A group of proteins that make up connective tissues and interstitial cells of animals are mainly collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. Tissues and organs are formed by cell adhesion and connection of these three components. They not only have the functions of maintaining cell morphology, mechanical support and weight bearing, but also play a role in defense, protection, nutrition and repair.
The initial process is to synthesize on the cytoplasmic ribosomes, and then enter the endoplasmic reticulum through the signal peptide sorting pathway to continue to synthesize, and some continue to synthesize in the cytoplasm. Generally, secreted proteins must go through the ER pathway through the Golgi It is secreted by the body, and the structural protein itself has a retention signal that will not be secreted and reaches the point of action through the intracellular transport pathway.
British scientists wrote in the latest issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that they have discovered the origin of the protein structure responsible for the metabolism of Earth's life. These simple molecules provide power for the early life of the Earth and can serve as chemical signals for Teams such as NASA use it to find life on other planets.
According to a report from the Physicists' Organization Network on the 16th, in the latest research, scientists at Rutgers University's "Evolution of Nanomachines in Geosphere and Microbial Ancestors" (ENIGMA) team traced the enzyme (protein) The evolutionary process found 3.5 to 2.5 billion years ago, the earliest two metabolic proteins in the evolution of life. The ENIGMA project aims to reveal the role of the simplest proteins that catalyze the earliest stages of life.
In the latest study, the ENIGMA team studied two protein "folds": a ferredoxin fold that binds to iron-sulfur compounds, and a "Rossman" fold that binds to nucleotides (a component of DNA and RNA). They believe that these two folds are likely to be the earliest structures of early metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence that the two folds may have a common ancestor. If true, this ancestor may be the first metabolic enzyme in life on Earth.
Researchers explain that proteins are amino acid chains, and the 3D path of amino acid chains in space is called folding. Ferredoxins are metals found in modern proteins that allow electrons to shuttle around cells to promote metabolism. Electrons flow through solids, liquids, and gases and power living systems. Other planetary systems must also have the same electricity in order for life to thrive.
ENIGMA principal researcher Paul G. Folkovsky said: "We believe that life is made up of very small parts, which then make cells and eventually produce complex organisms like humans. Now we have found It is these building blocks that ultimately lead to the evolution of cells, animals and plants. "
Research collaborator Vicas Nanda, a professor of biochemistry and molecular biology, said: "We know very little about how life originated on Earth, and the latest research allows us to understand and discover the earliest metabolic proteins. "
It is reported that researchers will conduct tests in the laboratory to better understand the origin of life on Earth, and hope to observe how the life of other planets originated accordingly.
Many proteins are important substances that make up the structure of cells and organisms, and are called structural proteins. For example, the components of feathers, muscles, hair, spider silk, etc. are mainly structural proteins.