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  1. Today
  2. Background and overview Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is considered as the "gold standard" for methylation sequencing. The principle is that it is treated with Bisulfite, and the C base which is not methylated in the genome is converted into U, and after PCR amplification, it becomes T, which is distinguished from the C base which has methylation modification, and is combined with high throughput sequencing technology, which can be used to determine whether a CpG/CHG/CHH site is methylated, namely to be used to map a single-base resolution genome-wide DNA methylation map. The application Mapping of epigenetic features of tumor microenvironment using whole genome bisulfite sequencing: Research Background The development and progression of solid tumors involves dynamic interactions between tumor epithelial cells and their microenvironment. Currently, most epigenetic studies on tumors focus on epithelial tumor cells. There are few studies on the molecular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment that maintains the tumor phenotype. Tumor-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are a major group of tumor microenvironments. CAF can promote the migration and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. The epigenetic signature of CAF is unclear. Research content In this paper, WGBS technology was used to detect methylation of tumor-associated fibroblast CAF and non-malignant prostate fibroblast NPF, and the differential methylation region DMR between the two was screened and DMR annotation was performed. The results show that DMR enrichment in CAF occurs in the gene regulatory region, and the combined analysis with RNAseq demonstrates that these DMRs regulate the transcription of genes. In addition, the DMR gene annotation results in CAF show that DMR is enriched for tumor-associated signaling pathways. These DMRs screened in CAF can be used to diagnose prostate cancer. Research results Non-malignant prostate fibroblast NPF was isolated from 4 cases of prostate cancer isolated from CAF and 4 adjacent tissues. Whole genome methylation sequencing (WGBS) was performed, and the average sequencing depth of each sample was > 7x. The results show that NPF and CAF have similar methylation profiles. A comparison of NPF and CAF showed that there were 7,534 DMRs (differential methylation regions) between the two groups, with CAF having more hypomethylated regions (5038). It is found that the DMR identified in CAF is enriched in the regulatory region of the gene. The main features include: most of it is outside the CpG island region; the hypomethylated DMR is more located in the promoter region and closer to the transcription initiationSite (TSS); DMR is enriched in the enhancement sub-region. Gene annotation of DMR, 30% of DMR is enriched for tumor-associated signaling pathways. To further investigate the role of DMR in the regulatory region, RNAseqwas used to detect gene expression levels. The results showed that 445 MDRs were significantly associated with 220 DEGs (differentially expressed genes), of which 162 DMR were associated with up-regulation of DEG. And this correlation can be verified by BSP and RT-PCR. Compare methylation data in prostate cancer epithelial cells and prostate cancer tissues in the TCGA database, of which 50 hypermethylated DMRs and 15 hypomethylated DMRs can be considered tumor-specific DMRs for prostate cancer Diagnosis (AUC > 0.8). Further reading: Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing (WGBS) Data Analysis Pipeline and Principles and Workflow of Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing Reference Pidsley R, Lawrence MG, Zotenko E, et al. Enduring epigenetic landmarks define the cancer microvironment. Genome Res 2018; 28(5): 625-638. (IF: 10.101)
  3. Last week
  4. Cytokines are proteins or small molecular peptides that transmit information between cells and have immune-regulating and effecting functions, including hemopoiesis, cell growth and repair of damaged tissues. Cytokines can be divided into Il34, interferon, tumor necrosis factor super family, colony stimulating factor, chemokine, growth factor, IRF1, etc. Many cytokines play roles in the body through paracrine, autocrine or endocrine, and have multiple physiological characteristics such as pleiotropy, overlap, antagonism and synergy, forming a very complex cytokine regulatory network that participates in a variety of important physiological functions of the human body. The realization of cytokine function mainly plays a biological role by binding to the corresponding cytokine receptors on the cell surface. The combination of cytokines and their receptors initiates complex intramolecular interactions that ultimately lead to changes in cell gene transcription. Participate in immune response and immune regulation, regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, stimulate hematopoietic function, stimulate cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, induce or inhibit cytotoxic effects, and finally induce apoptosis. As the main cytokine, Il34 is a cellular substance produced by various cells and plays a role in white blood cells. Interleukin originally refers to the cytokines produced by white blood cells and playing a regulatory role in white blood cells, but now it refers to a group of cytokines with basically clear molecular structure and biological functions and an important regulatory role that are uniformly named. It belongs to the same category of cytokines as hemocyte growth factor. They coordinate and interact with each other to complete hematopoietic and immune regulation functions. Interleukins play an important role in the transmission of information, activation and regulation of immune cells, activation, proliferation and differentiation of T and B cells, and inflammatory response. A substance similar to the function of cytokines is kinin release-related peptidase, which is the main rate-limiting enzyme in the kinin system. Serine protease, which is found in most tissues and body fluids, is also a kind of endopeptide enzyme, of which KLK3 is the most important component. Different from the above-mentioned cytokines, the kinin release-related peptidase specifically clews the substrate peptide at the carbon terminal, which can lyse the kinin and release the active kinin, which plays a regulatory role in the cardiovascular system and renal function. KLK is divided into two major groups: plasma KLK and tissue KLK, which are converted from prekallikin and KLK precursors, respectively. They differ greatly in molecular weight, substrate, immunological properties, gene structure, and kinin types released. Plasma KLK, also known as Fletcher factor, is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is specifically expressed in hepatocytes. In addition, IRS1 is an important anti-nutrient factor in soybean and some other plant feeds, which is closely related to KSR1. Trypsin inhibitors are widely found in beans, cereals, oil crops and other plants. Ras kinase inhibitors are distributed in all parts of these crops, but mainly exist in the seeds of crops. In seeds, ras kinase inhibitors are mainly distributed in protein-rich tissues or organs, located in protein bodies, vacuoles or in cell fluids. The activity of ras kinase inhibitor iron was different in different crop seeds. Ras kinase inhibitor activity is usually highest in soybean. It protects the yolk and egg embryo by preventing protein breakdown and preventing bacteria from reproducing in the egg. Cytokine research has very important theoretical and practical significance, it helps to clarify immune regulation mechanism of the molecular level, contribute to disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment, especially the use of genetic engineering technology in the production of recombinant cytokines have been used in the treatment of tumor, infection, inflammation, hematopoietic dysfunction, etc, and received good curative effect, has very broad application prospects. Generally speaking, cytokines are a large group of substances with certain tissue distribution specificity, which usually depends on the tissue distribution or cell expression specificity of their corresponding receptors. By binding to receptors, downstream signaling pathways, such as the stat pathway, are initiated, and eventually active transcription factors are formed to enable the expression of proteins that enhance phagocytosis, promote differentiation, and regulate immunity. Of course, in addition to IRF1, many factors derived from lymphocytes or macrophages are also involved in the expression and regulation of immune responses related to cell function. Lymphocyte cytokines are derived from lymphocytes, and the biological activities of various factors are different, such as macrophage activation and T cell reproduction. However, according to the current research level, the physical and chemical properties of the factors themselves are not clear. In addition, during the study of the immune response, many bioactive molecules were found in the supernatant of mitogen stimulated cell culture, and the researchers named them after the activity measured by themselves. Nearly 100 kinds of factors were reported over a decade. Later, by means of molecular biology, it was found that many factors named after biological activities were actually the same substance with pleiotropic effects.
  5. There has been a lot of discussion about the climate in recent years, and there is no doubt that doing everything you can to conserve the resources of the planet is the right move. Is it worth it to make the exterior of your home eco-friendly? Yes, it is. It will not only save you a lot of money but will also allow you to contribute towards making this world a better place. Moreover, you can take the opportunity to apply architectural designs that enhance the beauty of your home. The following four tips will help you make your home environmentally friendly. Go for Green Materials There is no better way to make the exterior of your home environmental friendly than by using green materials. What are green materials? These are materials that are, for the most part, renewable. Examples of these are recycled and reclaimed wood. Normally, they are cheap, not toxic, and can be used to conserve energy. You can use these materials to create a deck for your home. There is no better way to spend an evening than feeling the soft breeze of the summer as you admire the wonders of nature in your backyard made from materials that are in harmony with the planet. Upgrade Your Energy System Few things are as eco-friendly as a solar power system. The addition of solar panels to your home will not only allow you to energize every bit of it with a renewable source of energy but also save you a ton of cash on your electricity bill. Of course, while the cost of solar panels have dropped over the years, they can still be a bit pricey. If they are out of your price range, you can opt for energy-efficient lights such as LEDs that emit less heat and reduce the consumption of electricity in your home. Create Natural Soil Why spend money on mulch when you can make your own. Select a small area in your backyard to make a compost pile from food scraps and dead leaves. Turn it often, mix, and after a few months, the components will become a nutrient-rich dark soil mixture. This can be used to grow any vegetation that you want to have in your garden, which will add extra oxygen to the planet. Implement a New Water System Keeping a luscious garden can be more expensive than you think. Instead of using a sprinkler or water hose, you can reclaim the water with a drainage system that takes rainwater from the roof and deliver it to your lawn or backyard. This allows you to enjoy abundant vegetation without an exorbitant water bill. You may also use septic tanks that prevent contaminants in the wastewater from leaking to groundwater. There are endless ways to make your home eco-friendly. Using green materials, upgrading your power, making natural soil, and implementing a new water system are a few approaches you can use to save your hard-earned cash, conserve the planet, and remodel your home. Apply at least one of the strategies discussed and show everybody you know the benefits of going green.
