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Hydrogen peroxide, chemical formula H2O2. Pure hydrogen peroxide is a light blue viscous liquid that is miscible with water in any proportion. It is a strong oxidant. The aqueous solution is commonly called hydrogen peroxide and is a colorless transparent liquid. Its aqueous solution is suitable for medical wound disinfection and environmental disinfection and food disinfection. Under normal circumstances, it will slowly decompose into water and oxygen, but the decomposition rate is extremely slow, and the speed of the reaction is accelerated by adding a catalyst such as manganese dioxide or the like, or irradiating with short-wave radiation.


Oxidation and reduction in different cases. Used for photographic decontaminants; color positive blue thinning; film over-scale thinning. Very easy to break down, not easy to live for a long time.

On October 27, 2017, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer published a preliminary list of carcinogens, hydrogen peroxide in the list of three types of carcinogens.


Physical properties

The aqueous solution is a colorless transparent liquid, soluble in water, alcohol, ether, and insoluble in benzene and petroleum ether.

Pure hydrogen peroxide is a light blue viscous liquid with a melting point of -0.43 ° C and a boiling point of 150.2 ° C. The pure hydrogen peroxide will change its molecular configuration, so the melting point will also change. The solid density at the freezing point was 1.71 g/cm3, and the density decreased as the temperature increased. It has a greater degree of association than H2O, so its dielectric constant and boiling point are higher than water.


Chemical properties


Pure hydrogen peroxide

(Lead white in the oil painting [basic lead carbonate] will react with hydrogen sulfide in the air to form black lead sulfide, which can be washed with hydrogen peroxide)

Principle: lead sulfide→lead oxide→basic lead carbonate

(requires alkaline medium)

  1. Reducing The reaction with a strong oxidizing agent such as chlorine or potassium permanganate is oxidized to form oxygen.
  2. In 10 mL of 10% sample solution, 5 mL of diluted sulfuric acid test solution (TS-241) and 1 mL of potassium permanganate test solution (TS-193) were added. There should be bubbles and the purple-red potassium permanganate disappears. It is acidic to litmus. In case of organic matter, it is explosive.
  3. Take 1 g of sample (accurate to 0.1 mg) and dilute to 250.0 mL with water. Take 25 mL of this solution, add 10 mL of dilute sulfuric acid test solution (TS-241), and titrate with 0.1 mol/L potassium permanganate. 0.1 mol/L per ml. Potassium permanganate corresponds to 1.70 mg of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ).
  4. In the case of organic matter and heat, it releases oxygen and water, and reacts violently with chromic acid, potassium permanganate, metal and carbonic acid. [2] In order to prevent decomposition, a trace amount of a stabilizer such as sodium stannate, sodium pyrophosphate or the like may be added.
  5. Hydrogen peroxide is a very weak acid: H2O2 = (reversible) = H++HO2-(Ka = 2.4 x 10-12). Therefore, the peroxide of the metal can be regarded as its salt.
  6. Pure hydrogen peroxide is very unstable, and it is violently decomposed into water and oxygen when heated to 153 °C.



The use of hydrogen peroxide is divided into three types: medical, military and industrial. The daily disinfection is medical hydrogen peroxide. The medical hydrogen peroxide can kill intestinal pathogenic bacteria, pyogenic cocci, and pathogenic yeast, which are generally used for surface disinfection of objects. Hydrogen peroxide has an oxidation effect, but the concentration of medical hydrogen peroxide is equal to or lower than 3%. When it is wiped to the wound surface, it will burn, the surface will be oxidized into white and bubble, and it can be washed with water. After 3-5 minutes Restore the original skin tone.


Hydrogen peroxide bleaching mechanism

The chemical industry is used as a raw material for producing sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate, peracetic acid, sodium chlorite, thiourea peroxide, etc., oxidizing agents such as tartaric acid and vitamins. The pharmaceutical industry is used as a bactericide, disinfectant, and an oxidant for the production of thiram and 40 liters of antibacterial agents. The printing and dyeing industry is used as a bleaching agent for cotton fabrics and for chromogenic dyeing. Removal of iron and other heavy metals when used to produce metal salts or other compounds. Also used in electroplating baths to remove inorganic impurities and improve the quality of the plated parts. Also used for bleaching wool, raw silk, ivory, pulp, fat, etc. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can be used as a rocket power improver.

Civil use: to deal with the smell of kitchen sewers, to the pharmacy to buy hydrogen peroxide plus water plus washing powder poured into the sewer can be decontaminated, disinfected, and sterilized;

3% hydrogen peroxide (medical grade) for wound disinfection;


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