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  • Megan Bonetti

    Conferencing Climate Change: Teamwork or Tug-of-war?

    By Megan Bonetti

    India. Culture, cows and rubbish. As an Aussie living for a short time in India it is such an intriguing country. Indians love their diverse nation yet they use the streets like rubbish dumps. Even my friends here tell me it’s ok to throw my paddle-pop wrapper out the car window. I can’t… so I just hold it tight and wait till I get home. Growing up in Australia, those ‘emu hunts’ in primary school have willed my littering days away. Yet I suspect that even my household trash bin will just be dumped across the road for the cows to eat or worse still, burnt on the street…for the cows to eat. This is India. Love it or hate it. (#tii) As an Australian social worker volunteering with an NGO in Southern India I witness the large divide between the rich and poor of this incredibly colourful nation. I work with many children whose whole families have had to migrate from various parts of India due to the rapid effects of drought on their land and the significant urbanisation of major cities in the last 10 years. It turns out India has seen a boom in it’s industrial and technological trades a little later than it’s western neighbours and they are loving it. But India’s urban boom is threatened with westerners telling them they have to stop producing and polluting. The earth doesn’t like it. Sorry India…We made our big capitalist bucks, but you don’t get that chance. Just when things are getting good and you’re developing astronomically, your main source of energy is being taken away. It turns out fossil fuels are the cheapest form of energy for the developing world, especially as they try in earnest to develop the same standard of living as we have. So as one the most formidable countries in the developing world, India not only has the pressures of navigating a massive population but also has to figure out how to go green on the cheap. It’s interesting that the Turnbull government has reluctantly agreed on a 5% reduction in carbon emissions in the next five years. “Phew! Glad we got through that one boys.” They wipe their sweaty brows while developing countries are drowning, burning and trying to survive on scant resources. These countries are just trying to make a crust, while Eurocentric nations are slowly turning a baguette into organic multigrain sourdough (and throwing the crusts to their hobby cows). If the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris is truly the last attempt for international cooperation, leaders cannot just show and tell their contribution and sit back with folded arms. But how can mere human individuals promote serious teamwork? This brings me back to the children I work with here in India. Every day their parent’s lives are tied to corrupt building associations. They are bonded labourers—gypsies moving from construction to construction. These families have no hope of returning to their now desolate homeland and are not provided social security measures that protect their livelihood. Then there is India’s neighbour, low-lying Bangladesh, experiencing saltwater intrusion that poisons whole water supplies for entire villages. In our own backyard we see Australian farmers shooting all their cattle only to turn the gun on themselves under the shadow of unprecedented drought. This is human impact. Global warming is not just about penguins and polar bears. Climate change is a social justice issue. We live in a globalised world. The industrial revolution brought us here; and climate change is the consequence. No longer do we just neighbour cities, we neighbour nations. The leaders of Australia must be held accountable to all their neighbours including the ones just trying to keep their head above water. It simply won’t do for wealthy nations, such as Australia, to show the world their own country’s carbon reductions and sit back down. This summit can’t work as a set menu; it has to be a potluck dinner, a time for sharing, understanding and safeguarding. For the sake of our beautiful earth and the many diverse cultures of the human race, this time I hope and pray that the leaders of the world provide a resounding voice for the marginalised. This summit and our government must not stop at figures, but uphold the basic democratic and human rights principles that cradle modern society. The United Nations was created so that man-made and worldwide calamities could no longer grasp our world with such authority. Well, it turns out a world war with Mother Nature is knocking on our doorstep. Will we listen and respond? I hope so.   For more information please visit the below links. They offer great insights into climate change realities and are positive and accessible resources for engaging the conversation. The reality of climate change | David Puttnam | TEDxDublin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SBjtO-0tbKU India: Climate Change Impacts http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2013/06/19/india-climate-change-impacts Climate Change and the End of Australia http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/climate-change-and-the-end-of-australia-20111003 The Critical Decade: Climate Change and Health (Australia) http://www.climatecouncil.org.au/uploads/1bb6887d6f8cacd5d844fc30b0857931.pdf GoPro: Climate Change and the Optimistic Future https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sT6jtTtsG_M Paris Climate Conference: COP21 Explained https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-qd8YCaoQ4 Why is the Paris UN climate summit important? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnztR5JllA4 Adam asks new PM Malcolm Turnbull on climate change in Question Time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cqXtKt-Is54 Morgan Freeman's Powerful Climate Change Short Film https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YQIaOldDU8  
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  • Joseph Ramondeli

    Black Friday Promotes Over-Consumption and Waste

    By Joseph Ramondeli

    Black Friday Promotes Over-Consumption and Waste               Every year Thanksgiving weekend is overshadowed by Black Friday and in recent years Cyber Monday as well. Thanksgiving is supposed to be a time when families can get together, even if it’s just for a day or dinner, to talk and reconnect. However every year more American’s are focused on shopping. Stores are now open by 8:00 pm on Thanksgiving Day resulting in people sitting at the dinner table with their families while browsing on their phones for the best deals that they hope to buy in a few hours.  This is just another example of how our modern, technologically advanced society is constantly becoming more materialistic. Aside from Black Friday overshadowing an American holiday and tradition, it is an annual example of how Americans over-consume and by doing so are very wasteful.  A huge fraction of purchased goods during Black Friday and Cyber Monday are things that people don’t need, they are things they think they need. Advertisements and social trends play a big role in the impact of this event (I refuse to call it a holiday) and in our consumption behavior in general.             Companies are tricking and forcing us to buy un-needed goods through the use of planned obsolescence and perceived obsolescence.  Planned obsolescence is disappointing because it refers to how companies purposely make products to only last a few years and by doing so force consumers to by new products from them every couple of years. The most common example of this is electronic devices. Apple creates a new IPhone every year so that once yours break “accidentally” there’s a brand new, more expensive one to purchase as a replacement. Not to mention that such companies stop making old models, forcing you to buy the newest model. On the other hand, perceived obsolescence is promoted by companies but ultimately results from our own social actions. Companies, through advertisements, constantly throw the promotion of new goods in our face. It’s almost impossible to go anywhere or do anything without seeing an advertisement of some sort. These advertisements tend to increase around the holiday season, hence the origin of Black Friday. The main reason such advertisements work is due to the social pressure we put on each other and ourselves. Everyone wants the next new model or brand and once a friend or family member purchases something then we are pressured and attracted to buying it as well. The biggest example of this is the fashion industry, where new trends come and go each season resulting in constant purchasing of new, unnecessary clothing. These companies are clearly getting the better of us based on the success of such events as Black Friday and Cyber Monday.             So why is over-consumption such a bad thing, why should we care if people waste there money on unnecessary goods? It’s simple: overconsumption leads to waste! One of the downfalls to the technological advancements of today’s world is that we create materials that cannot be found in our natural world. This means that when we throw something out in the garbage it will never decompose. Purchasing many of today’s consumer goods is bad enough because most cannot be recycled and will sit in landfills, but over-consumption takes this once step further in that we buy more than we need! We buy new clothes or new phones before our old ones are worn our or broken. By doing so we are creating more waste because we constantly thrown away products that are still functional and contribute the ever-growing amount of waste humanity has created on this planet. In order to help reduce the waste we create of course we should recycle and reuse as much as possible. However, I believe that the creation of waste should be stopped at its source, and that’s our consumer purchasing. Buying less and using goods to there fullest is a sure way to decrease waste. Resisting social pressure and advertisements is key to getting this accomplished. So next year put the phones away and turn the TV off at the dinner table during Thanksgiving, you don’t need them. Joseph Ramondelli  
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  • Mark Piazzalunga

    DESERTEC project, Sahara Sun could power Europe by 2050

    By Mark Piazzalunga

    Sahara desert climate is hot and arid, everybody knows it. So how can this simple and well-known fact become the idea to power a continent like Europe? Let’s start from the principle: renewable energy is the future of energy; we assume that this sentence is true since all facts gets to this point. Second principle: European territory is restricted and allows the construction of a few plants that could use renewable energy. Paradoxically, countries like Africa have renewable sources, particularly solar, in abundance but scarce funds to make the best of these resources. Now find the connection. Is it possible to produce huge amounts of solar energy in Africa and transport them to Europe through energy infrastructures? Apparently yes, according to DESERTEC project developers and supporters. And what is DESERTEC? It’s an initiative of the Club of Rome (a global think tank that has its headquarters in Switzerland) started in 2009. Directly from the official website of the project (Desertec.org): "The DESERTEC concept was developed by a network of politicians, scientists and economists from around the Mediterranean, from which was born the DESERTEC Foundation. Demonstrates a way to provide climate protection, energy security and the development of sustainable energy generation from sites where renewable energy sources are at their most plentiful." In practical terms? Connect renewable energy power plants in Africa to Europe through a network of HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) systems. The Foundation target is to build several renewable power plants of various types (mainly wind, photovoltaic and solar concentration) throughout North Africa. To support the project financially, the Foundation and other 12 companies (including Deutsche Bank, E.ON, RWE and ABB) created an industrial initiative: Dii GmbH. The construction project would continue until 2050 and for that date, the cost is estimated at € 400 billion, which means $ 546,720,000,000, approximately seven times Bill Gates’ fortune. It’s little bit expensive (life on Mars seems cheaper) but the entire network could provide Europe with the 15-20% of electricity that it needs. We must also consider the drastic decrease of pollution, direct effect of the project. This project isn’t just an idea but it seems an accurate and long-term plan. This could be an opportunity to connect two continents and to give them economic opportunities and jobs. There could be some problems like the wars and the instability of some of North Africa countries or how to get all 40 nations to agree to an arrangement for subsidizing the green electricity. There’s also the possibility to build the plants in Europe, just $ 54 billion more, and doing some math it brings to a shocking number: €2 per citizen per year to keep tens of thousands of jobs in Europe -- and to prevent Europe from becoming dependent on foreign countries for its electricity. Well, the project just started and it has the funds to go forward. We can't wait to see the results. Photo from Desertec.org
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Our community blogs

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    Australian attitudes towards climate change have been shifting considerably over the past few years. While many Australian’s don’t believe in climate change, more do. The majority also believe the Australian government should be doing more to address climate change on a global scale.