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  7. For you, pets might be a valued part of your family, so you want to make sure they’re treated right. For example, the RSPCA noted that 19% of dog owners take man’s best friend with them on holiday, so it’s important to plan their journey ahead of time. In Sydney, there are various rules that explore the transportation and safety of pets on public transport. These refer purely to regular pets, as all guidance/assistance animals are accepted on public transport, provided you have an Assistance Animal Permit from the Transport Concessions Office. No pets are allowed on Sydney Metro/Train or coach services, or at any of their stations. They are, however, available on bus, ferry and light rail services. For all services, you need to gain permission from either the driver or the crew. If allowed, the pet must be restrained in a suitable box or container, not be placed on any seats, and must be kept clean and calm. The driver has final say on the admittance of the animal. Other states such as Victoria and South Australia are slightly more lenient with train travel, provided the animal is fitted with a muzzle or contained. Traveling by car can be an entirely different story, as everyone’s car houses pets in different ways. There are still some important rules to cover, however, to ensure that your pets enjoy the trip as much as you do. Before you leave you should keep the number for your vet and pet insurance handy, so they can be contacted in the event of an emergency. The animal should also be taken to the vet before the trip, so they can receive the necessary immunisations and treatments. Dogs are legally required to be restrained with a dog seat belt or harness, while cats should be placed in a cat carrier. Air-con should be kept on to ensure your pet is kept cool and comfortable, or at least allow for adequate ventilation if this is not possible. It’s a good idea to prepare some treats, toys and bottles of water for your pet while on your trip, in addition to having your leash handy if they need to go for a walk. Having a pooper-scooper and/or plastic bag ready to pick up any droppings is also recommended. Plan ahead to allow for regular breaks and rest stops – at least every two hours or so - so that both you and your pet can get out and stretch. Make sure they are fitted with updated ID tags or are microchipped, so you can be contacted if they are lost. Perhaps you can plan a stop ahead of time and allow your pet to let out some excitement. If you’re going through the city, find a fun area with Parkhound and you can rent out a one-time space for you to stretch your legs and have some fun with your pet. If you intend on taking your furry friend with you on a plane – for a domestic flight, for example – check with the airline to ensure what their policies for animals are. Some may allow you to keep the animal in the cabin, while others may only allow you to store your pet in the cargo in a carry case. As with all transportation, it’s important that you weigh up the pros and cons of any forms of travel so that you can keep your pets healthy and happy. Some pets may not take well to the movements and sounds of cars, trains and planes, so make sure to research what may be the best ways to transport your pet to your next destination.
  8. The planet needs our help, but we also need to manage to stay warm during the colder winter months. Staying green while staying warm this winter may be easier than you think. Here a few tips to help you get started. Bring Mother Nature Indoors A great to help combat multiple issues during the winter months is by having some indoor plants to keep you company. Not only can plants make living spaces more inviting and pleasant to the eye, but they also have the ability to trap moisture and heat inside your home. You can also find plants that work to keep you cool during the summer months, as well as warmer in the winter months. Use Energy Efficient Appliances The best way to reduce your carbon footprint is by reducing the amount of energy your home is wasting. This can include things such as keeping the heater a few degrees cooler than normal and making sure doors stay shut, but it is more important to ensure you are using the most energy-efficient appliances and heaters. The Energy Star logo is a good way to make sure you are selecting the products that have been tested and proven to be energy efficient. Replace Your Windows A lot of our home’s heat is wasted through our windows. Even when we keep them shut, there is still a lot of air that is seeping through. A great way to maximize your energy efficiency is by replacing your windows with something that is more energy-efficient, such as double glazed windows. These windows put multiple panes of glass into one window with spacers in between. This offers more durability and reduces your heating costs throughout the winter. Buy In-Season Fruits and Vegetables While most of this list is centered on keeping us warm, it is important to remember that our actions can have a greater effect on the world as a whole. When we buy produce that is not in-season, that food must be shipped from other parts of the country or world. This increase in transportation burns more fuels and releases more harmful chemicals into the air. Delicious winter produce to try includes pears, beets, blackberries, and carrots. It is going to take all of us working together to help heal our planet. You can do your part more easily by following these handy tips when the weather starts to turn colder.
  9. As a supplier in producing leading protein products and providing efficient protein services, Creative BioMart has been always striving great efforts to satisfy its clients’ needs and fulfil its goal to set up a standard for protein production as well as to accelerate the development of biochemical science and technologies. Creative BioMart combines innovative technologies, cost-effective products and services with simple procurement and fast-speed delivery, achieving a comprehensive laboratory solution with great values to scientists and researchers. Why are you suggested to choose Protein Labeling service provided by Creative BioMart? To be subjective and specific, here are the advantages of the company’s protein labeling service that you could not ignore and could benefit your research development: Custom Service Upon Your Needs Creative BioMart provides custom protein labeling and conjugation service in accordance with personalized needs and requirements. The company claims to supply a variety of labels, protocols and conjugates on the basis of high quality, simple, time-saving yet efficient approaches, including but not limited: · Enzyme/Antibody conjugation · Fluorescent Labeling in Vitro · Fluorescent Tagged Protein in Vivo · Protein Biotinylation · Stable Isotope Labeling To take Stable Isotope Labeling as an example, Creative BioMart has contracted over 500 protein production projects with an overall success rate of 90 %. The purity of those isotopic labeled proteins is beyond 95% and the isotope enrichment c.a. is 98%. Professional Analysis and Full Report of Variables Affecting Labeling and Conjugation Behaviors Creative BioMart pays great importance to generate a full report along with the product delivery. It provides a thorough analysis to some critical variables affecting the labeling and conjugation behaviors. · In vivo labeling behavior · Immunogenicity and In vitro stability of the linker group · Types of labeling or conjugation reaction: specific site vs. random coupling · Labeling/Conjugate stoichiometry · Sites of labeling/conjugation: to reduce steric hindrance and minimize negative impact on folding and activity Creative BioMart also provides structural analysis of the labeled proteins. The company’s NMR laboratory provides an accurate structural analysis on the labeled proteins. Normally the analysis will be done after the appropriate labeled proteins have been produced and purified on scale. Since 2005, Creative BioMart has provided thousands of high quality proteins featured in recombinant proteins, native proteins and GMP proteins to support researchers and scientists in biochemical and pharmaceutical industry. With years’ development, the company has updated a wide range of protein techniques to guarantee the product and service quality, including protein expression, protein purification, protein labeling, etc. To learn more about the company and its protein labeling service, visit https://www.creativebiomart.net/Protein-Labeling.htm or send your inquiry to contact@creative-biomart.com.
  10. For businesses that routinely find themselves working with chemicals or hazardous goods, it’s essential to do everything possible to minimise their risk. Of course, there’s an incredible risk when working with explosives, corrosive acids and poisons, though with the correct precautions and procedures, these risks dissipate almost entirely. If you’re having trouble educating your workforce or just looking for a few steps on how to minimise chemical risks, we have four essential steps for you below. There’s always a multi-step process when it comes to minimising risk, but it’s not too hard to remember, and we’ve taken a look into these below. Fortunately, a few somewhat simple changes can work wonders for the safety of your business, so making these won’t be very difficult at all. Let’s make your workplace as safe as can be, take a look at our tips below. 1. Identify and Understand This is the essential first step to reducing the risk of harm in the workplace. Nor yourself or an employee can effectively deal with a chemical, poison or explosive without first knowing what it is, what its risks are, and how to store it safely. With that in mind, it’s crucial to take a look at the Safety Data Sheet that has come with the substance and work out just what it is. If it should be stored in a compliant way, then invest in a Storemasta cabinet, and you’ll be checking off an essential requirement: safe storage. Once you’ve identified what a chemical is, and how it should be handled, you can then move on to assessing how best to deal with it. 2. Assessing Risk and Potential Harm As we now know the substance and its basic requirements for storage, we can then move on to understanding the risks it poses to the workplace. You’ll need to know whether the chemical is going to cause vapours to spread through the warehouse or workplace, or if it can catch fire under certain conditions, for example. We suggest undertaking a risk assessment of that specific hazardous good and learning about the potential risks it poses. In doing so, you’ll have an in-depth look at what the substance is capable of, and how to keep it from doing any harm. In the end, after assessments and some brief research, you should know exactly what the substance’s risk is, and how to mitigate it. 3. Work to Control Risk The first two steps in our list will have shown you just what a chemical is, how it should be handled, and what harm it can cause. With these points in mind, you should then develop a plan and educate staff on how to control risk when working with that specific chemical. A few tips we suggest are: - Adapting workplace tasks that could result in injury - Investing in personal protection equipment or PPE - Change workplace paths to keep staff away from an unsafe area. Without a doubt, prevention is the best medicine when it comes to reducing the risk of a hazardous chemical harming someone. It’s also a good idea to implement the following tips to reduce risk further: - Invest in correct ventilation for chemicals. - Install a Storemasta cabinet for storage. - Automate or enhance tasks that require chemical use. Adding these few tips is essential to relatively neutralising risk, regardless of how dangerous or hazardous a substance may be. 4. Maintain Safety The final step to minimising hazardous good's risk is to implement a few changes in the workplace that revolve around the hazards themselves. These could include permanently changing workplace tasks, implementing mandatory workplace safety meetings and developing a workplace-wide safety protocol. If you plan on maintaining the safety of your workplace, there's little chance that the hazards will again crop up, keeping everyone safe in the long term. It may also be a good idea to have a professional WHS risk assessment worker come to your workplace on a routine basis throughout the year to run a few tests and take a look at how things are going. These people will be able to spotlight potential risks and let you know what to do to reduce the chance of an injury.
