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Vaccine development and application

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Definition of vaccine

Vaccine refers to a vaccine-based preventive biological product for the prevention and control of the occurrence and prevalence of infectious diseases. The vaccine is also a virus or a bacterium that artificially reduces it, inactivates it, or breaks it. Through the treatment, the antigenic components must be retained. After injection into the human body, the human immune system recognizes, clears and produces antibodies. When the outside world is actually the original bacteria or virus, our body will remove it.

How is the vaccine developed?

The development of the vaccine can be divided into three periods, the first is the classical vaccine period, that is, the period of vaccine production based on repeated observation and exploration of the experience before the pathogen is discovered. The second is the traditional vaccine period, that is, the inactivated vaccine and the attenuated vaccine are prepared by using the diseased tissue, the chicken embryo or the cell proliferating virus; the inactivated vaccine and the attenuated vaccine are prepared by culturing the intact bacteria with the medium. The third is the engineering vaccine period, which uses DNA recombination technology to produce vaccines.

The development of vaccines dates back to ancient China. In China in the early 18th century, pus was inoculated to patients with smallpox - an ingenious method of inoculation of human pox to prevent smallpox. Although this kind of medical treatment for vaccinating human vaccination is not dangerous without any treatment, this method has pioneered the use of vaccines to prevent high-risk infectious diseases. In 1921, the vaccination method was introduced to the United Kingdom. British doctor Jenner also found that cows and cows vaccinated with vaccinia cattle did not suffer from smallpox. In 1976, Jenner took cytoplasm from a suckling woman infected with a milkmaid. Inoculated on the arm of an 8-year-old boy and then allowed to produce a smallpox pus, and the boy did not infect the smallpox, which proved that it was indeed immune to smallpox. This is also the first scientific experiment in which humans control infectious diseases through conscious vaccination. Vaccine, which means vaccines, vaccines, refers to all actively immunized biological products. A vaccine prepared from cattle used at the time of the largest scale - vaccinia vaccine.

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Vaccine development prospects

Vaccination is the most effective and economical means of preventing diseases. It is the only weapon that human beings can predict to eliminate a disease. With the advancement of treatment technology and disease prevention, vaccination has achieved remarkable results and is likely to expand to the goal of cancer prevention. There is also a vaccine that may prevent atherosclerosis. There is a significant potential for development in the vaccine market. Unmet needs remain, as many diseases still have lower immunization rates or no vaccine available. The World Health Organization expects the global market to soar to $10 billion by 2025, and 120 new products will be launched in the next 10 years. Increased awareness of infectious diseases: Governments of all countries are major customers, playing an infinite role in purchasing and enforcing safety regulations and affecting the spread of vaccines.

The global outbreak of vaccine-preventable diseases has boosted public awareness. The seasonal flu epidemic has caused thousands of deaths, placing a heavy burden on national health spending. The increase in consciousness prompted the government to adopt various programs to prevent the outbreak of future outbreaks. These programs have funded the popular immunization program, which has been instrumental in increasing vaccine use. The next generation of vaccine development depends on a platform strategy based on genomics, reverse vaccinology, high-throughput DNA sequencing, novel plant and insect-based expression and production systems, and new and more effective vaccine adjuvants. These developments are likely to rapidly produce new, optimal, cost-effective vaccine targets that have a greater chance of success in clinical development programs. New candidate vaccines with room for development (eg, meningococcal beta, GBS, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococcal, and pathogenic E. coli) are already under development. These new platforms not only enhance the future of major infectious disease vaccines (eg, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue and malaria), but also lay the foundation for vaccine development for the underlying treatment of emerging diseases.

 

Vaccine application:

With the advancement of molecular biology theory and technology, the theoretical basis and technical level of vaccine development have been continuously improved and improved. Some traditional classic vaccine varieties have been further transformed into new vaccines, while other vaccines that cannot be developed using classical techniques have been found. The way to solve the problem. Therefore, new vaccines such as subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines for different infectious diseases and non-communicable diseases are constantly being introduced. Such as DNA vaccine, RNA vaccine, rBCG vaccine, Glycoconjugate Vaccines and Polysaccharide Vaccines.


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