     

    An Ongoing Disagreement as to the Cause of Climate Change

    According to CSIRO’s 2014 annual survey of Australian attitudes to climate change, a strong majority of Australian’s believe that climate change is happening and support a variety of initiatives to address the potential impacts. However, the study concluded that there was an ongoing disagreement as to whether the cause of climate change are natural fluctuations or are the consequences of human activity. The CSIRO survey also found a pattern of ‘optimism bias’ – the belief that one is less likely than others to experience something negative. Many Australian’s believed that they would be least harmed by climate change while those most unlike themselves (those in poor, developing nations and people in the world generally) were more likely to be harmed.

    Contracted by the Garnaut Climate Change Review team, the CSIRO reviewed a number of recent studies examining Australians’ views of climate change. A total of 22 studies were reviewed and analysed. From this existing research it was concluded that most Australians believe that climate is changing, but fewer believe that the change is attributable to human activity. This belief in climate change and its drivers has waned during the last few years, reflecting trends in other Western countries. Beliefs about climate change are strongly related to political preferences, voting behaviours and gender, while no clear relationships between these beliefs and location, income or age have been shown.

     

    Australia Needs to Take Action on Climate Change

    While there was no clear consensus on what policy actions Australians prefer, such as setting a carbon price or establishing an emissions trading scheme, the study did conclude that most Australians believe that Australia should take action on climate change without waiting for a global consensus.

    A recent ReachTEL survey of 2400 people concluded the same. Conducted for a coalition of environmental groups, 64 per cent of respondents stated that they were more likely to vote for a party seeking 100 per cent renewable energy in 20 years. 48 per cent of respondents also said they were more likely to support a party reducing Australia’s net carbon emissions to zero by 2050. The survey concluded that 56.4 per cent of Australians want the government to do more to address climate change. 27.8 per cent believed the current policies were correct and only 9.9 per cent wanted less action on climate change.

    Australia has one of the highest per capita emissions of carbon dioxide in the world. If every person in the world produced the same green house gas levels as each Australian, the world would produce approximately 560% more green house gas emissions. To combat this, Australian’s need to do more to lower their own personal carbon footprints, while continuing to push their government for a tougher stance on climate change.

  2. Green Computing- A Necessity

    Uncurbed maneuvering with the natural resources in the recent century has brought us to a point where we must walk safe or we will perish. Environmental degradation has reached almost the unbearable level in many ways which is why the only sustainable way forward is adopting ‘eco-friendly’ techniques.

    Green Computing is a step to safeguard against the degrading environmental conditions on the planet. From manufacturing to usage to disposal, computers have a considerable amount of contribution to the environment illness. Green Computing is meant to minimize this effect on the environment and if possible do something to improve the environmental conditions.

    Today, most of the businesses are pivoting around the computer-based operations and hence, there is a lot that Green Computing has on offer. From SMBs to leading global MNCs, all have their specific needs of computers and related resources. Their contribution to environment degradation may vary but cannot be neglected. So, it is crucial for all levels of businesses to adopt Green Computing for a better future.

    Why Your Business Should Adopt Green Computing?

    The hope of a good future is hardly a substantial reason to attract the money-focused business minds. Still, we have seen many businesses coming up openly in the support of Green computing. Here are the reasons for which businesses can benefit from green computing.

    1.       Save Money on Bills: As a business, if you believe in ‘Saving money is earning money’, then adopting Green Computing is definitely meant for you. Green Computing involves the usage of devices that consume low energy that eventually saves your expenses as bills on electricity, etc.

    2.       More Space for Work: Green Computing aims at using technologies that constrain the need of hardware, such as- server, fax machines, etc. and replace them with software-based technologies, like- virtual servers, internet fax, Hosted PBX, etc. This serves the businesses in diminishing the requirements of hardware and dedicated space. The space saved can be used many other productive and eco-friendly efforts.

    3.       Brag about Green Computing: Many surveys and studies have proven that customers prefer services from the brands that highlight their work for social and environmental causes because going with Green Computing creates a positive influence among the customers. Some studies have also revealed that such businesses even gain priority from other businesses for partnership and other dealings. If you are contributing to the environment, make sure that claim for your efforts.

    4.       Recognitions and Marketing: Many government agencies, NGOs, environmental groups, media houses, etc. offer special certifications and prizes to businesses for their work for the environmental benefits. It comes as a free advertising for the business as news related to such recognitions keeps you in the limelight. Also, such certifications and recognition logos can even be used on the website and pamphlets that help in creating a reputed-brand feeling in the market.

    How to Adopt Green Computing?

    In case you are not impressed with the goodness of Green Computing mentioned above you should still take a look at the ways in which you can adopt it and help the planet. Possibly, the ease of adopting it will impress you.

    1.       Adopt Energy Efficient Devices: To simplify it further, Energy-Star rating for most of the electronic devices has been declared mandatory by most governments across the world. Check out the Energy-Star ratings for the devices that you purchase for your business. Usual recommendation by experts is to opt for the devices with 4-star or better ratings.

    2.       Switch to Cloud-based Solutions: With the introduction of the cloud, Green Computing has got the real fuel. Basically, it replaces huge server rooms with a simple software installation. Furthermore, with application hosting, it can even replace software installation. Cloud-based solutions eradicate the need of dedicated cables and wires, stores more data than physical storage drives can imagine. One can keep on counting on the benefits of cloud hosting for environment forever and the list might keep growing.

    3.       Avoid Printing or Make Most of Each Printed Page: Use emails, Internet Fax, etc. instead of usual printed pages. Minimizing page consumption is a multi-way benefit as it saves on manufacturing, disposal, and maintenance cost to a great extent. However, running a business with zero consumption of pages is not possible for all. In such cases, using smaller fonts, narrow margins, both-side printing, etc. can be a very valuable contribution.

    4.       Encourage Employees to Follow Eco-Friendly Practices: Most operating systems offer an efficient mode, which can be used for saving expenses on the energy. Employees must be encouraged to use the devices in such modes. Switching off the computer when not in use, sharing of devices, etc. are some of the practices that can be introduced into office culture without much hassle.

    5.       Recycle and Smart Disposal: Electronic waste (e-waste) is a big issue that the world is facing right now. Try to recycle the electronic devices in a smarter manner and at the time of disposal make sure that you follow the government and manufacturer guidelines.

    Final Note

    Business means profit and many businesses have belief in a myth that if they adopt Green Computing, they will have to suffer on the financial terms, which keeps them from helping the environment. However, the results so far have been completely opposite. For almost all levels of businesses, the green computing has brought significant cost cutting in many ways. There are certain procedures that appear to be inviting expenses, such as- buying energy efficient devices.  But they have long-term benefits.

    Also, various governments are thinking about making it mandatory for businesses to adopt a specific level of Green Computing and the decision is certain to arrive. The only question is when – sooner or later. Today it is ‘making a choice’ and tomorrow it will be ‘following an order’. 

    Green Computing Whitepaper

  3. Does Ireland really get enough sunshine to make Solar Energy worthwhile?

    Yes.   Believe it or not, Ireland actually gets the same amount of sunlight as most of central Europe (the best approximation would be southern France).  This is more than enough to make Solar Panels a viable energy option in Ireland.

    Do Solar Panels only work when it's sunny?

    No.  Even when it is cloudy, the sun's rays provide plenty of harvestable energy.  This is known as 'indirect sunlight', which accounts for 60% of all energy provided by the sun.  Only 40% of solar energy comes from direct sunlight, so a bright sunny day is not necessary for generating a viable source of solar power.

    What do Solar Panels actually generate?

    Over the course of the year, the energy converted by solar panels can provide roughly 65% of a household's hot water.  During the summer months this can rise above 95%.

    What's the difference between Evacuated Tube and Flat Plate Solar Panels?

    Evacuated Tube Solar Panels are generally more efficient in terms of energy in cloudy weather conditions (i.e. the weather typically observed in Ireland).  Flat Plate Solar Panels, while somewhat less efficient in terms of energy production during periods of poor weather, are more durable and are far less likely to require maintenance at any point, making them more budget efficient options for households.

    My house is quite old.  Can Solar Panels still be attached to it?

    Yes.  Some roof tiles may have to be removed to facilitate the Solar Panels, but this is not a major operation and it will not disturb the interiors of a home in any way.  The panels themselves are very light so no structural reinforcement is needed.

    Do I need planning permission to install Solar Panels?

    No.  Planning permission is not required to install Solar Panels on domestic buildings in the Republic of Ireland so long as the panels are smaller than 12 meters squared.

    Where is the best place to put Solar Panels?

    The optimum position for Solar panels is facing south and at a 45 degree angle.  This will catch more sunshine (and will create more energy) over the course of the year in Ireland than any other layout.
    While Solar Panels can be placed on walls or even on the ground, the roof is generally considered the best spot as it tends to be away from areas of activity, limiting the chances of them getting damaged.