  11. In the long-term natural selection and evolution, the organization and properties of organism constituent materials have been continuously optimized and improved, so that simple mineral and organic materials are used to meet complex mechanical and functional requirements. The principle is to make best adaptation to the living environment. Nature is a mentor of mankind. The superior properties of natural biomaterials can provide useful insights into the optimal design of man-made materials, especially the development of high-performance biomimetic materials. Among them, functional gradient design is one of the basic performance optimization strategies that are commonly used in biomaterials. Revealing the gradient design criteria in nature and the corresponding performance optimization mechanism are of great significance for guiding the design and promotion of high performance biomimetic gradient materials. Recently in a study, Zhang Zhefeng, Department of Materials Fatigue and Fracture Research, Shenyang Institute of Materials Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, collaborated with Robert O. Ritchie, professor at the University of California at Berkeley, and Marc A. Meyers, professor at the University of California, San Diego, revealed that the gradient structure orientation features are widely existed in biological tissues and materials. They also proposed a new idea of bionic design to improve the contact damage resistance of materials. The mechanical properties of gradient changes are obtained by controlling the orientation of microstructures to achieve local stiffness. The optimal distribution and matching of strength and toughness improve the overall mechanical properties, as shown in Figure 1. Through mechanical analysis and numerical simulation, they established the quantitative relationship between structural orientation and various mechanical properties, clarified the mechanism of material damage resistance improvement, and pointed out the design method of corresponding biomimetic gradient structure. Figure 1. On this basis, they further summarized the basic functional gradient material design forms and principles commonly found in nature, and took typical biological materials as examples, according to composition and composition, organizational structure (including the arrangement of structural units, spatial distribution, scale and orientation), interface and different types of gradients in the multi-level structure scale combination and matching ideas to concretely describe and analyze the gradient in biomaterials, summed up the role and corresponding mechanism of gradient design in material performance optimization. At the same time, they summarized the recent progress in the design and application of biomimetic gradient materials, especially the application of new material preparation technologies, such as 3D printing in the field of biomimetic gradient materials, and pointed out the future scientific issues and challenges that need to be addressed in natural and biomimetic gradient materials studies. The research was funded by the Institute of Metals, the introduction of outstanding scholars, and the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative project of the US Air Force Scientific Research Office. Related results were recently published in Acta Biomaterialia 44 (2016) 31-40 and Progress in Materials Science (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2017.04.013). About natural materials Biomaterials can be classified into two main groups: synthetic and natural biomaterials. The latter exhibit several advantages over the former, such as biocompatibility, inherent biodegradability, remodeling and critical biological functions. Therefore, natural biomaterials are usually applied in the repair or replacement of damaged human tissues and organs. They have the ability to adequately support cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. For example, natural polymers have been used to make natural hydrogels as extracellular matrix that mimic the biological milieu to bridge the gap between conventional cell cultures and complex native in vivo environments. Cellulose, a polysaccharide mainly found in plants can promote bone regeneration. Another example is the silk fiber produced by spiders, its biodegradability is ideal for applications like surgical suture and drug delivery. In Matexcel, our selection of naturally biomaterials and their derivatives includes DNA and protein-based biomaterials (collagen, gelatin, fibrin, silk, elastin) and polysaccharide-based biomaterials (cellulose, chitin/chitosan, glucose, alginate, hyaluronic acid).
  12. Park cleanups are a helpful way to heal the environment and to beautify the community. When planning a successful park cleanup, organizers should consider all the necessary details in order to make the event a success. Hosts of local park cleanups should keep the following information in mind: Use Eco Trash Bags When cleaning the park up, it's important to avoid contributing further to polluting the environment with plastic trash bags. As regular trash bags take over 1,000 years to decompose in a landfill, participants in park cleanups should avoid using these bags at all. When cleaning up the park, hosts should provide participants with eco-friendly alternatives like compostable trash bags, These bags are made of organic materials that won’t cause any additional harm to the environment over time. Rent an Industrial-Sized Dumpster With over 100 million pounds of garbage found in the nation’s parks every year, hosts of park cleanups need a suitable way to dispose of this garbage. With a dumpster rental of an industrial-sized container, volunteers are able to effectively collect and dispose of trash. Once the cleanup is complete, the dumpster will be picked up and the park will be trash-free. Highlight Sections with Safe Access From the trash left by park visitors to debris from trees and plants, navigating a park cleanup can be dangerous if the necessary precautions aren’t taken. It is up to the cleanup’s host to identify the safest sections of the park for volunteers to clean. This way, participants can work in teams to clean the park as efficiently as possible. Speak with Proper City Authorities While it is possible to perform a park cleanup with a few people during an informal event, this isn’t the ideal way to plan a park cleanup. For cleanup to have the most impact, interested parties should get in contact with the city government. When planning a community event like a park cleanup, it’s best for the organizers to speak with the proper city authorities beforehand. As parks are the responsibility of the government, events like cleanups should always be ordained by the authorities in charge. Once the go-ahead is given by the city, it's time to publicize the event and search for volunteers. Cleanups help to bring the community together as dedicated residents work to keep their local parks beautiful. With these four tips, your next park clean up will be a success.
  13. A promising new approach to treating some types of cancer is to program the patient’s own T cells so that they can destroy the cancer cells. This approach, called CAR-T cell therapy, is currently available against certain types of leukemia, but so far it does not treat solid tumors such as lung or breast tumors well. Now, in a new study, researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed a new approach to improve this therapy, making it a weapon against almost any type of cancer. Specifically, they developed a vaccine that significantly enhanced the anti-tumor T cell population and allowed these T cells to aggressively invade solid tumors. The results of the study were published in the July 12, 2019 issue of Science, titled “Enhanced CAR-T cell activity against solid tumors by vaccine boosting through the chimeric receptor.” In a study of mice, these researchers found that they were able to completely eliminate 60% of the solid tumors in mice that received CAR-T cell therapy but also received booster vaccination. In treating solid tumors, these genetically modified T cells alone have little effect. Darrell Irvine, author of the paper and deputy director of the Koch Institute for Comprehensive Cancer Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said, “By adding a vaccine, CAR-T cell therapy, which had no effect on survival, resulted in complete remission in more than half of the mice treated with the vaccine.” In addition, the first author of the paper was Leyuan Ma, a postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Targeting tumors So far, the FDA has approved two types of CAR-T cell therapy, and both of them are used to treat leukemia. In both therapies, T cells extracted from the patient’s blood are programmed to target proteins or antigens found on the surface of B cells. (“CAR” in CAR-T cell therapy is an abbreviation for chimeric antigen receptor.) Scientists believe that one reason such therapies do not work well for solid tumors is that tumors often create an immunosuppressive environment that loses function before T cells reach their targets. To solve this problem, given that lymph nodes have a large population of immune cells, Irvine and his team decided to try to provide a vaccine that enters lymph nodes in order to stimulate CAR-T cells there. “Our guess is that if these T cells can be boosted through the CAR receptor in the lymph nodes, they will receive the correct set of priming signals to make them more functional, so that they can resist shutdown and still function when they enter the tumor,” said Irvine. To develop such a vaccine, the Irvine team used techniques they had discovered several years earlier. They found that by linking the vaccine together with fat molecules called lipid tails, they were able to deliver this vaccine more effectively into the lymph nodes. This lipid tail binds to a protein found in the blood called albumin, which allows the vaccine to hitchhike directly to the lymph nodes. In addition to this lipid tail, this vaccine contains an antigen that stimulates CAR-T cells once they reach the lymph nodes. This antigen can be the same tumor antigen targeted by these T cells or an arbitrary molecule of choice for these researchers. For the latter case, CAR-T cells must be re-engineered so that they can be activated by both this tumor antigen and this arbitrary molecule. When tested in mice, these researchers found that either type of vaccine significantly boosted T cell responses. When mice were given approximately 50,000 CAR-T cells but were not vaccinated, CAR-T cells were barely detectable in their bloodstream. In contrast, when the booster vaccine was given the day after the T cell infusion and again one week later, CAR-T cells proliferated until they constituted 65% of the total T cell population in these mice after two weeks of treatment. This dramatic enhancement of the CAR-T cell population results in complete clearance of glioblastoma, mammary adenoma, and melanoma in many mice. In the absence of vaccination, CAR-T cells had no effect on tumors, whereas after vaccination, CAR-T cells cleared tumors in 60% of mice. Long-term memory Irvine said the technique is also expected to prevent tumor recurrence. Approximately 75 days after the initial treatment, these researchers injected these mice with the same tumor cells as the cells that formed the original tumor, and they were subsequently cleared by the immune system. Then about 50 days later, they injected slightly different tumor cells that did not express the antigen targeted by naïve CAR-T cells, and these mice were also able to eliminate these tumor cells. This suggests that once these CAR-T cells begin to destroy the tumor, the immune system is able to detect other tumor antigens and generate a “memory” T cell population that also targets these tumor antigens. “If we select mice that appear to be cured and rechallenge them with tumor cells, then they will completely eliminate these tumor cells. This is another exciting aspect of such a strategy. One needs to let T cells attack many different antigens to succeed, because if CAR-T cells recognize only one antigen, then the tumor only needs to let this antigen mutate to escape the immune attack. If this therapy induces new T cell priming, then this escape mechanism will become more difficult.” Irvine added. Although most of this study was performed in mice, these researchers found that human cells coated with CAR antigens also stimulate human CAR-T cells, suggesting that this same approach may also work in human patients. This technology has been licensed to a company called Elicio Therapeutics, which is seeking to test it using CAR-T cell therapies already in development. Irvine said, “There is really no barrier to doing this quickly in patients, because if we take CAR-T cells and equip them with an arbitrary peptide ligand, then we don’t have to change these CAR-T cells. I hope that within the next one to two years, this method can be tested on patients anyway.” About the author Starting from a small supplier of proteins and enzymes for academic institutes and biotech companies, Creative BioMart has always been focusing on developing high quality protein products including recombinant protein, GMP proteins, native proteins, assay kit, etc. and efficient protein service. Over the past decade, our products and services are proved to have served our customers well and our brand has become one of the most trustworthy in the market.
