid vaccine because it does not need carriers and adjuvants for intramuscular injection. By intramuscular injection, the vaccine can obtain a more durable antigen expression in myocytes. The antigen can induce antibody production, T cell proliferation and cytokine release, especially the killing effect of cytotoxic T cells. Specific immune response mediated by cytotoxic T cells plays an important role in anti-tumor, anti-virus and elimination of intracellular parasitic infections. Nucleic acid vaccine has attracted much attention among many vaccines because of its unique advantages. The unexpected results of Wolf. and Arthur's gene delivery system provided conditions for the discovery of nucleic acid vaccine. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, gene therapy experiments were carried out with nucleic acids expressing gene products. Nude genes without any treatment can express proteins in muscle cells. This product can be expressed in skeletal muscle cells for two months and induce immune response in the body, thus triggering a research upsurge of nucleic acid vaccine. In the initial animal experiments, there were two encouraging results: the first was that influenza A virus nucleic acid vaccine was injected into mice, which resulted in the production of antibodies and cytotoxic T cells in mice and will take the Vaccine Preclinical Assessment in need. Then the mice were attacked with influenza A, and 100% of the mice in the control group survived in health, while 100% of the mice in the control group died nine days later. Almost at the same time, Fernand. used gene guns and nucleic acids encoding erythrocyte agglutinins, which resulted in protective immune responses in mice. Another important research result is the DNA vaccine of hepatitis B surface antigen. This vaccine can not only induce animals to produce corresponding antibodies, but also, more importantly, can make the HBsAg of transgenic animals negative. This indicates that nucleic acid vaccine can be used for the prevention or treatment of diseases, especially for the development of hepatitis B nucleic acid vaccine approach the medical dusty into vaccine Scale-up Development. This provides a promising direction for the research of hepatitis B vaccine in China at present. The research progress of nucleic acid vaccine is encouraging, because nucleic acid vaccine has many advantages, especially the dual functions of immune prevention and treatment. Since 1994, the Food and Drug Administration of the United States has successively approved nucleic acid vaccines such as AIDS, influenza, hepatitis B, simple scar, malaria and carcinoembryonic antigen to enter clinical trials. Many vaccine companies in Europe and the United States have invested a lot of manpower and material resources in the development and research of nucleic acid vaccine.
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