    Once installed, what are the running costs of Solar Panels?

    As there are virtually no moving parts (with the exception of a small circulation pump), the cost of running Solar Panels at full energy producing capacity is negligible - in the region of 20c per year.

    How long does it take for Solar Panels to start 'paying for themselves'?

    After approximately 4 or 5 years the savings made from energy created by Solar Panels will have completely  covered the cost of purchase and installation (as well as the aforementioned small ongoing maintenance costs).  After that, the Solar Panels will essentially be creating free energy on an ongoing basis.

    What other benefits do you get from installing Solar Panels?

    In addition to the energy savings you will make, the addition of Solar Panels will greatly increase a house's resale value.  The house will also benefit from an improved BER (Building Energy Rating).  

    How long do Solar Panels last?

    Due to a lack of moving parts, the Solar Panels themselves last a very long time and almost never require maintenance.  As it is the only moving part in the whole system, the circulation pump is susceptible to minimal natural wear and tear.  It is recommended that the pump is replaced once every 10 to 15 years.  Luckily, a circulation pump is an inexpensive item which is easily replaced, usually costing between €10 and €20 - not much of an outlay over the course of a decade or so; working out at about a euro a year.

    Do Solar Panels come with a warranty?

    While different companies have different policies, it is usually possible to get a 10 year guarantee which covers repairs and maintenance when it comes to purchasing solar panel products.

    Are there any grants/subsidies available for buying Solar Panels?

    Yes.  Among the money saving options available to Irish consumers is grant of up to €800 for the purchase/installation of Solar Panels from the SEAI's Better Energy Homes Scheme. More information on this scheme and other means of reducing the cost of Solar Panels can be found here.

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    Recent Entries

    According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), many roofing contractors aren't taking the necessary safety precautions when working on top of roofs. Complaints against roofing contractors for unsafe practices are more common than they used to be and OSHA, along with the Better Business Bureau and various roofing associations is working to correct the problem.

    Just how dangerous is roofing?

    Nearly a third of all fall related deaths in the construction industry occur from the rooftop. Contrary to popular belief, this isn't usually due to inexperience (though it is sometimes the case). Even the most experienced roofers can fall when the work environment is unsafe. Uneven sheathing, a sudden gust of wind, loose roofing materials, tools lying about, and wet surfaces all commonly lead to falls resulting in serious injury or death. Even a bee sting or some other on-the-job injury can distract a roofer causing them to fail. Many of these work place hazards, such as leaving tools where a person might stumble on them, are the result of human error. Others, such as sudden gusts of wind, are completely outside the worker's control. However, with the proper safety measures in place, even these types of hazards are less likely to result in a fall.

    What this means for roofers

    According to OSHA, while the cost of providing the property safety equipment to all roofers could be a setback to roofing contractors, that cost is nothing compared to the worth of a human life. OSHA urges that roofing contractors make sure to train all of their workers in the use of safety equipment and to make sure that equipment is being used every second that they are working on a roof. Also make sure that each roofer has proper footwear that will protect them from slipping and from injury that could lead to a fall.

    What this means for homeowners

    Homeowners also need to be concerned about the danger of a roofer falling while on-the-job. First off, they need to make sure that any roofing contractor they hire has the necessary insurance to cover such injuries. Otherwise, the homeowner could be liable for an injury. Even with insurance, however, no homeowner wants to feel responsible that a serious injury or death occurred from his/her rooftop. It's important when hiring a contractor to ask about safety measures. Homeowners shouldn't be afraid to ask about what safety equipment and what safety measures will be used on the job. As the saying goes, it's better to be safe than sorry.

    Home improvement news brought to you by bartonroof.com

    Source: safety.blr.com/workplace-safety-news/construction-safety/fall-protection-construction/OSHA-says-Denver-contractors-are-falling-down-on-f/

    :)

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    When it comes to the whole problem with the global warming, sooner or later everyone will realize that we have to do a lot more, even individually, to prevent a major catastrophe that is about to happen. But when it comes down to it, we are a particularly lazy species, and even though we are faced with inevitable threat, we are not so quick to make all the needed adjustments. For example, even switching from simple increscent light bulbs to a fluorescent kind has not happened everywhere around the world, which means that somewhere, people are spending energy inefficiently.

    It might sound funny, but that is just a small example of how small things can influence the bigger picture. When it comes to taking care of our gardens, there are many thing we are still doing wrong. We spend too much chemicals and pollute the soil, we use excessive amounts of water, or the total opposite – we simply don’t care about our gardens. But, what can be done to truly create an eco-friendly garden? We’ve made a few notes for you to remember.

    1. Do Not Be Wasteful

    This is what being green is all about. Just look at nature, nothing is wasted there, everything has its purpose, and once nature is done with it, it is used again and again, in one form or another. Humans, on the other hand, are not as clever. Humans throw away so much food each year with which we could easily solve world hunger once and for all. The clear solution to this is to think about everything that you do and eat more carefully; the next time you see a banana go brown, do not throw it away – use it to make compost, and all the kitchen scraps can be used for that purpose as well. Composting is adding nutrient rich humus that plants would later use to grow and develop. This is also done to restore depleted soil so that it returns to its normal state.

    2. Do Not Be Harmful

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    The next important thing to know is that you should try and do no harm to the existing ecosystem that already exists in your garden. Sure, you are going to arrange it the way you want it to look, but do not use chemicals or other kinds of unnatural fertilizers that can pollute nearby water, rivers and ultimately – oceans, and even damage the plants that naturally live there. Pesticides and herbicides, usually do more harm than good, and there is certainly a better way to achieve weed-free garden – use your hands and physically remove them. By creating this eco-friendly habitat, you will create a suitable place for many organisms to live and thrive, both under and above the ground.

    3. Eco-Friendly Can Be Pretty Too

    Once you’ve prepared everything, you will need to carefully select the plants that you will use for your garden. The best thing would be to use native plants and flowers, because those are already accustomed to your type of climate and specific regional conditions. They will require less care and water to grow, while they will be beneficial for the local habitat. Plant a tree – it will not only produce oxygen for you, but it will also provide you shade, housing for the birds, and not to mention a few tasty apples if you choose to plant an apple tree. Use natural pebbles or rocks or other kinds of decorative aggregates for additional aesthetic effects, as they can create walkable paths and emphasize certain areas, creating the effect you want.

    4. Water with Care

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    Water is an especially touchy subject, especially if you are used to turning on the garden sprinklers whenever it is too hot outside. Remember that some regions of this world are still struggling with clean, drinkable water, and you are wasting it. Altering your habits might save a lot of water, especially during hot spells in the summer. More compost the soil has, the more likely it is to keep all the vapor inside, and prevent further evaporation. Soaker hoses use much less water than sprinklers during the summer and provide you with the same results, as each and every drop is directly transferred to the ground, without having time to be evaporated by sun or carried away by wind. Having an eco-friendly garden is not hard as people might think, and the effect it will have is small, but if everyone does it – it will quickly add up.

  5. There are many people who lose hope easily and get them indulged in the activities which can be harmful to them, but they are unable to see those harms and keep getting addicted. Mostly the reasons and factors vary that contribute toward the development of drug addiction and dependence on the person. The basic factor is environment and the company of the person which causes this habit to develop and eventually get worse. Mostly, people consider the person who is taking drugs as weak and also that one can get rid of the problem if he has a willingness to do so. But drug addiction is a complex term and it is a disease which impacts the mind of the person so it is not easy to get rid of this addiction easily. If you are looking for a top rated drug rehab Texas through which you can treat the person effectively, then it is best for you to browse top drug rehab centers that can provide you the best treatment.

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    Drug addiction is the chronic disease and causes damage to the brain and the compulsive drug seeking, and uses despite the harms and damages it causes to the other person around them. It changes the structure and function of brain and causes damage to the mental and physical health of the patient so it is very important to cure the patient before it is too late. You can find a good alcohol rehab El Paso by browsing top rehab company in the area and by consulting the professionals, you can treat the patient. It is true that the habit of consuming the drugs develops very easily and their decision to take drugs is voluntary, but with the passage of time, due to the continuous usage of drugs, it can affect the person’s self control and the ability of thinking and making sound decisions.

    The common drug which is very popular among the patients is the drugs of marijuana, heroin, cocaine, prescription drugs and others which are extremely difficult to leave. But the highly reputed treatment centers are highly experienced and help addicts finally be free from their addiction. You can visit this source of company’s web page to get all the information about the drug treatment and the advisor will also be there to guide you in letting you know about the treatment and the expenses in treating the patient.  The centers have the highly professional team who know how to deal with drug patients effectively and they offer both impatient and outpatient treatment programs so that the patient remains comfortable and easy. So, view the website, and you will surely get all the information which you are looking for about the drug types, treatments and related info. The world class and highly skilled staff of the rehab centers are trained to deliver the best services and support to the patients. The prices are also highly affordable as the basic purpose behind the treatment is not to earn money, but to give patient as new and healthy life. 

  6. Sympathy flowers are such a comforting gift and an elegant way of expressing your sympathy. Do you want to express sorrow on the death of your loved ones? But you do not have words to express then condolence flower can be an ideal choice of showing your concern it speaks for what your heart is saying in times of their lonely moment. It lessens the trauma of the person who is experiencing great mourn. Life and beauty are what these flowers speak for. It's hard to say something when your friend or loved one is grieving and yet in some ways, you wanted to show that you care and you are willing to offer them comfort is through sympathy floral arrangement, the best gift for the most heartbreaking moments.  