  14. Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) combine specificities of two antibodies and simultaneously address different antigens or epitopes. BsAbs with “two-target” functionality can interfere with multiple surface receptors or ligands associated. 1. Development history of three generations of bispecific antibodies The advent of hybridoma technology in the 1970s reminded people whether the same antibody could be used to target two different targets, namely Bispecific Antibody (bsAb). Most of the earliest bispecific antibodies are developed by chemical coupling methods. Although the method is much simple, the resulting products are complex and heterogeneous and difficult to use in industrial production. Until the 1980s, scFv-based recombinant bispecific antibodies appeared and gradually became the focus of research with the popularization of recombinant DNA technology. Amgen/Micromet’s BiTE (Bispecific T cell Engager) is the archetype of the first generation of bispecific antibodies, characterized by a simple structure and two scFvs connection. But it also has obvious disadvantages such as short half-life and low expression. A pump for continuous administration is clinically necessary due to the short half-life with only two hours. Fortunately, the clinical dose of BiTE is less than one tenth of the amount of common antibodies, which virtually solves the problem of mass production. The first recombinant bispecific antibody Blinatumomab (CD3-CD19 BiTE) was finally approved by the FDA in December 2014 for marketing in the United States after various difficulties. Genentech’s Paul Carter team invented the knob-into-holes bispecific antibody in the 1990s as the second-generation bispecific antibodies, with a structure and stability similar to that of natural IgG. Roche/Chugai’s Emicizumab (factor IX and factor X bsAb) using the knob-into-hole technology was approved by the FDA in November 2017 as the second bispecific antibody marketed in the United States. There are currently about 120 bispecific antibodies in different clinical development stages around the world, including third generation bispecific antibodies. If taking T cell-targeted therapy as an example, Roche’s CEA-TCB (CD3-CEA bispecific antibody) is a typical representative of third-generation bispecific antibodies, which utilizes the knob-into-hole technology of second-generation bispecific antibodies, and Roche engineers invented CrossMab technology shortly after the acquisition of Genentech and successfully solved the bottleneck of knob-into-hole in common light chain. In addition, CEA-TCB achieves bivalent binding of tumor antigens and monovalent binding of CD3, enabling the bispecific antibody to produce avidity effects when combined with tumor antigens while reducing CD3 antibody binding toxicity. At present, CEA-TCB has completed Phase 1 clinical trials and achieved satisfactory results. 2. The challenges for bispecific antibodies development Since 1986, the first antibody drug, Muromonab (OKT3), has been approved for marketing, the FDA has approved the listing of 73 antibody drugs by the end of 2017, and there are only two bispecific antibodies listed above. The development of bispecific antibodies lags significantly behind therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, which mainly results from the following reasons: Early bispecific antibody has a difficult expression and poor stability, as well as a complicated production process; The early development cost of bispecific antibodies is significantly higher than that of monoclonal antibodies; Bispecific antibody project involves target biology, structural biology, antibody engineering, and screening strategies. In 2017, the market capacity of antibody drugs broke through the $100 billion mark for the first time. Antibody drugs have become one of the fastest growing areas in the pharmaceutical industry. Bispecific antibodies at the forefront of antibody drug development have long been the development direction of major pharmaceutical companies around the world. It is believed that bispecific antibody will have a considerable market share in the field of solid tumor treatment. Compared with CAR-T, bispecific antibody drugs have the advantages of dose controllable and flexible drug administration period. At the same time, bispecific antibody drugs can also target other immune cells, such as NK, Macrophage, etc. Author Bio Creative Biolabs was established in 2004 by scientists who are dedicated to conquering of cancer. Over the past 10 years, Creative Biolabs has grown into a recognized world leader in antibody (rAb) discovery, engineering, production, and analysis. Standing on the shoulder of a giant, the bispecific antibody (BsAb) team has a collective of experienced scientists committed to providing high-quality services to customers all over the world. Now, with the cutting-edge platforms and methods (quadroma development, chemical conjugation, and genetic engineering), a comprehensive list of bispecific antibody products is available to customers in academia and industry fields.
  15. Brief Introduction to Short Tandem Repeats Microsatellite DNA, also known as short tandem repeats (STR) or simple repeat sequences (SRS or SSR), is widely found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, consisting of a unit of two to thirteen nucleotides repeated hundreds of times in a row on the DNA strand which is about 5% of the eukaryotic genome, the basic unit (core sequence) is 1-6bp. The most common of these is (CA) n and (TG) n, and the human genome has about 5 × 104 ~ 1 × 105 (CA) n repeats which take 10% of the genome. Each microsatellite DNA has the same core sequence structure, the number of repeating units is about 10 to 60 times, and its length is generally not more than 300bp, mostly located in the non-coding region of the gene, intron or untranslated region. which may be present in the Alu sequence or Satellite sequence, but in the coding sequence and exon also can find the presence of microsatellite DNA. The high polymorphism of microsatellite DNA is mainly due to the difference in the number of tandem numbers. There is a big difference in the distribution for microsatellite DNA in different races and populations due to the number of repeat units and repetition, which constituted STR genetic polymorphism. And the number of repetitions between different individuals at a homologous STR site is also different so that STR loci analysis can identify individuals that are similar to fingerprint recognition. It is possible to create a personal gene file by identifying a specific sequence of genomes at particular loci. Currently, there are more than 10,000 STR loci are available. STR analysis has become an important analytical method for individual identification and paternity testing in the field of forensic science. It can be applied to judicial case investigation, that is, genetic fingerprint analysis. The Causes of STR The replication slip caused by mismatches between DNA strands during the mitotic process is considered to be the most common cause of the occurrence of STR, and in general, there will be an average of one-thousandths of microsatellite DNA will undergo replication slippage. The study showed that the rate of tandem duplication at repeat sequences was higher than the probability of point mutations occurring elsewhere in the genome. Most of the replication slides only cause a change in the repeat unit, and the probability of replication slip is different due to the size of the different copy units and different species. STR Detection Method STR analysis is one of the most useful methods in molecular biology which is used to compare specific loci on DNA from two or more samples. There are two common methods for STR detection: capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gel electrophoresis, which can be used to determine the specific amount of microbes Satellite sequence and draw the STR map. Typically, each allele is shared by about 5-20% of people. And the advantages of STR analysis will be reflected in the simultaneous identification of multiple STR loci. Each individual can be identified accurately by the resulting STR map. In theory, if there were 16 STR loci being used in combination, the recognition rate will be 0.999999999998. The Importance of STR Analysis It is still common for cell lines to be misidentified and cross-contamination, although scientists use a variety of traditional methods to identify cells, there are still dozens of cross-contamination happened. And even some researchers found that cell lines were misidentified or cross-contamination while cell identification reports for the higher score study articles publication, resulting in erroneous conclusions. All of which will lead to the waste of research funding and time, and resulting in a large number of invalid or erroneous data that will mislead other researchers. Based on the statistics data, around 20% of the cell lines were misidentified and cross-contamination in the labs so that it is a serious concern for researchers to provide accurate cell line identification and prevent cell lines from cross-contamination. Currently, several STR loci have been developed to analyze cross-contamination and cell types at the same time, that can detect up to 0.1 ng of DNA (about 15 Diploid genomes) with high sensitivity for the trace pollution. All the mentioned above is the complete guide for the Short Tandem Repeat and its importance!
