Proteomics is the study of proteomics, the study of cellular, histological or biological protein composition and its changing rules. Proteome comes from the combination of protein and genome, which means "the complete set of proteins expressed by a genome", including all proteins expressed by a cell or even a living organism. in essence, proteomics refers to the study of the characteristics of proteins at a large scale, including the expression level of proteins, post-translational modification, interaction between proteins and proteins, etc., so as to obtain an overall and comprehensive understanding of diseases, cell metabolism and other processes at the protein level. As this field is going much more advanced, there are some branches from it: shotgun proteomics; itraq proteomics; aqua proteomics; silac protemics;
- Protein Identification
- posttranslational modification
- Protein function determination
The picture below shows the steps of identification of proteomics：
Although the concept of proteomics was first proposed in 1994, relevant studies can be traced back to the mid-1990s or even earlier. Especially in the early 1980s, a similar proteomics plan was proposed before the genome project, then known as the Human Protein Index plan. In the early 1990s, various technologies were quite mature. In this case, the concept of proteomics was proposed after discussion by scientists from various countries.
In view of the importance of the development and the advanced technology, major developed countries in the west have shelled out a lot of money to launch the research of proteomics in an all-round way. For example, the national institutes of health of the United States, the department of energy of the United States and the European Community have all initiated and made significant progress in the research of different biological protein groups, and a great number of high-quality research papers have been published in famous international academic journals. Because proteomics research is more practical than genomics research and has a huge market prospect, companies and pharmaceutical companies have also invested heavily in proteomics research.
In the past two years, proteomics research technology has been applied to various life sciences, such as cell biology and neurobiology. In the research object, it covers the range of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, plants and animals, and involves various important biological phenomena, such as signal transduction, cell differentiation, protein folding and so on. In the future the field of proteomics research will be more extensive.
Proteomics will be one of the most effective methods to find molecular markers and drug targets for diseases. Proteomics technology also has a very attractive prospect in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer, alzheimer's disease and other major human diseases. At present, many large international pharmaceutical companies are investing a lot of manpower and material resources in proteomics application research.
With the implementation and advancement of the human genome project, life science research has entered the post-genome era. In this era, the main research objects of life science are functional genomics, including structural genomics and proteomics. Although the genomes of several species have now been sequenced, the function of more than half of these genes is unknown. Protein is the executor of physiological function and the direct embodiment of life phenomena.
The development of proteomics technology has become an important support for the rapid development of modern biotechnology, leading to a key breakthrough in biotechnology.
Development of proteomics research is not only a milestone of life science research into the post-genome era, but also one of the core contents of life science research in the post-genome era.
The study of proteomics can provide not only material basis for life activities, but also theoretical basis and solution for the clarification of many disease mechanisms. By comparing the proteome of normal and pathological individuals, we can find some "disease-specific protein molecules" that can be molecular targets for new drug design or provide molecular markers for early diagnosis of disease. In the meanwhile, this method would cooperate with protein de novo sequencing and peptide synthesis effectively.
The most marketable drugs in the world are proteins themselves or their targets are certain protein molecules. Therefore, proteomics research is not only a necessary work to explore the mysteries of life, but also a great benefit to human health. Proteomics is a characteristic of the post-gene era of life science.