    Why send sympathy floral arrangement on the memorial day?

    Nobody can explain in words the feelings which the deceased person's family was in such a situation. It is scientifically proven that flowers help to recover from depression and sadness. People can send funeral flowers personally or by a florist on their behalf. So if someone passes away one should send a funeral wreath to the grieving family to show that people care for them. Giving funeral wreath to the grieving family in respect of the person who passed away is a common practice. Sending flowers to the family during such difficult times show certain care and concern and also respect to the deceased person. It is true that people cannot take away the sorrow with sending flowers, but the gift in the form of the funeral wreath can bring a tinge of happiness to the grief-stricken family.  

    The funeral wreath is available in different forms with a ribbon on it expressing a message of condolence for the loved one. If you are in an embarrassing situation where you cannot have any words to express your condolence then it is the flowers that can be your best option. Sympathy flowers not only offer consolation and comfort to the bereaved, but they also provide an atmosphere of quiet celebration of the life of the one who has passed. if you are close to the affected family, it is important to send the flowers directly to the family or home. There also online shops that offer the service and can deliver on your behalf. 

    What flower colors are acceptable?

    Flowers of any color say so much about your feelings whether silently want to say that you love someone or express your condolence and grief; you can do it by sending the floral arrangement in the form of the condolence flower. Condolence flowers are often in a vase, basket or bouquet. You can also wish to attach sympathy gifts to show that you genuinely care for that person. Sometimes the family decides to purchase across flower type of arrangement for the funeral services, and these crosses come in a medium of different sizes. The condolence flowers are made with the combination of different colored flowers and some flowers that have some special significance and meaning for that particular occasion. The condolence flowers can be made with roses, carnations, daisies, and if you want to add a personal touch to the bouquet then you add some flowers loved by the deceased person to pay him or her tribute that he deserves.

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  8. Hair health is of utmost importance; not only for women but men too. So, if you are looking for ways in which you can make your hair healthy, here is an option that should help you.

    Apple cider vinegar is a remedy traditionally used in keeping one’s scalp and hair healthy. It is a proven method, and you can expect it to be a cost-effective method to have healthy hair. One can easily prevent dry scalp, dandruff and itching with the help of apple cider vinegar. Opting for organic apple cider vinegar is a great idea.

    Vinegar is considered to be a good solution in this case because it can control the growth of fungi and bacteria that often clog the hair follicles. These hair follicles are found where the hair grows.

    Apple Cider Vinegar benefits is even used as a food preservation health remedy and as a remedy for cosmetic problems in the skin. Improving and maintaining scalp health is possible with the help of apple cider vinegar.

    This is a remedy that also helps because it contains antiviral, antifungal, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that often assist in the prevention of various infections that cause hair loss. Also, it helps in maintaining the pH balance of the scalp. This prevents the scalp from infections and dryness. So, it is a good idea to opt for apple cider vinegar to be sure that your hair is healthy.

    Another interesting fact is that vinegar contains essential nutrients like iron, potassium, Vitamin A, C, B1, B6 and many more that can help in maintaining your hair’s health.

     

    One of the ways in which you can use vinegar to prevent itchiness and flaking and also keep your scalp healthy is to opt for a vinegar rinse.

    If you want to treat itchy or dry scalp and hair problems, you should use plain white vinegar or apple cider vinegar.

    A less known fact is that if you want to prevent scalp buildup, one can use apple cider vinegar for the said purpose too. Shampooing helps, but to make the process extremely effective, you should opt for an apple cider vinegar rinse. It will help in removing scalp buildup effectively.

    Want to know more about it? You can think about books that are written on this topic. So, make sure that you learn more about it and make the most of the advantages you can enjoy at the store. Target.com is a place where you can get such informational books. So, visit Target.com and make sure that you enjoy discounts at the store while looking for some of the most exciting discounts that can be enjoyed with the help of promo codes. Promo codes are good, and you should find exciting for Target coupons codes available at popular third-party sites. Look for the expiry dates too before choosing a promo code.

    Apart from this, how do you think apple cider vinegar help in improving one’s scalp and hair health? Share your views in the comments.

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  9. Once the spring sets in, expect those bees to go looking for new places where they can place their hive. The fact that bees help with the environment is very much appreciated, though it is not really nice to have them building their nests near your home as you are in serious risk of getting bee stings! You can consider different DIY methods of removing them, or you can get a professional bee removal service to save yourself the effort. But either way you go, it is important that you decide which is more convenient for you. You can get rid of the bees in a lot of different DIY methods. But before you do any method, you have to be absolutely sure that you are really dealing with bees. You can do this by taking a dead one and looking at it closely.

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    Once you confirm that those are bees, you can set up a trap on where the bees are hiding. For this method, you can use a wire cone and to trap the main entrance and exit point of the bees. Just make sure that there are no other spots for them to go. Leave the cone placed on and wait for most of the bees to come out, then once they're out, put pesticide on the whole to kill the queen and the remaining brood. You can also use aerosol pesticides, but you have to make sure that you cover yourself well before you spray it on. Pray the pesticides on all entry and exit points during the night, when the bees are most likely resting but you should be aware that the pesticides only kill the ones that get directly hit by the aerosol spray If you see the bees on a tree outside your home, you can carefully cut off the branch that has them, and bring them to a secluded place where no one will get stung. These methods are easier said and done, and we have to warn you that this is a difficult method. It's also dangerous. So make sure that you do lots of research on how to do it correctly and check online for a helpful site to see the details on how to safely remove the bees on your own. If you feel that bee removal is something that you cannot do on your own, and then you can go for the bee keepers and bee removers. Some companies offer both services, so it's a good idea to do comparisons of pricing first before you go for a specific bee service company.


    For bee removal and bee keeping, you can go for Tustin Bee Removal Service and Bee Control Experts. They have major services that can effectively remove bees. If you don't want to kill the bees, then you can have them relocated with their bee keeping services. For more information, contact them today to find out how their services work and to know how your home will be free from live bees today.

     

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    The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference was a rousing success in Paris this year… for people in international trade.

    There is some hopeful talk as well as some fluff published by the United Nations left to show that no one really cares about the environment. The motto was “eat, think, save.”  People get carried away with the spirit the event is supposed to create that it becomes harder to even consider what such catchphrases mean.

    Recyclable cups were championed? Sure, the concept sounds noble to get people to return and reuse them for a credit. For a conference with a theme of cutting down greenhouse gasses, how about just not supporting the idea of plastic materials at all?  How about people bring their own ceramic mugs and reuse those?  And not do it because there is some financial incentive, but because the collective effort of the world promotes conservation?

    All the food was “rescued.”  That’s a pretty ambiguous statement. I can only assume they didn't go dumpster diving for the food, but was the food purchased from a nearby farm that has no distribution network because they’ve been priced out by corporate agriculture?  The fluff piece gives no insight into what the rescued food even means, what it was or how that helps the overall cause. There was certainly no mention of it being locally sourced or anything like that.

    Then there is the promotion of “eco-cars.”  Instead of dressing up the emperor, how about just encouraging people to not drive?  Electric cars still have moving parts, which need grease and oil to operate. They may help with emission standards, but to how much of a degree? Until more people start getting rid of their cars, getting exercise and considering real alternatives, there will be little to no improvement to the earth or humanity.

    The article closes with an admission that maybe the conference should have discussed bigger and better things like heating and air conditioning. Nice that someone was willing to note that. Better luck next year, Morocco!  

    To keep it all abstract seems exactly how the world’s richest nations want things to be, something that looks good yet accomplishes nothing in the way of progress.

    On the heels of the climate conference, the United States is all in trying to push through a trade agreement to do away with just about any environmental effort that stands in the way. Meanwhile, the Japanese Prime Minister made it perfectly clear that the environment comes second to economy.

    Sketchy dealings to push through the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership send multinational efforts toward complete corporate control. European health markets “reduced safety and backdoor privatization” is the reality people are grappling with. Governments that don’t care about the health of a person certainly aren’t very likely to care about the health of the earth.

    International trade is a barrier to environmental efforts as Matt Carthy from Sinn Fein was quoted, the Paris talks just echoed that governments “must not allow any countries to limit trade and investment opportunities for European corporations seeking to penetrate new markets around the world.” Not only is international trade a barrier to local market economies, it also distinctly contradicts the feel good mission of the conference in not wanting to truck in fresh bagels every day. Priorities are obviously skewed. Until the corporate power structure changes, the environment is still hell bent on destruction.

    As Green Blog contributor Megan Bonetti pointed out in the wake of the climate conference, it's the "developed" countries that hold all the cards in the debate. It makes sense that the United States is at the forefront of environmental atrocities, where fifty percent of citizens don’t believe in anthropogenic global warming. As long as information is withheld and fluffy conventions take the place of meaningful dialogue and actionable steps, people will continue to believe exactly what they are supposed to believe.

    International trade is a barrier to environmental efforts as Matt Carthy from Sinn Fein was quoted, the Paris talks just echoed that governments “must not allow any countries to limit trade and investment opportunities for European corporations seeking to penetrate new markets around the world.”  

    International trade is also a barrier to local market economies and distinctly a contradiction to the feel good nature of not wanting to truck in fresh bagels to the conference every day. Priorities are obviously skewed. Until the corporate power structure changes, the environment is still hell bent on destruction.

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    All businesses have to consider their bottom line; unless they can make a profit, they cease to exist. In some cases, this can mean that workers who provide raw materials, such as food items or textiles, are exploited. In other situations, the western world’s consumers demand particular fruits or vegetables all year round, regardless of the transport costs and environmental impact of moving products many thousands of miles.