  16. Not only does caring for the environment help the planet, learning how to reduce your emissions and utilize energy more efficiently will help defray costs and wear on your trucks. A big rig has more demands on it than a standard truck. Some of the same techniques that work on smaller trucks still apply when you’re trying to make your rigs more energy efficient, though. The nature of trucking means that massive amounts of fuel and paper are used, but this doesn’t mean that you can’t do anything to cut back. Here are some of the methods that you can employ in order to improve your fleet’s energy efficiency while they’re on the road. Save the Trees Even though the ELD mandate deadline hasn’t arrived yet, it’s still time to start having your drivers track their hours on the road on their phones instead of on paper. You can massively reduce the paper waste created by truckers by simply switching to electronic documentation. Also, you can encourage your drivers to carry a bag in their trucks to throw away paper and plastic products. These can be dropped off at gas stations and truck stops with recycling areas. Drivers should also be encouraged to bring reusable containers for your food. You’d be surprised at the amount of trash from snacks and waste products your fleet can go through in a year. You will also be eligible for tax breaks and discounts for recycling products, so it will be putting money back into your pocket as well. Pay Attention to Mileage Fuel prices and maintenance costs continue to climb in the industry, so finding ways to increase your fuel mileage is paramount. Selecting the right octane of fuel in order to maximize your engine’s efficiency is the first place to start. It can also help to look into the best and worst truck engines. This is what your big rigs are going to need to keep it going for all of those miles. Plan your routes in advance to maximize fuel efficiency, and have your drivers practice consistent acceleration. Braking and accelerating suddenly wastes more gas than maintaining a steady speed. And of course, keep careful tracks of fuel usage and expenses. What you find can help you determine where you can pinch to cut excess fuel usage. Conserve electricity All of the accessories and electricity used on engine startup can work to drain a truck’s battery. The problem with causing this level of stress to a truck battery is that it can wear down faster over time. This is definitely not good for the environment over the long run, or for your efficiency. Choose a battery that can last for as long as possible. Select a commercial battery supplier that sells top-rated brands so that you can find the right battery to keep your truck running. Try to reduce idling time and turn your trucks off when they don’t need to be running. If your routes are not too far, you can even consider integrating electric vehicles into your fleet, or another form of fuel-efficient rig. Perform Maintenance Keeping up with maintenance will also help to improve your fleet’s efficiency. Replacing air filters and changing the oil on a regular schedule ensures that your engines can operate at an optimal level. Regular tune-ups will need to be performed so that wear and tear doesn’t start to break down your engine’s ability to function properly over time. Make sure your drivers check the engines after each trip so that you can stay on top of any issues before they can develop into a problem. Using some common-sense approaches will work to improve your fleet’s energy efficiency. Use these tips to help you navigate the green trucking world.
  17. Firstly, let us see two antibodies: 4G2 antibody This product is a mouse monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes E protein from DENV-2. The E protein-binding antibody 4G2 is an epitope-specific antibody that can be used in ELISA. A11 antibody Recombinant Human Antibody (EDE2 A11) is capable of binding to DENV E proteins, expressed in HEK 293 cells as the combination of a heavy chain (HC) containing VH from anti-DENV E proteins mAb and CH1-3 region of human IgG1 and a light chain (LC) encoding VL from anti-DENV E proteins mAb and CL of human kappa light chain. So, what is DENV? Figure1. Dengue virus Dengue virus (DENV) belongs to a serotype subgroup of flaviviridae. Its morphological structure is similar to that of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but its size is small, about 17-25 nm. It can be divided into four serotypes according to antigenicity, 1, 2, 3 and 4 serotypes. There are antigenic differences among different viral strains in the same type. Viral characteristics and physicochemical properties DENV has a capsule and is a single positive strand RNA virus without segments. The viral genome is about 11 KB long. It encodes three structural proteins (C-prM-E) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1-NS2A-NS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5). Among them, E protein is the main structural protein of the virus, which determines the histophilicity of the virus and mediates the binding of the virus to cell receptors. At the same time, it is also an important component of influencing virulence, causing protective immune response and immunopathological damage. The virus is sensitive to heat and can be inactivated at 56 ℃ for 30 minutes. Lipid solvents such as chloroform, acetone, lipase or sodium deoxycholate can inactivate the virus by destroying its envelope. Viruses are sensitive to gastric acid, bile and protease, and to ultraviolet and gamma rays. Antigenicity and serotype According to the antigenicity of virus E protein, it can be divided into four serotypes: DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4. The antigenicity of these viruses was cross-linked, but not with other antigens of flaviviridae. Antigenic determinants of viral envelope protein E can induce protective neutralizing antibodies and hemagglutination inhibitory antibodies, and may be involved in the occurrence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). NS1 and NS3 are both immunoreactive and immunogenic, which can induce protective immunity against dengue virus homology in mice. Clinical symptoms Dengue virus often causes asymptomatic recessive infection. The main clinical manifestations of the patients are dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The main clinical manifestations of DF include protruding fever, severe headache (mostly frontal pain), post-ocular pain (aggravation of eyeball movement), general pain and joint pain, nausea and vomiting, lymphadenopathy, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. DF not only causes heart, liver, lung, kidney, brain and other system damage, but also leads to myocardial damage. The clinical manifestations of DHF/DSS are more serious. In addition to the above DF symptoms, severe and persistent abdominal pain, nasal, oral and gingival bleeding, skin bleeding and ecchymosis, black stool, extreme thirst, pale skin and mucosa, chills, restlessness or sleepiness, hematocrit > 35% and other manifestations can occur. Serious cases can cause death. DENV infection can also cause encephalitis. Pathogenesis The pathogenesis of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever has not been fully elucidated so far. It is generally believed that the complex interaction between virus and host causes severe risk factors, including patient's age, virus serotype and genotype, and host's genetic background. Recent studies have shown that there are several hypotheses about the pathogenesis: viral affinity, viral toxicology, host susceptibility, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), cross-reactive T cell response and cytokine storm. This paper briefly introduces ADE and cytokine storm. Scholars believe that there are group-specific determinants and type-specific determinants on the surface of DENV. The antibodies produced by the former have a strong enhancement effect on DENV infection, called enhanced antibodies, while the antibodies produced by the latter are called neutralizing antibodies. When the body is re-infected with different types of DENV, serum neutralizing antibodies cannot completely neutralize the virus. Enhanced antibodies can bind with the virus to form immune complexes. These immune complexes promote the replication of the virus in these cells through Fc receptors on the membrane of monocytes or macrophages, resulting in ADE effect, leading to clinical outcomes in patients. Symptoms worsen, blood concentration and shock occur, resulting in DHF/DSS. However, DHF/DSS can also occur in many patients with primary infection, indicating that there are other pathogenic factors. Cytokines are small molecular weight soluble proteins or polypeptides secreted by immune cells and other types of cells. They have the functions of transmitting information between cells, regulating immune response, and participating in inflammatory damage and other pathological processes. However, excessive inflammation can cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome and make the body in a state of hypermetabolism and hyperdynamic circulation. Over-release of inflammatory cytokines may lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. The control of inflammation is essential in the treatment of many diseases. It was found that the levels of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased in severe patients with dengue fever. There is a significant correlation between TNF-alpha and thrombocytopenia. Studies have shown that the transition from Th1-type response to Th2-type response is an important mechanism of DHF/DSS. Cytokines in severe patients are mostly Th2-type cytokines. After virus infection, excessive release of cytokines and inflammatory factors increases vascular permeability, leading to hemorrhage and shock. Diagnosis The diagnosis of dengue virus is mainly a combination of clinical symptoms and laboratory diagnosis. Laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus includes virus isolation, antigen and antibody detection, gene detection and so on. Virus isolation Virus isolation is the golden standard for the diagnosis of viral diseases. The duration of dengue viremia is relatively short. Samples should be collected within 4 to 5 days of the onset of fever. Virus isolation and culture can be carried out by living mosquitoes, cells or animals. Antigen detection NS1 protein is the main marker antigen of dengue virus infection. NS1 protein appears earlier than IgM antibody and can be used for early diagnosis. At present, several commercial kits have been used to detect the NS1 antigen of dengue virus. Serological detection The serological method is more convenient because the humoral immune response of patients infected with dengue virus lasts for at least several weeks after the onset of the disease and the sample can be collected for a relatively long time. Detection of IgM, IgG capture ELISA, IgM, IgG indirect ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition test are the most commonly used serological methods for diagnosis of dengue virus infection. Gene diagnosis In recent years, the molecular biology diagnostic methods of dengue virus have been enhanced. Nucleic acid amplification has become the most important method for rapid diagnosis of dengue virus. Various RT-PCR methods try to detect the RNA of dengue virus. The nucleic acid amplification technique can be used to identify the serotype of dengue virus as well as to detect the virus. Owing to its high throughput and parallel processing, gene chip technology can detect and analyze pathogens comprehensively. Its simple and fast operation, low cost and small size provide wide application prospects in the fields of molecular biology, disease diagnosis and treatment. Scientists used PCR to amplify the nearly full-length dengue virus 2 gene, digested the amplified products by enzyme-digestion-PCR, and constructed the dengue virus 2 DNA library to obtain microarray probes. The probe was fabricated into a DNA chip for detection of type 2 dengue virus by dot analyzer. The results showed that the hybridization of the sample with type 2 dengue virus gene chip was highly sensitive and specific. Dengue fever, as an important vector-borne infectious disease, has been increasing year by year, seriously endangering human health. Although some achievements have been made in the related research, there are still many problems to be solved urgently. There is still no consensus on the pathogenesis of dengue fever, especially in severe cases. There is no effective prevention and treatment measures. Future work should start with the mechanism of virus and host, obtain effective treatment of dengue fever as soon as possible, and todevelop a protective multivalent vaccine.
