8. PNAS: Scientists developed the first adult induced specific stem cells
On April 4th, a research team from the University of New South Wales (UNSW) published an article in the journal PNAS, which was the first to develop a revolutionary stem cell repair technology. This technology can successfully re-inducing fat and bone cells into pluripotent stem cells, and is expected to be used in the treatment of human injuries, including spinal injuries and fractures.
This technique is similar to the regeneration of Salamander limbs. Its most prominent achievement is the transformation of adult cells into induced immense stem cells (iMS cells), and iMS cells have the function of self-renewal and differentiation into many types of cells. The iMS cells can treat the human body damage caused by disease, aging or trauma, and will revolutionize the current state of regenerative medicine treatment of body damage.
The first induced specific adult stem cell (iMS): capable of self-renewal repair, differentiation into multiple types of cells.
According to the stage of development, stem cells can be divided into embryonic stem cells (ES cells, which have the ability to differentiate into intact individuals) and adult stem cells (somatic stem cells). Adult stem cells have the function of differentiating into specific cells and are not capable of differentiating into various cell types. The breakthrough in this latest technology published by PNAS is that induced specific stem cells can differentiate into many types of cells.
9. PNAS: adult adipocytes can differentiate into pluripotent stem cells, or can be used for tissue damage repair
For the first time, Australian scientists have reprogrammed adult bones or fat cells to obtain stem cells that can differentiate into any tissue, thereby repairing damaged tissues and organs.
Inspired by the phenomenon that lizards can regenerate limbs, researchers developed techniques that can return adult cells to the state of stem cells and gain the potential for division and multi-directional differentiation - pluripotent stem cells. This means that this part of the cell can repair damage to any part of the body: including the spinal cord, joints and muscles. The significance of this study is that there have been no previous reports of successful differentiation of adult stem cells into multiple types of tissues.
"This technology is a revolutionary advancement in stem cell therapy, and there has never been evidence that adult stem cells can differentiate directly into tissues." John Pimanda, Principal Investigator from the University of New South Wales, said.
10. Nature: A major breakthrough! Human haploid embryonic stem cells was produced by the first time!
In a study, researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the University of Columbia Medical Center, and the New York Stem Cell Foundation Institute succeeded in producing a new type of embryonic stem cell that carries only a single copy of the human genome, rather than two copies of the human genome normally found in stem cells. The relevant research results were published online in the Nature Journal on March 16, 2016, and the title of the paper is "Derivation and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells".
The haploid embryonic stem cells described in this study are the first known human daughter cells capable of producing a single copy of the genome of a parental cell by cell division.
Human cells are considered to be diploid because they inherit two sets of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, 23 of which are from the mother and 23 from the father. The only exceptions are germ cells (eggs and sperm), which are haploid cells and contain a set of chromosomes, 23 chromosomes. These haploid cells cannot produce more eggs and sperm by dividing.
Efforts to use human egg cells to produce embryonic stem cells have previously led to the production of diploid stem cells. In this study, the researchers promoted the division of unfertilized human eggs. They then labeled the DNA with a fluorescent dye to isolate these haploid embryonic stem cells, which were scattered among more diploid cells.
With years of experience in providing high-quality products and services in the field of biopharmaceuticals for customers all over the world, scientists in Creative Biolabs will be more focused on developing first class product and technology to meet the need of stem cell therapy development. In cell therapy, iPS cell technology has opened huge possibilities for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. There are still significant challenges in gene and cell therapy, before these new approaches can enter main stream medicine. Significant safety issues have been reported in some trials and the need for better vectors, delivery techniques and treatment genes are widely recognized.