    Many manufacturers and retailers now choose to alleviate at least some of these problems by subscribing to ethical fair trade practices, which ensures that the producers and farmers who supply the raw materials receive a fair price for their products and that the workers are not exploited. More information on this is available from http://www.fairtrade.org.uk/en/what-is-fairtrade.

    It is easy to identify food products which use fair trade ingredients, with the distinctive logo incorporated into the printed labels. Some consumers deliberately choose such labelled items, so that they know they are “doing their bit” to support fair trade in the developing countries.

    A more difficult dilemma is the growing consumer demand for out-of-season fruits and vegetables, regardless of the implications for the environment of the transportation of such items. It is possible to argue that the benefits to the farmers and other food producers of having a larger market outweigh the adverse environmental issues.

    A few restaurants have taken the stance that their unique selling point is that they supply only food that uses local, in-season ingredients. This can sometimes be difficult to sustain and certainly tests the ingenuity and creativity of the chefs, but is undoubtedly to be admired on ethical grounds.

    There are also concerns about the effect of widespread use of pesticides on growing food crops, so that there is an increasing demand for organic foodstuffs that can guarantee to be completely free of such chemicals. Some controversy exists about whether organic foods have any higher nutritional value than non-organic foods, but it seems sound advice to wash all fruit and vegetables under cold running water before eating or cooking.

    Some possible solutions

    Transport is not the only aspect that affects the environmental impact of food products. The food industry has to comply with an enormous range of conditions and standards in the manufacturing processes, hygiene and health and safety issues and packaging and labelling. Keeping abreast with (sometimes frequently changing) requirements can be very difficult.

    One way of avoiding waste for in the food industry is to have an in-house label printer, so that there are no stockpiles of labels that soon become out of date and are therefore redundant. More information on the most suitable type of label printer for different businesses is available from quicklabel, depending on whether the need is for short run label printing, or runs of many thousands. This means the business can select environmentally friendly inks and paper or other labelling materials.

    Another consideration is the amount of packaging that is used. There has been a trend in recent months to have less packaging, therefore less environmental impact because fewer trees are needed for the paper or cardboard and there is less waste when the packaging is discarded. Whereas many products used to have a whole cardboard box, with all the relevant information, barcodes, product labels and logos, nutritional details and sell-by/use-by dates, with a plastic covered inside container, these have often been replaced by a cardboard outer sleeve that is less than half the size of a full box. This is obviously cheaper for the food manufacturer to use as well, so there is a benefit to looking at the most effective packaging for different products.

    A further increasing trend is to make more use of recyclable materials for packaging. Most local authorities have recycling targets, so that they provide special bins for plastics, paper, cardboard and tin for their customers, to encourage good practice in this area. There are collection points for glass jars and bottle in many supermarkets, as well as in local authority facilities. Food manufacturers can gain “brownie points” by using recyclable packaging where possible.

    Finally, one of the biggest complications for anyone involved in the food industry – whether producing, transporting, catering or selling - is avoiding wasted or damaged goods. A system for rotating foods so that the shortest dated are used first is a basic requirement and must be instilled into every employee. Close monitoring of quantities and demand is also essential. It might be better to run out of a particular product than to have large quantities of it thrown out if it becomes out of date. This requires very careful management, including factors that might affect seasonal demand.

    No-one said it was easy, but anticipating where problems might occur and taking steps to avoid them, together with sound management practices, can go a long way to helping a food business be both “green” and ethical.

    About the Author

    Jane Woodcroft has been a customer service manager at QuickLabel Systems for several years. She has a wide experience of advising customers on every aspect of their label printing requirements in many different industries.

    Outside of her job, Jane enjoys “dabbling with paints” and has had a couple of exhibitions of her work.

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    For a healthy and vibrant landscape, your plants require regular watering at set intervals. Mother Nature frequently does not cooperate with adequate rains. Heavy but quick downpours do not penetrate the soil deeply. Sprinkling rains do not provide adequate moisture for soil either. When plants are watered optimally, they develop extensive root systems that are able to store and draw water better than plants with shallow root systems. If you want to support your plants' good health, consider installing an irrigation system that complements your landscape's needs.

    Types of Irrigation Systems

    Two popular types of irrigations systems include pop-up sprinklers and drip irrigation. While many homeowners favor in-ground sprinklers for watering lawns, drip irrigation systems are ideal for flower beds as tubing can deliver water to specific plants. These systems can be used with automatic controllers so there is little for the homeowner to worry about. Your landscaping firm will be able to discuss the ins and outs of each system and how either or both can enhance your particular landscape. Both types of systems need specific mapping. Your irrigation system installer will be able to help you make a plan that suits your plants' needs.

    Benefits of an Irrigation System

    Installing a low flow irrigation system can allow you to reduce water waste by up to 70%. Today's irrigation systems are ideal for homeowners that care about sustainable practices. San Francisco based landscaper, Paul Tamate says "for homeowners that want to conserve as much as 70% of their water, drip irrigation systems are ideal." Sprinkler systems can be enhanced by the type of heads you choose. Again, your landscaping firm can suggest the ideal components for either system you choose.

    Once you install your irrigation system, you'll have the peace of mind of knowing that your landscape's needs are being met even when you're away from home. You can also set timers so that your watering needs will be met at set intervals. If you crave a lush and healthy landscape, an irrigation system installed by professionals is your best solution. You'll waste less water and you'll no longer need to lug hoses and watering cans around your yard to provide thirsty plants with water each day.

  11. I LIKE GREEN ENVIRONMENT

     

    Under the effect of solar radiation, trees will absorb water from the soil, heat-absorbing solar radiation and absorb carbon dioxide from the air to conduct continental shale and release of oxygen gas. very useful for human health and reducing air "greenhouse". So considering not planting trees on unused land, the air temperature in the lower daytime trees from 1-30C, oxygen content in the atmosphere is greater than 20% and less CO2. During continent of green chlorophyll absorbs solar radiation, absorbs the heat should have the effect of reducing the harshness of hot days, reduced reflection of solar radiation on the building, reducing the temperature does not Gas under the trees and can increase air humidity from 2% - 5%, increase air humidity is also beneficial for hot dry day.

    - Trees capable of storing rain water on the plant part, keep the spongy ground with tree roots penetrate the ground to help rainwater penetrates quickly into the ground, reducing flooding situation in the municipality. It is through this feature that in the midlands and mountainous, forest green harmonic effects of rainwater, reducing soil erosion, reduce flood overflow, flooding, flash flood kizi new.
    - When the wind blows through the trees air, dust content in the air will be the leaves retain most, make the air cleaner. Increasingly dense trees, leaves more rugged than the dirt easier grip. When the leaves were dusty, rain will wash the leaves and the leaves will keep dust adsorption cycle. The total amount of dust is hang on one tree with large leaves, thick could reach between 10-30kg. The concentration of dust in the air blowing through the trees can be reduced from 20-60%.


     - Trees absorb potentially harmful contaminants in water and in soil, especially to absorb and hold permanent storage of heavy metals, such as lead, arsenic, mercury .. . in the tissues of green packaging, in the trunk, branches and roots of trees capable Due absorb pollutants, so now they have used a number of plant species in line processing system sewage, and is studying to use some plants to treat contaminated soil, absorb heavy metals, soil quality restoration, including the absorption of dioxin in the soil dora.

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    No matter how small your areas is, we have some great ideas for gardening in small areas. Perennial plants works well in small areas as does small shrubs, ground cover plants and some vegetable plants like tomatoes, cucumbers and okra.

     

     

     

     

    If you've got a bit of a green thumb but don't have much space to work with, it's still possible to create lush spreads of garden plants. The key is choosing the right flora for your particular situation. Here are a few excellent choices that will fit into fairly confined spaces and create a welcoming garden environment.
     

    Perennials


    Getting the most from perennials is all about selecting relatively tall flowers with small footprints. Veronicas, peonies, daffodils, hostas and hibiscus are all popular choices for gardeners without much square footage to work with. Daylilies are another solid option if you're looking for maximum color in the minimum amount of space.

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    Berry Plants


    Nothing beats fresh produce plucked from your own backyard. With the right soil in place, berry plants can look great and crank out tons of tasty treats during the summer. Raspberry and blueberry bushes are both fairly dense, easy to care for and give the backyard a particularly verdant look.
     

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    Shrubs


    The great thing about shrubs is that they can serve several purposes at the same time. For starters, they beautify any space and don't require a lot of hand-holding to thrive. Even better, they allow gardeners to build living privacy walls as they see fit. Popular shrubs include cotoneaster, boxwood and wintercreeper.
     

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    Fruit Trees


    You don't need to plant a citrus patch to enjoy fresh fruit and jazz up your small gardening space. A handful of fruit trees can thrive even in confined enclosures. Horticulturalists have created dwarf varieties of nearly every fruit tree available. Grapefruit, mandarin orange, apricot and pear trees are always winners.
     

    Creeping Vines


    Nothing creates an enchanting atmosphere like a slew of creeping vines. The added benefit of vines is that they grow vertically given the right trellis system. Try some coral honeysuckle, moonflower, clematis or trumpet vine to start with. If you're a home brewer, any number of hop strains would be a good call.
     

    Small Footprint, Stunning Looks


    Obviously, avid gardeners with limited real estate have no shortage of options when it comes to plant variety. If you select plants, shrubs and trees that are appropriate for your local climate, you'll be amazed at how well your small-area picks complement your miniature garden.