  18. Who protects us day and night, all our life without days off and holidays? Of course our Guardian angel. But if we want more, it’s enough just to ask our “chefs” about it. Let’s talk about how to properly communicate with them. Who will you be like that? All angels, like people, are different, therefore, in order to find an approach to them, you need to find out who exactly takes care of you. For this some time you need to watch … yourself. Dresses and decorations. Do you adore all sorts of trinkets — bracelets, large beads and hoop earrings, although you don’t wear jewelry yourself? It is possible that your second angel is not indifferent to them — a beautiful woman with golden hair, blue eyes and melodious laughter. From her you have a passion for light flowing fabrics of bright colors and Indian sari. Again, you don’t wear anything like that, but you always enjoy admiring such things. Of course, your angels may well be not so exotic, all of the above is just a vivid example that allows you to understand what you need to pay attention to in this case. In addition, it is only a small part of those signs by which you can recognize your guardian angels. But if you understand the principle by which this can be done, their “identification” will no longer be difficult for you. Of course, you can also refer to the sites that provide Free Angel Reading More and more people around the world are beginning to notice such an interesting phenomenon as repeating sequences of numbers — the so-called “angel numbers” (angelic numerology). Thousands of people talk about the “same time” on clocks, timers, billboards, mobile phones and other places surrounding modern man. 3333 has its own characteristics and the value of the number is interpreted as an angel’s help. The appearance of this combination suggests that the person is in difficulty, but next to him is the divine power, which is ready to support. Your guardian angel is near, and he will certainly help. The secret meaning of the number 255 is the growth of the soul and the choice of the direction of its development. Spirituality is your priority. You are constantly in touch with the higher mind that leads you. At some point, you begin to understand that the higher intelligence is you yourself, but who has reached the opportunity to telepathically tune your lower selves to rise to a new level of development. By the way, if you find this article useful, you might like the Protective Zodiac Jewelry they have. Check it
  19. When cleaning the household, we often don’t place as much emphasis as we should on our product selections. What does it matter anyway? Cleaning is cleaning, right? What if I told you that the emissions from the various chemicals used within a multitude of household products are at the equivalent level of automobile emissions when it comes to air quality? It is a discomforting fact unless you enjoy simulating what it is like to huff exhaust fumes. Product selection should be important to you. Keep reading as the experts at Safe Green Cleaning educate more. Making the Right Choice So how do we go about making the safest choice for cleaning the home? The trick is to keep an eye out for volatile organic compounds, or VOC’s. VOC’s are tiny particles that can travel and take force themselves inside your lungs. These same microbial chemicals cause a plethora of nasty issues, such as eye irritation, nose irritation, wheezing, asthma attacks and respiratory infections. Even more disturbingly, there exists a link to possible long-term effects to kidneys, liver, the central nervous system and cancer. With all these hazards, it is imperative to make the correct selection. Sadly, it is not as easy as taking a quick glance at the back of the product container. In many cases, the label on the product is devoid of such a list. Federal law does not require companies to provide such a warning. Fortunately, California legislated SB 258: The Cleaning Product Right to Know Act. This law did create a nationwide directive that forced the organizations manufacturing cleaning supplies to provide ingredients contained within the fragrance. Deciphering the Bad Labels It doesn’t take a specialized degree to filter through the nuance surrounding the complicated language referencing the ingredients printed on the labels. We’re going to teach you what terms to look out for when making a selection. Listed below are common terms you’ll find on cleaning supplies. Active Ingredients These are actively bad for your health. Generally, these are antibacterial pesticides used to kill bacteria, viruses and mold. There are far safer alternatives to utilize. Anything with the above listing is not required to clean your house. Enzymes These are proteins, often mixed in with cleaners to break down soils and stains. These are natural, so it is easy to disregard them as safe. For example, a toxigenic chemical, boric acid, is commonly added to stabilize the enzymes. This combo is most hazardous when the reproductive system is exposed to it. Optical Brightener As the name implies, it can make fabrics appear brighter to the naked eye. Laundry detergent will utilize optical brightener. It can blanket the clothing being run through the washing machine. Optical brightener can also cling to the clothing even after a rinsing. This fact is relevant because the brightener chemical can also cause skin irritation. Organic Okay, something labelled organic has to be a safe pick, right? Sadly, this idea is not foolproof. Given there are no legal restrictions regarding the term organic, it pays to be skeptical. It is a loaded term which can mean a whole lot of nothing; a USDA Organic logo is the only safeguard to go off of when making a selection. The logo does create a legal imperative that makes the company bound to honor their claim of the item being organic. If the logo is absent, pick the product at your own risk. Surfactant A surfactant is a chemical compound used to loosen dirt and grease. They are necessary for cleaning. It is also true that some surfactants are safer than others. Certain surfactants are toxic to aquatic life, like nonylphenol ethoxylates, and are slow to decompose. What Labels are Safe? Given the list has been all negative, this question is inevitable. Fortunately, there exist safe selections. The terms you want to look for will say biodegradable, Green Seal / Ecologo, essential oils and free and clear of perfumes and dyes. Looking for these labels will help you make a safe selection for your household cleaning and avoid hazardous VOC’s.
  20. August 16, 2019, as a leading supplier and manufacturer in antibody field, Creative Biolabs recently has updated its new product types for therapeutic antibody, which has at least three types of mechanisms. For instance, the neutralizing effect of the therapeutic antibody on its ligand directly binds its ligand, so that its ligand does not act on the target tissue and cells to trigger an undesired reaction; antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of the antibody binds to the target cell, Cytotoxicity that triggers immune cells; complement-mediated cytotoxicity antibodies have a complement-binding site that, upon binding of the antibody to the target cell, triggers the complement effect and kills the target cell. These new items of Creative Biolabs are including but not limited to: Anti-CD34 Therapeutic Antibody Anti-CD55 Therapeutic Antibody Anti-CD81 Therapeutic Antibody ... “those newly-updated products in therapeutic antibodies will bring a lot to our customers in their research programs. Our experienced scientists can guarantee the high quality of them and they can perform well during all kind of research items to assist researchers to achieve success. The anti-34 therapeutic antibody is a kind of recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody expressed in CHO binding to human CD34. It can recognize the human cd34 antibody membrane-protein in the cell membrane and perform well in the clinical treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, etc. The anti-CD55 therapeutic antibody is binding to human CD55. cd55 antibody is built with strong potential to be applied as an additive agent to treat gastric cancers. Studies show that a single 20mg dose can induce the cell killing in human primary gastric tumors, which results to tumour cell regression in over half of PAT-SC1-treated patients. And we do believe patients with gastric cancers can be totally free in the nearly future. The target of anti cd81 antibody is human CD81, which is generated by genetic immunization. It is very promising in the virus-host interactions. All in all, newly-updated products will bring Creative Biolabs another shine.” Dr. Carlose Smith explained, a senior scientist in R&D of Creative Biolabs. “with the faith of providing high-quality products and professional services, Creative Biolabs is always trying its best to develop products and services needed by our customers. And we do offer the custom services and products for some specified items. Of course, Creative Biolabs has gained a good fame among our customers and other biological companies.”Dr. Carlose added. We do believe that Creative Biolabs will be much more better in the near future due to its dutiful spirit of enterprise. Now, it has been well received among customers. About Creative Biolabs With more than ten-year corporate history, Creative Biolabs has accommodated many excellent researchers at home and abroad to develop high-quality and professional products and services belonging to the antibody field, which is now getting more and more popular and needed by clinical researches. The future for Creative Biolabs is getting more and more promising due to its professional scientists and research staff.
