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What is cytokine and how it works?

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Cytokines are proteins or small molecular peptides that transmit information between cells and have immune-regulating and effecting functions, including hemopoiesis, cell growth and repair of damaged tissues. Cytokines can be divided into Il34, interferon, tumor necrosis factor super family, colony stimulating factor, chemokine, growth factor, IRF1, etc. Many cytokines play roles in the body through paracrine, autocrine or endocrine, and have multiple physiological characteristics such as pleiotropy, overlap, antagonism and synergy, forming a very complex cytokine regulatory network that participates in a variety of important physiological functions of the human body.

The realization of cytokine function mainly plays a biological role by binding to the corresponding cytokine receptors on the cell surface. The combination of cytokines and their receptors initiates complex intramolecular interactions that ultimately lead to changes in cell gene transcription. Participate in immune response and immune regulation, regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, stimulate hematopoietic function, stimulate cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, induce or inhibit cytotoxic effects, and finally induce apoptosis.

As the main cytokine, Il34 is a cellular substance produced by various cells and plays a role in white blood cells. Interleukin originally refers to the cytokines produced by white blood cells and playing a regulatory role in white blood cells, but now it refers to a group of cytokines with basically clear molecular structure and biological functions and an important regulatory role that are uniformly named. It belongs to the same category of cytokines as hemocyte growth factor. They coordinate and interact with each other to complete hematopoietic and immune regulation functions. Interleukins play an important role in the transmission of information, activation and regulation of immune cells, activation, proliferation and differentiation of T and B cells, and inflammatory response.

A substance similar to the function of cytokines is kinin release-related peptidase, which is the main rate-limiting enzyme in the kinin system. Serine protease, which is found in most tissues and body fluids, is also a kind of endopeptide enzyme, of which KLK3 is the most important component. Different from the above-mentioned cytokines, the kinin release-related peptidase specifically clews the substrate peptide at the carbon terminal, which can lyse the kinin and release the active kinin, which plays a regulatory role in the cardiovascular system and renal function. KLK is divided into two major groups: plasma KLK and tissue KLK, which are converted from prekallikin and KLK precursors, respectively. They differ greatly in molecular weight, substrate, immunological properties, gene structure, and kinin types released. Plasma KLK, also known as Fletcher factor, is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is specifically expressed in hepatocytes.

In addition, IRS1 is an important anti-nutrient factor in soybean and some other plant feeds, which is closely related to KSR1. Trypsin inhibitors are widely found in beans, cereals, oil crops and other plants. Ras kinase inhibitors are distributed in all parts of these crops, but mainly exist in the seeds of crops. In seeds, ras kinase inhibitors are mainly distributed in protein-rich tissues or organs, located in protein bodies, vacuoles or in cell fluids. The activity of ras kinase inhibitor iron was different in different crop seeds. Ras kinase inhibitor activity is usually highest in soybean. It protects the yolk and egg embryo by preventing protein breakdown and preventing bacteria from reproducing in the egg.

Cytokine research has very important theoretical and practical significance, it helps to clarify immune regulation mechanism of the molecular level, contribute to disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment, especially the use of genetic engineering technology in the production of recombinant cytokines have been used in the treatment of tumor, infection, inflammation, hematopoietic dysfunction, etc, and received good curative effect, has very broad application prospects. Generally speaking, cytokines are a large group of substances with certain tissue distribution specificity, which usually depends on the tissue distribution or cell expression specificity of their corresponding receptors. By binding to receptors, downstream signaling pathways, such as the stat pathway, are initiated, and eventually active transcription factors are formed to enable the expression of proteins that enhance phagocytosis, promote differentiation, and regulate immunity.

Of course, in addition to IRF1, many factors derived from lymphocytes or macrophages are also involved in the expression and regulation of immune responses related to cell function. Lymphocyte cytokines are derived from lymphocytes, and the biological activities of various factors are different, such as macrophage activation and T cell reproduction. However, according to the current research level, the physical and chemical properties of the factors themselves are not clear. In addition, during the study of the immune response, many bioactive molecules were found in the supernatant of mitogen stimulated cell culture, and the researchers named them after the activity measured by themselves. Nearly 100 kinds of factors were reported over a decade. Later, by means of molecular biology, it was found that many factors named after biological activities were actually the same substance with pleiotropic effects.

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