     

    Author

    Trees For Sale Online Nursery offers state certified low prices garden plants, perennials, ferns, wetland plants, live garden mosses, trees, shrubs and much more at the best prices online. When you buy from the grower, your cutting the middleman out and getting the lowest possible prices on all your landscaping needs. A 57 year old authority in the wholesale nursery grower industry and licensed to ship to all states and 13 foreign countries.
     

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    Concrete pools are the ideal type of swimming pool Melbourne. You can also add an addition space for sunbathing, for entertainment, and just relaxation, in your swimming pool. These types of pools have more advantages when we compare it with the other types that are used these days. This concrete pools are strong, long lasting, and gives good functional value to the swimming pools. The concrete is the most general substance which is used in the construction process of the in-ground pools. You can get a varied option to choose from in this type of construction; the most important feature is that people can design their pool according to their need and the customized designs. The process of the construction will take 4 to 5 months, and the charges of the pool’s building may depend upon the constructor, your choice of designs, the standard, and also the finishing style.

    Below mentioned are some benefits and drawbacks of the concrete pools, they include:

    Benefits:

    · Design flexibility: As powerful and continual as concrete happens to be, this building content has long been described for its extreme flexibility for design. The developer of concrete private pools will allow for unique, customized design features, such as unusual ends, disappearing boundaries, islands, separated levels and many more such things.

    · Strength: Concrete is known for its sustained strength, and this is the reason why people go for concrete pools in Melbourne. When tangible private pools are established, they are shored up using wood and metal. Then the outcome is magnificently constructed pool that will hold up for decades. While the tangible share development process will take a longer period due to its complexes, the completed product can be one that is truly a specially designed work of art that is intended to last for a life time

    · Beauty: Concrete pools present buyers the benefit of just about any surface that they want. Concrete can be completed with stones, variety glass, vinyl fabric, flooring, ceramic tiles, paint and a mass of other equipments. Although the pool configuration on the floor will be made of strong, sustained concrete, but the outer area can take on just about any look possible.

    Drawbacks:

    • A high lifetime cost: Concrete pools will need to be remodeled every 10-20 years. This includes restructuring and re-tiling the pool at a cost of $8k-$15k or much higher based on material used.
    • More chemical use: Because the surface area of tangible private pools is very permeable, more substances and purification are required to prevent plankton. This also involves a lot of chemical usage for the purification of the water which prevents the users from falling sick or catching any allergies from the water.

    • More maintenance: Concrete pools also need to be frequently boomed or taken with a sheer sweep to eliminate plankton from the floor or the total surface.
    • Longer install time: Concrete pools, take longer to set up....usually 2-4 months.

    Regular servicing also includes keeping the surface clean. As, with any tangible accumulation from fungus can cause pool, and the outdoor patio areas to become slick. Periodic power cleaning or light cleansing with a light soap will eliminate any dust build up and will ensure that your pools are clean and safe.

    The professionals for the concrete pools in Melbourne will be able to offer you expert advice while in the construction process, and will do the work in stages. When you consider the above mentioned points you will be in a best place to decide on what you need to go for.

    Above mentioned details intended to reader who are seeking for information about concrete pools. Click here for more information which may give you few more idea.

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    There are a number of ways in which employees can go green at their cubicles or personal offices; however, the most significant step of going green at the office is by persuading administrators to adopt cost effective and environmentally friendly policies. This article discusses ten easy ways to go green at the office:

    Cut Down on Energy

    Energy costs at the office can be cut down in very simple steps. First and foremost, the office may use daylight in lieu of artificial light when appropriate. Workers can move their desks near windows so as to take advantage of free natural lighting. When natural lighting is not a realistic option, compact fluorescent bulbs may be used. These bulbs last up to ten times longer than ordinary bulbs and use 75% less energy. They are also available in various wattages and sizes.

    Turning off computers and lights at the end of working hours should be made mandatory at the office. According to Office Depot, a 100-watt bulb working for one hour consumes approximately 37-kilowatt hours of energy annually. Contrary to popular belief, screen savers do not actually save energy; thus, computers ought to be set at sleep mode during the day, when workers are taking a break. Plug all the office appliances into power strips to make it easier to switch off all appliances at the end of the day (with just a single button).

    Always purchase Energy Star-rated electronics.. These types of electronics can save up to two-thirds more energy than the non-compliant electronics. Also, consider controlling your power usage with a power toolkit (like this one http://www.powershop.com.au/)

    Decorate with real plants

    Artificial plants may be easy to maintain and nice to look at but other than that, they practically add no value to the office. On the other hand, real plants are not only attractive but they also purify the air by absorbing airborne pollutants. Additionally, they release oxygen and healthy negative ions into the air. Some good examples include the following: Bamboo, English Ivy, Peace Lily, Rubber plant and Spider plant. Water them at least once a week.

    Eco-friendly Storage Units

    As people around the world are becoming increasingly conscious about the environment, more and more eco-friendly storage units are being erected to support these efforts. Some of the features of these units include sustainable filing carts, shelving cubes, cabinets and storage boxes manufactured from recycled products. When looking for storage space for miscellaneous items, offices aiming to go green should choose these eco-friendly storage units. Though these units are costlier than the normal storage units, the equipment used are modern and are manufactured from sustainable materials, making them a worthwhile investment.

    Recycle Office Waste

    Another easy way for offices to go green is by recycling office waste. This may be done by designating separate trash containers for metal, glass, papers or plastics. Soda cans can be placed into one container while papers can be placed into another. Today, most urban areas have municipal services that collect such recycled waste and transfer it to a reclamation facility. By recycling trash in the office, the environmental footprint which is produced through various activities can be reduced. Additionally, recycling mobile devices and computers allows companies to reuse rare elements that were originally used in the manufacture of various electrical components.

    Limit paper usage

    Going digital is a very useful way of going green at the office. The internet is a great way of sharing information in the office, as it nullifies the need for printing information on paper. To limit paper usage further, overhead projectors and whiteboards can be used to display the agenda during meetings. Employees should be encouraged to print information only when necessary, and not at every available opportunity. And when printing is done, the front and back sides of the paper should be used whenever possible. More importantly, the printing paper used should ideally be manufactured from recycled paper.

    Multi-purpose machines

    The various types of devices found in most offices produce poisonous substances during the manufacturing and disposal stages. Technological advancements in the last decade have seen the invention of multifunctional machines. These machines can basically do everything; they can be used to scan documents, print, copy and fax, thereby reducing the emission of harmful substances into the air.

    Telecommuting (Remote Work)

    Vehicles and locomotives have proven to have a number of adverse effects on the environment. Offices can therefore contribute towards the reduction of these effects by telecommuting a few times during every month. This simply means that employees to do not have to commute to a central place of work – they may even work from home. Not only does this help to save the environment but it also saves a lot of time and money. Similarly, companies can limit the need for travelling by investing in video-conferencing facilities.

    Save Water

    Turn off all taps completely and ensure that they do not drip. It is estimated that leaking taps (at a rate of one drop per second) waste more than 25 litres every day; this is about 10000 litres of water every year. Low-flow faucet aerators may also be installed so as to regulate the flow of water from office taps. Running toilets waste a lot of water and ought to be fixed on a regular basis.

    Solar Power

    The initial investment required for a solar power system may be expensive, but in the long run, more cash will be saved by installing one. Nonetheless, it is important to note that not every building is suitable for solar power. The building set-up and the geographical location are some of the key factors to consider before installing solar power.

    Buy Eco-friendly Supplies

    Lastly, offices can make it a policy to buy furniture and office supplies manufactured from recycled and environmentally friendly products. For instance, offices may purchase staple-less staplers and pens that can be refilled. Detergents used in the washrooms should also be environmentally safe. More so, hand driers and cloth towels are greener alternatives than paper cloths.

    Conclusion

    Going green at the office can be very easy and cost effective. Companies can actually contribute to a greener and safer planet without spending a lot of money. Even small steps such as printing less, saving water and buying recycled supplies can make a huge difference.

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    Exercise is crucial for children, especially in these times when a majority of American kids are either overweight or obese. Athletic practices, sports, even pick-up games provide kids with not only fresh air, but also an opportunity to exercise their muscles. All these activities require space, but not all playgrounds are safe considering the rising costs of maintenance sports grounds. There is nothing more important than safety when it comes to children.

    Parents always display a great attention to detail when selecting toys, beds, and furniture for their children. But when it comes to playing areas no one ever takes a look at the ground. Most injuries on playgrounds occur as a result of a fall on abrasive surfaces which are hard and plain unsafe. With synthetic grass you can have a consistent playground surface anywhere!

    The technology has improved a lot and synthetic grass now looks just like natural grass, but without the hassles of a natural grass. The best part is that maintaining a synthetic lawn is simple. If leaves or tree waste accumulates on the surface you simply use a blower to get rid of them. A thorough cleaning can be done with a water hose.

    Because artificial turf fields are so much more durable than grass, they give much higher playability and allow for broader access. They can be played on at all times of the year. In times when playing fields are scarce, they give youth sports organizations the space to practice that they otherwise might not have had. The problem of spring and fall rains which result in the cancellation of so many games and practices can be avoided. One muddy field will no longer ruin the rest of your season.

    Field Test

    A synthetic grass surface should make the ball bounce in a way similar to that on a natural grass field. Once the sports field is installed multiple tests are performed to ensure a level surface, in addition to analyzing the ball roll and ball bounce measurements. Governing organizations of several sports including soccer, rugby and hockey require field tests to be performed before the field is approved for use.