  21. Relapsing fever is transmitted via arthropod vectors. The human body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis) transmits Borrelia recurrentis, the causative organism of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF), while Ornithodoros ticks are vectors for the at least 15 different species of Borrelia that cause endemic or tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF). While humans are the only known host for the LBRF spirochete, the TBRF-causing Borrelia species (with the exception of B. duttonii) have their reservoirs in small rodents and have been found in several locations worldwide. In North America, three species of Borrelia cause TBRF, and several outbreaks of the disease have been described. In East Africa, B. duttonii is the principal cause of TBRF. Antibody responses against relapsing fever Borrelia species are primarily directed against outer surface lipoproteins. Two major protein groups have been identified, namely, variable small proteins (approximately 22 kDa) and variable large proteins (approximately 38 kDa). These proteins have been studied most thoroughly for B. hermsii and B. turicatae. It is probable that all of the relapsing fever Borrelia species share the same antigenic variation scheme as that described in detail for these two species. When spirochetes are present in blood, they must evade the immune defense systems. Before the acquired immune responses lead to the production of antibodies, the alternative pathway of complement operates as a major innate immune defense system against the invading organisms. In the presence of antibodies, complement acts as an effector system, mainly via the classical pathway (CP). Both pathways lead to coating of the target surface with C3b. Together with their cleavage products, such as iC3b, the C3b molecules opsonize the target for phagocytosis. Further activation can lead to the formation of lytic membrane attack complexes. To avoid overconsumption of the components of the complement cascade and to protect self-cells from harmful attacks, complement activation must be tightly regulated. This is mediated by regulatory proteins in plasma and on cell surfaces. The major fluid-phase regulators of complement are factor H (FH), for antibody-independent alternative pathway activation, and C4b-binding protein (C4BP), for antibody-dependent CP activation. These regulators accelerate decay of the C3 convertases (C3bBb and C4b2a, respectively) and act as cofactors for the irreversible inactivation of C3b and C4b, respectively. As a net effect, these functions prevent complement-mediated destruction of the target in both the absence and presence of antibodies. Acquisition of the host plasma complement regulator FH has been shown to be beneficial for complement evasion among other spirochetes, such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii, which express at least two FH binding proteins. Also, the relapsing fever agents B. hermsii and B. parkeriihave been shown to bind FH, while no binding has been observed for B. turicatae. B. hermsiiexpresses a unique 20kDa outer surface protein (FhbA) responsible for FH binding. The bacteria that cause human Lyme disease belong to a group of at least 15 species, referred to as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, or the Lyme disease agent bacterial group. Among these, B.burgdorferi sensu stricto causes Lyme disease in North America, while in Europe and eastern Asia Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. are the best-known causes. However, more recently, Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia spielmanii, and Borrelia valaisiana have been isolated from Lyme disease patients. Other species in this bacterial group, such as Borrelia japonica and Borrelia sincia in Asia, have not been associated with human disease. To date, genome sequences have been reported for 14 B. burgdorferi isolates, two B. afzelii isolates, two B. garinii isolates, one B. bavariensis sp. nov. isolate and 1 isolate of unassigned species. The complete genome sequences for three additional Borrelia species: B. valaisiana isolate VS116, B. bissettii isolate DN127 clone 9, and B. spielmanii isolate A14S. DNA samples from low-passage isolates were sequenced to minimize plasmid loss, and genomes are sequenced to about 8-fold coverage as previously described. Genome annotation is performed using the JCVI Prokaryotic Annotation Pipeline . The DN127 chromosome and 35 of 39 plasmid sequence contigs are closed, but in order to maximize the use of available funds, the sequences of a few replicons are not closed and some gaps remained in these sequences (two chromosomes and one cp9 and three cp32 plasmids, because they are much less variable than the other plasmids). These three genome sequences include 3,914,891 bp in total (1,258,865, 1,403,466, and 1,252,560 bp for strains VS116, DN127, and A14S, respectively), with an average of 1,304,497 bp/genome. Like the sequences of other Borrelia species, they include numerous linear plasmids (6, 7, and 7, respectively) and circular plasmids (2, 2, and 2, respectively). Plasmid numbers in these three strains range from 11 in VS116 and 12 in A14S to 16 in DN127. Plasmids that are very similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto cp26, cp32 (7 in DN127, versus 3 in the other two strains analyzed), and lp54 plasmids are present in each of these isolates, and DN127 also contains an unusual fusion of four partial cp32 plasmids. Plasmids with predicted lp17 compatibility are also present in all three genomes, making it the only other plasmid type, in addition to cp26 and lp54, to be found in all 23 B. burgdorferi sensu lato sequenced genomes. However, the gene contents of the lp17s are much more variable than the other universally present plasmids. The detailed analyses of these genome sequences will be a major step forward in attaining a complete understanding of B. burgdorferi sensu lato diversity. They will contribute to the development of species- and group-specific vaccines and diagnostic tools, as well as inform us whether these species are in genetic contact with the more-common Lyme disease-associated agents. Reference [1] Barbour A G, Hayes S F. Biology of Borrelia species. [J]. Microbiological Reviews, 1986, 50(4):381-400. [2] Van H C, Comberbach M, De G D, et al. Evaluation of the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of three recombinant outer surface protein (OspA) lyme vaccines in healthy adults [J]. Vaccine, 1996, 14(17–18):1620-1626. [3] Kraiczy P. Whole-genome sequences of Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia spielmanii. [J]. Journal of Bacteriology, 2012, 194(2):545-6. [4] Cutler S J, Moss J, Fukunaga M, et al. Borrelia recurrentis characterization and comparison with relapsing-fever, Lyme-associated, and other Borrelia spp.[J]. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1997, 47(4):958-68.
  22. Going eco-friendly seems to be the next big trend. Big companies, small businesses and individuals altogether have teamed up to reduce the impact that human life has on the planet. Sustainable homes have increased in popularity, not only because they leave a much smaller footprint on the environment, but because they are a far better investment in the long run. The list of benefits you get by living in a green house is long and constantly updated, but the most important ones still remain the same: Low maintenance costs The main purpose of eco-friendly homes is to be built from materials that are both less invasive for the environment, but also more durable, so that you don’t have to constantly fix or rebuild things and waste more resources. This way, even though some green materials cost more than traditional ones, you will end up saving more in the future. When you buy or build a new house, don’t think only about the initial investment, but also about the impact it will have on your wallet in the next 10 or 15 years. For example, building a house that has lots of big windows, which allow sunlight to pass through, will help you save tremendously on energy costs. At the same time, the materials used have a much smaller impact on your health. Conventional construction materials give off chemical emissions that, although small, can affect the air you breathe. This is why lots of people recur to humidifiers or other appliances to help get rid of the dry, unbreathable air. Eco-friendly materials are not only safer, but help with air circulation and ventilation. Energy efficiency Possibly one of the first reasons people decide to move into eco-friendly houses is that they are extremely energy efficient, which means you utility bills will be much lower. One of the prime sources for energy is coal. But coal is a non-renewable resource, not to mention that mining coal is extremely polluting for the environment. A sustainable home is designed is such way that it takes advantage of as many natural resources as possible. For example, when setting up the layout of the house, rooms that are the most used, such as kitchen or living room are placed on the side of the house that receives the most natural light throughout the day, to avoid having to use artificial light. Big windows are also a part of the design, for the same reason. On top of that, green building constructors also recommend installing solar panels, so you can make use of the energy from the sun as much as possible. It makes for a good long-term investment The popularity of green buildings is increasing tremendously, which means that, in 10 years, traditional homes are going to become less and less desirable. Investing in an eco-friendly home now means staying ahead of the market and laying the ground for profit in the future. Even owners of luxurious homes are looking to make adjustments so that their houses are more environmentally friendly. Those adjustments help increase house value and turn their properties into mines of gold. The reason that people are looking to spend more on a sustainable home precisely because they will get more out of it in the future. Eco-friendly houses are also easier to sell and retail for more than traditional ones. Better living conditions Less invasive materials and more use of natural resources are what make a sustainable house better to live in. When you take advantage of natural light all day long, you are more prone to be productive, feel relaxed and enjoy living in your house. The materials used have a lower emission of chemicals, lowering the risks for asthma or allergies that may occur due to mold. Thus, the air inside is more breathable and makes for a healthier indoor environment. Temperature regulation is also one of the key elements that constructors take into consideration when building eco-friendly homes. Eco-friendly materials are designed in such way that they help with insulation and temperature fluctuation much more than traditional ones. Smaller environmental footprint Last, but not least, you will help the planet. By using materials that are not damaging the environment, you will become an active part of the movement that is trying to make Earth a better place. Meeting your needs does not mean you have to endanger the world around you and it is entirely possible to live comfortably, while at the same time thinking about nature. All processes of traditional building are affecting the environment in one way or another. Be it because constructors are not disposing of materials in a conscious way, or because traditional energy systems are leaving a huge carbon footprint. Green buildings contribute to reducing the greenhouse effect and lay out a better world for future generations to live in.