    Use of Synthetic Turf

    There are more than 8,000 synthetic grass sports fields currently being used throughout the US, in 2012 more than 1,000 fields were installed in American schools, colleges, parks and professional sports stadiums. Since 2003, over 70 FIFA U-17 and U-20 World Cup matches have been played on synthetic turf soccer fields. Faux grass is a popular solution for other sports such as field hockey, baseball, tennis, lacrosse and rugby. It makes for a perfect practice field all year round and ensures the sportspersons are well trained.

    Synthetic turf soccer pitches have taken off quite well in England and the US. This has spurred many artificial lawn manufacturers to research on creating a better and more refined product. But there are definitely many compelling arguments for using synthetic grass for sporting purposes.

    Why Synthetic Grass

    • It makes for a longer playing season and keeps the ground level
    • There are enormously decreased maintenance costs; the turf lasts up to 15 years and requires minimal care
    • There is no need to water it
    • There is no need for fertilizers, so none can get into the sub-soil water bodies
    • There is no fear of mud or grass stains
    • Cushioned surface allows for minimal injuries during falls
    • Dramatically improves water conservation by allowing water to run-off and collect where required

    Artificial Turf Improves Performance of Sportsmen

    Let’s take the case of the football team at Salesian High School, Richmond, California. Located in a city with one of the country’s highest murder rates, the students at Salesian High focused their efforts on academics. The conditions of their grass field were so poor that the soccer and football teams were on a three-year notice to be shut down. This changed when the school raised funds to install a synthetic turf field.

    They came back from the brink of closure to defeat a team branded nigh unbeatable, with players twice its size. It was Salesian’s first game on their brand new synthetic grass field. The field is now being hailed as the ‘Real Field of Dreams’.

    Safety First

    Artificial turf is designed to look like grass, where green ‘blades’ of dyed polyethylene or nylon are glued to fabric backing. In order to give the surface some cushion, unlike the original fields that were as hard as concrete, “infill” is laid down to function as the dirt and to help the strands stay upright. This infill is usually made of tire crumb – ground up recycled car and truck tires. The result is a pristine looking surface that requires little maintenance.

    In contact sports such as rugby and soccer, it is imperative for the synthetic grass surfaces to be soft and cushioned so as to reduce the likelihood of players getting injured. Impact injuries are reduced thanks to cushioned synthetic grass surfaces.

    There is no doubt that the introduction of artificial playing surfaces has changed the way many games are played around the world. This has been specifically felt in football, tennis, soccer and cricket. However, do not consider that installing a synthetic playing field is the end of your problems. There is a certain amount of maintenance that is involved in keeping the field up to the standards of the game.

    Synthetic grass is the perfect surface to play sports on as it reduces the amount of injuries and improves the performance of the players. Just make sure that nobody spits a wad of chewing-gum on your turf, that’ll be one thing no one would want to clean up.

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    For anyone looking for green waste removal, Brisbane is the place to do it. But you need to know who it is that you're partnering with. If you just go ahead and call on some unproven waste removal provider, you will never know where your waste will wind up. Moreover, you don't want to do more than you need to in the waste removal enterprise; if you can find a partner who will come out to your space, pick up your waste, and set the whole thing up for you, why wouldn't you want to do that? Here are some questions you should be asking ay before you decide on a green waste removal service provider.

    What: Maybe the first thing that you want to know about your is what exactly is considered "green waste"? You could be thinking it's one thing and they could have very narrow specifications for what they will take away. Maybe an even better thing to ask your green waste service is what they will take, regardless of whether or not it is considered "green waste." That is if you have more than simple green waste, you may wish to be looking into the services of a partner who can take away whatever it is that you have. You would hate to be sitting on a pile of excess trash simply because it is not considered "green waste" by whomever it is you decide to partner with.

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    Where: Whether you have a whole garden full of pruned physical green waste or maybe you have got lots of paper, plastic and aluminum that you want to get rid of, you would hate to have to move all this waste just in order to have it taken away. A waste removal service who will only come to your property line or demands that you drop off the waste isn't really doing you any favors, are they? If you have to carry lot half way you might as well just finish taking it the whole way, right? You need to know just where the green waste removal in Brisbane finds for you will go and where they won't go before you give them any money.

    When: Another point about waste removal is that you need them to show up when you need them there. If this is a service which only comes in the morning for a couple of hours that might not work for your schedule. Moreover, you basically just need to have a waste removal partner who will go the extra mile and will work around your schedule. Make sure that your waste removal service will be able to work on your time frame or it might not even be worth it for you to bother.

    How: One more thing you want to know about your green waste removal team is how they will cart this stuff off. If they are talking about backing a huge dump truck onto your property and crushing that perfectly good crops you just pruned, that doesn't make much sense, now does it? You need to make sure that the team that's coming out to your space will be respectful of your property and will offer you all the assurances you need.

    shutterstock_158637287-300x198.jpg

    One of the best green waste removal teams anywhere in Brisbane is Anything Rubbish. They will work around your schedule and they will honor your property so that you don't need to lift a finger. They may even surprise you a bit on their very reasonable prices so that you can call again!

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    In a culture that recycles over 150 million metric tons of metallic materials each year in the US alone, one cannot honestly say that there is no recycling effort taking place. Yet, many people are not aware of the many benefits that can be derived from a comprehensive effort to clean up the environment. Our article below covers several direct benefits produced today by scrap metal recycling operations across the US.

    Economic Reasons

    The US scrap metal recycling industry in 2008 resulted in the creation of more than 85,000 jobs and $86 billion being generated in revenue. That same year, the US exported roughly 44 million metric tons of scrap commodities that resulted in a more balanced US trade economy. Production of everyday items such as staples, paper clips, fasteners, jewelry, tools, city infrastructures and elements of buildings themselves all make up the scrap metal industry.

    Today, the industry is not only good for the environment, but it's good for business as well. Over 450,000 new jobs were created within the last three years at a time when the economy appeared to be in dire straits. Best of all, they were high quality, good-paying jobs that fed money back into a fragile and stagnant economy.

    Energy/Natural Resources

    Producing metals from virgin ore is an expensive process--both naturally and economically. However, the recycled scrap metal process not only reduces the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, but it also helps preserve the earth’s precious natural resources.

    For instance, using recycled material saves up to 92 percent aluminum, 90 percent copper and more than 56 percent of steel stockpiles. Moreover, the recycling of just one ton of steel preserves more than 2,500 pounds of iron, 1,400 pounds of coal and more than 120 pounds of limestone. In addition, one ton of recycled aluminum helps conserve 8 tons of bauxite ore and 14 megawatt hours of electrical energy.

    Ecological/Environmental Benefits

    In a concentrated effort to preserve the ecological system, one cannot stress enough the importance of having a comprehensive program for recycling of scrap metals. Being that scrap metals are as usable, malleable and less expensive to produce then virgin material, it’s crucially important to have professional recyclers do the taxing work of removal and recycling according to General Recycling Industries Ltd., one of the many Edmonton scrap yards.

    All things considered, there are no valid reasons for not recycling scrap metals. The scrap metal industry consistently proves itself as being cost effective for those involved inside the industry and outside of it. But more importantly, as the obvious stewards of earth’s resources, scrap metal processing just may help avoid a possible future ecological disaster.

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  17. It is quite evident that living without electricity is not an option nowadays. With time, traditional sources of energy generation are getting depleted. The stock of fossil fuel is not unlimited and growth of population and resultant consumption has led to energy scarcity in various parts of the world. This has prompted governments, environment entities and a section of population to seek alternatives sources of energy generation. In recent times, alternative energy generation sources have become quite popular and using sun as the energy source is a viable option. As it is, solar power installation can prove to be beneficial for homeowners from several perspectives.

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    Nuances of solar energy generation and usage

    In solar energy generation, sunlight is used as source of power. Flat silicon panels are installed on rooftops and those are fitted with suitable accessories to trap solar energy. The energy is transmitted through wires fitted with panels and it gets stored in a battery and inverter unit. This in turn acts as the source of power supply in the household.

    The numerous benefits of Solar panels installation

    There are several benefits of installing solar panels at home for energy generation.

    The cost

    When you set up solar panels at home for energy generation, the initial expense may be high. However, in long run, you will be benefited. Consider the fact that after installing there will be no need to pay monthly bills to a power supply company which is the case with others. You will be able to save some amount on your monthly expenditure in long run. Thinking of these, the solar panel cost should not deter you.

    Maintenance

    If you are worried about maintenance needs of solar panels at home, relax! The panels are rather sturdy and they are supported by underlying structures. They are not likely to get damaged soon by weather elements. Present generation panels are made to withstand weather elements for a long time. With low maintenance, these panels offer solid value for money.

    Impact on Environment

    For every unit of electricity you use obtained from fossil fuel sources, you become responsible for polluting the environment. Usage of solar panels does not impact the environment in an adverse way.

    Added Benefits

    To promote usage of green energy sources, governments in many countries and companies selling solar energy requirements are offering various benefits to buyers. You can avail several lucrative discounts, fee waivers and monetary benefits when opting for solar power installation. Besides, when you sell a house equipped with solar energy generation capabilities, you can expect higher price.

    Certain Things you need to calculate

    Before you opt for solar energy panel installations at home, a few aspects need to be calculated with care. You need to find out overall consumption amount of the household. You can talk with regional solar energy equipment sellers on this subject. They can suggest you regarding suitable packages and products matching your needs. Some sellers also offer video tutorials and FAQ in their websites which can be useful for you.

    The author writes extensively on alternative energy generation. He has written several resourceful articles on solar energy generation and related products.

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    Thanks to our modern, busy lives, many of us experience health problems related directly with stress or improper lifestyle habits. The choices we make every day impact our health greatly and by making few simple adjustments, you can start living more productive and most importantly healthier life! Just follow these easy tips and you will start to feel the difference in just few weeks:

    #1 Try to Avoid Driving

    With most of us working stuck in offices most of the day, in front of a computer, the lack of exercise can cause quite a lot of health problems. A simple 15-20-minute walk can change everything and also since you will not be using your car, you are actually contributing to preserving the environment.

    #2 Go for Green Foods

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    The local supermarkets are often filled with quite a variety of green foods, but many of them are not seasonal thus imported or grown in orangeries. Experts advise to always go for seasonal greens - these are packed with the exact vitamins and minerals you need during the particular time of the year.

    #3 Grow Your Food

    You don’t necessarily need to have a yard, you can place few pots in the kitchen and grown your own herbs or even vegetables. As simple as it may sound, growing your own crops can be beneficial for your health in many ways, plus you will always know what you eat.

    #4 Learn More About Herbs

    Herbs contain large quantities of important vitamins and minerals for your body. They can be combined with one another to deliver not only great taste for your meals, but a bunch of supplements you can’t get into your body. Once you try cooking your favorite meals using fresh herbs, you will never want to change this!

    #5 Get Comfortable Shoes

    Shoes are a lot more than just a fashion accessory – comfortable shoes can increase your energy and help you feel much better when walking or exercising. Furthermore, many studies show that a pair of comfortable shoes seems to be quite an effective weapon against fatigue, a lot better than coffee for example.

    #6 Garlic 101

    Garlic is part of the everyday meal of humans for thousands of years, there are even studies that suggest the same people, who built the pyramids ate it on daily basis. With incredibly effective antibacterial properties, the garlic is the ultimate weapon against common colds and other health problems, common mostly for the winter season. Small amounts of raw or lightly cooked garlic can do miracles with your overall health!

    #7 Have a Casual Conversation

    Multiple studies conducted over the past few years suggest that casual conversations are great for maintaining focus and even help preserve memory. Take just 10 minutes to sit down and have a casual conversation with a friend!

    #8 Drink More Water

    Our bodies are made mostly from water and due to our modern lifestyle, many of us forget to drink sufficient amounts of water every day. Drink between 6 and 8 cups of water every day to ensure your body is properly hydrated. This has incredibly positive impact on many body functions and can greatly improve your overall health!

     These 8 green tips can do wonders for your overall health, but remember that its always necessary to consult with a general practitioner, like BroadGateGP.

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    Navigating in the 21st Century: Where To?

    When you go on a road trip, what do you use to navigate? Google Maps, a GPS system, maybe a printed map of the area? How about a map printed in 1776? Probably not - there have been so many changes since then that it wouldn't be an accurate guide, and you might not reach your intended destination.

    The Map

    In a way, we are using an old map in our economy when we use the concepts and practices originally set out by Adam Smith in "The Wealth of Nations", published in 1776,1 which formed the basis for the market economy model of economic transactions.

    It's not a matter of the principles being "wrong", it's that there have been significant changes since 1776 and new information needs to be incorporated into our economic framework so that it reflects the realities of the world today, and better guides our choices for the long term.

    Then and Now

    In 1776 our impact on the world was a tiny fraction of what it is today. The world population was short of a billion (about 900 million)2 and the Watt steam engine was just beginning to power the Industrial Revolution in Europe. The combined rise of powered industrial technology and human population since then has hugely expanded our ability to impact the world around us. Today over 7.3 billion people3 need food, water, shelter and other resources; projections for peak human population are in the range of 9 to 10 billion4 , and the technologies to extract and process natural resources into products have expanded along with population.

    As products were made and sold in 1776, there were adverse impacts, and costs were incurred that were unknown, thus not considered as Adam Smith created his economic model. For instance, air pollution from coal-burning engines began around that time, but it wasn’t recognized as being harmful to human health. In contrast, a recent World Health Organization report estimated that around 7 million people died in 2012 as a result of global air pollution exposure5. Similarly, other forms of pollution and various other adverse impacts occur, and these costs are often not reflected in the accounting of the businesses which cause pollution as they manufacture and sell their products.

    Incentives and Externalities

    Logic and ethics might suggest that the costs of adverse impacts from the making of products be added to the books of the firms making and selling those products. For example, those cost figures could be for pollution abatement equipment, installed to prevent or reduce the health impacts to people downwind from the plant. More commonly, these kinds of costs are incurred by the public, and measured by public health agencies, in terms of hospital visits, reduced productivity and premature deaths.

    One of the primary tenets of the market system is that the purpose of a business is to maximize profits for investors and management. This is typically done by maximizing sales and profits, and in order to maximize sales and profits, and to maintain a competitive pricing position in the market, production costs must be minimized. So businesses have a fundamental disincentive to add to their costs, including the costs to public health and the health and productivity of natural resources, both of which have been left out of the market model and are referred to as “externalities”. Protecting the public interest is not the function or purpose of business; this is the responsibility of the representatives we elect to govern in the public interest.

    Natural Capital

    Another development not envisaged when the Wealth of Nations was published was the depletion of natural resources, sometimes to the point of species extinction. This is reflected in the following statement from “TEEB - The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature”:

    “The invisibility of biodiversity values has often encouraged inefficient use or even destruction of the natural capital that is the foundation of our economies.” 6

    Consider the example of the Cod community population, a rich fishery around the Grand Bank in the North Atlantic Ocean. In 1950 there was a total population of about 2.5 million metric tons; by 2000 the population was down to around 0.25 million metric tons – a 90% reduction in population7. U.S. and Canadian fisheries agencies coordinated to manage this valuable natural resource and prevent the extinction of Atlantic cod. The same story has played out in the Chesapeake Bay with the oyster population, which is estimated today to be about 1% of the population that existed when Europeans arrived in the 17th century8. Why were these resources so overfished and jeopardized?

    From a business perspective the market economy is based on competition and individual decision making, so each fishermen seeks to maximize their catch, not to manage a regional fishery resource. There is no provision for rational, science-based natural resource management within the market economy. The actions of individual producers and consumers pursuing their self-interest determine resource utilization, and left to the mechanisms of the market will consume the resource if the demand is high enough.

    Buyer Beware

    This is rational for each individual fishing company and consumer, but collectively the result is irrational. The market economy does not address the combined effects of individual actions. So despite the litany of comments from some business leaders, and, not coincidentally, some politicians, that government is wrong to “burden” companies with regulations, it is clear that the incentive structure of the market model needs to be updated to incorporate “external” costs and to protect ecological and human health in the public interest. From the TEEB study, what is needed is:

    “To recalibrate the faulty economic compass that has led us to decisions that are prejudicial to both current well-being and that of future generations6.”

    Consider an example of making a rational decision on public health, in the public interest. If you take steps to reduce air pollution in compliance with the Clean Air Act, it will cost up to $65 billion a year by 2020. The benefits of these steps have been estimated at $2 trillion per year9. That’s quite a return on investment - what would you do? What would be rational?

    Predictably, a relentless sales campaign by the vested parties of the status quo uses the tools of modern advertising to push emotional buttons and manipulate public opinion. Words like “freedom”, “individual liberty”, “God-given right”, “consumer choice”, “big government”, “extremists” and “socialists” seek to portray any efforts to support and protect the interests and well-being of the public at large as un-American, or worse.

    It’s ironic, and cynical, to consider such messages, when more and more of the benefits of our work – profits – are going to fewer and fewer very rich and politically connected people. It is undermining the very foundation of proportional representative government (votes) with vast sums of money. Lobbyists, lawyers and unlimited corporate campaign contributions are powerful tools with which to defend the status quo, on behalf of less than one percent of the population.

    Adam Smith considered the importance of human motivation in establishing his model of a system of economic transactions:

    “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard for their own interest”

    Adam Smith, “The Wealth of Nations”, 1776, p.24.

    Certainly this is an important truth, one with deep roots in our survival instincts. Another important truth is that for humans, survival and success in evolving and expanding has been based on our social nature and the power of groups to accomplish things that single individuals cannot. Specialization of activities, which is the prerequisite for exchanges and economy, requires the interdependence and coordination of individuals within the group, and a balance between the needs of the individual and the needs of the group.

    By the 1980’s, Mr. Smith’s notion of self-interest had morphed into something else:

    “Greed … is good”

    Gordon Gekko, in “Wall Street”, 20th Century Fox, 1987

    Fooled Again?

    Nature is the foundation of our continued existence. Natural capital is the foundation of our economies. Short term greed and willful ignorance are serious threats to our current and future well-being. Business as usual is not a viable option. United (and diverse) we may stand, if we can agree on the fundamentals of how to live together, in accord with nature.

    Jack F. Brennan, 2015

    References

    1. http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN.html
    2. http://ourworldindata.org/data/population-growth-vital-statistics/world-population-growth/
    3. http://www.prb.org/pdf14/2014-world-population-data-sheet_eng.pdf
    4. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/sixbillion/sixbilpart1.pdf
    5. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2014/air-pollution/en/
    6. TEEB (2010) The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: A synthesis. http://www.teebweb.org/our-publications/teeb-study-reports/synthesis-report/
    7. http://ram.biology.dal.ca/~myers/depletion/
    8. On the Brink: Chesapeake’s Native Oysters http://www.cbf.org/document.doc?id=523
    9. http://www.epa.gov/cleanairactbenefits/feb11/summaryreport.pdfnav21.pdf
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