  23. There are many residential and commercial property owners who extol the virtues of either artificial turf with its complete landscape system or a real grass lawn, and they have good reasons for their strong opinions. However, which type of lawn is best for you? If you’ve got blank patches of yard yearning to breathe green, read on to learn which type of lawn best suits your needs and preferences. Artificial Turf Benefits Artificial turf is eco-friendly and has the feel and look of real grass. The ground and drainage are prepared, the material used keeps the artificial blades erect, and there is a special “yarn” that creates the “soft-grass” realistic blades that come in a variety of textures, lengths, designs, and colors. This means that you get a soft, always-green lawn without all the many hassles of real grass and all its upkeep, mowing, fertilizing, weeding, re-seeding, and most importantly, watering. Although expensive, the artificial turf life expectancy could possibly be 15 or 25 years or more, which actually makes it less costly than real grass over its life span. Artificial Turf Drawbacks It is often made at least partially with recycled materials, so it is not biodegradable. While it doesn’t have the same watering needs as a real lawn, it cannot be so easily disposed of as a grass lawn. Another drawback is that artificial turf absorbs heat in the direct sun and feels hot when you touch it. The temperature in 80-90 degree weather can actually exceed 160 degrees, making it hazardous in the heat of summer for children and pets. An additional problem for dog owners is that it does not absorb an animal's waste, although liquids can pass through to the ground underneath. Real Grass Lawn Benefits Real grass, in the right climate, can make more sense than artificial turf by its entirely organic nature. Grass is bio-degradable and produces oxygen just like any other plant, and when only organic fertilizers are used, it can even be a beneficial snack to help the digestion of cats and dogs alike. While it does retain heat, it does not do so to the degree of artificial turf and is generally safe to walk on as long as there are no hazardous weeds growing with it. Organically sustained grass can also increase the bio-diversity in your neighborhood by providing food and refuge to a variety of animals and insects. Real Grass Lawn Drawbacks Immaculately maintained grass lawns come with a cost to the environment and account for one-third of residential water use. Use of toxic fertilizers and weed killers can pollute the groundwater and pose a serious health risk to children and animals that are exposed to it. Mowing, trimming, and blowing with gas and electric power tools also consumes energy and produces air pollution that otherwise wouldn’t be necessary. While a natural lawn can potentially be environmentally sustainable, it’s important to note that it likely will not be soft and green for a majority of the year. The type of lawn you choose is a personal preference. Both have pros and cons regarding cost, care, and the environment that must be considered on an individual basis. The climate you live in, your home, and your ability to care for and use a lawn of either kind must be considered. You must decide which benefits and drawbacks make the most sense to you and your lifestyle.
  24. When heavy toxic metals build up in the air, water, and land, it’s more difficult for the contaminated site to support life. Environmental pollution is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. It’s a problem that affects both developing countries and not only. Even if developed countries have the necessary resources and technology to combat the introduction of harmful or poisonous substances into the environment, they prefer to encourage over-energy consumption, waste and inefficiency. Industrialisation, which has a great impact on economic growth, isn’t a good thing for the environment. Factories use chemicals and fuels that contribute to air and water pollution. And let’s not forget about the excessive use of fossil fuels. Companies need to understand once and for all that they have a responsibility toward the environment. Business activities should be bringing benefits instead of causing irreparable losses. Make sure you do your bit for the environment. Implement environmental pollution control measures in the nick of time. Promote air quality Air pollution is so dangerous that it damages crops and kills people. According to the World Health Organization, about 7 million people die each year due to exposure to fine particles in the polluted air. Any solid or liquid particle that gets into the air affects its quality. Manufacturing industries are mostly responsible for polluting the atmosphere. If you’re engaged in the industry by the manufacture of products, you contribute to air pollution. One way to promote air quality is to install a fume extraction system. In addition to protecting the environment, this system reduces noise levels and minimises running costs. It’s essential to create a fume extraction maintenance strategy. It’s necessary to install a new filter every now and then. Fortunately, there are companies that can take over this operation for you. Good ventilation is important. The design of the ventilation system will take into account air quality, energy efficiency, and environmental impact. Write an environmental pollution policy People are inclined to comply with the rules, so if you wish to reduce environmental pollution, write a policy that promotes environmental protection. You’ll support the preservation of the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the ecosystem, not to mention there are many advantages to be gained for your business. Highlight how you’ll manage the environmental effects of business operations. You may need to demonstrate to customers or your commitment to Mother Earth and having such a policy in place will turn out to be useful. An environmental policy is necessary because, more often than not, environmental pollution isn’t taken into consideration when it comes down to decision-making. As an entrepreneur, you must think about the consequences of your actions and keep in mind that the negative effects take place somewhere in the future. This means that they’re not visible right away. Choose the right format for your environmental policy and don’t forget the fact that it’s personal to your business. You can craft any kind of content, but all policies must feature the same themes. Dispose of non-combustible solid waste As the name clearly suggests, non-combustible waste doesn’t ignite or burn when subjected to fire. Examples of such waste materials include rubbish, pieces of glass, and ash. These hazardous substances should be transported in transparent bags so that the content can be easily identified. Non-combustible solid waste can be recycled, which is the reason why it should end up in specialised recycling centres and not in the landfills. You may be under the impression that your organisation doesn’t produce a high amount of garbage. Well, you’re wrong. Non-combustible waste is generated by handling and treatment. It’s recommended to have a waste management system in place. Determine how many by-products your company produces, reduce the amount of waste that goes to the landfills, and identify collectors of non-combustible solid waste. Useless or unwanted products derived from industrial activities should be discarded in an adequate manner. It’s important to adopt a responsible attitude at all stages of production and consumption. Support actions to reduce water pollution Excessive water usage is threatening not only the economy but also the environment. What could be worse? Polluting drinkable water, of course. Unsafe water kills a high number of people each year and, needless to say, water pollution is the result of human activity. What happens is that pollutants are dumped into creeks, rivers, and swamps, which represent the main sources of water and sanitation. The good news is that many businesses are taking strict measures in an attempt to minimise water pollution. What can you do? Well, don’t dispose of chemicals or cleaning solutions as you please. Set up hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposal before getting started. If you discharge anything, make sure you have authorisation to do so. The solids, liquids, and gaseous substances that you’re getting rid of can possibly affect the quality of the groundwater. Finally yet importantly, tour the facility and gather background information. find out everything you can and identify prevention strategies. Eliminate automobiles that use gasoline or diesel fuel It’s no secret that vehicles that run on gasoline or diesel pose a threat to the environment. They emit far too much nitrogen compounds and particulate matter. Cars of this type have become subject to negative publicity and it’s not hard to understand why. If you’re serious on minimising pollution, offer employees different company cars. There’s no reason to withdraw this incentive. All you have to do is to make a few adjustments. A better strategy, at least from an environmentalist standpoint, is to offer employees green cars. Better yet, offer incentives for hybrids and alternative cars. The employees can use the sum of money receive to purchase an eco-friendly automobile like a Tesla Model 3. You’re not going to change the world through this initiative, but you’ll get people to think about change, and that’s more important. Implement this program and reap the benefits. You’ll be able to recruit and maintain the best employees if you offer incentives to purchase hybrid and alternative cars.
  25. Going green has become a major focus for homeowners. Not only does going green decrease your carbon footprint, but it also saves you green (as in dollars). Below are four ways that today’s modern homeowner can help make their home more eco-friendly. Get an Energy Audit By now, nearly every energy provider offers a free home energy audit. If you haven’t had one yet, call your energy provider and they will send someone out to check your power use, AC service and advise you on how to go green and save energy. Go Native with Your Landscaping One of the latest trends in going green is native landscaping. This type of landscaping is tailored to the natural climate rather than the cookie-cutter style of landscaping reminiscent of the ‘50s. This helps homeowners go green by using little to no pesticides, cultivating the natural foliage, relying mostly on natural rainfall rather than consistently using a sprinkler, and allowing natural plants and flowers to thrive. Water is a precious resource, especially in drier climates, and natural landscaping is an excellent way to go green. Consider Solar Panels While solar panels may not be feasible for every homeowner (depending on the roof layout) it is one of the best ways to go green in your home. Yes, it is an investment. However, you’d be blown away at how much money you can save as well as how much energy. If you’re curious about solar panels, Google has created an ingenious way to check your roof for how many sunlight hours your home received per year called project sunroof. Enter your address and check it out! Get Smart (Home Tech) One of the biggest ways you can decrease your carbon footprint is by letting the latest technology do it for you. Sure, leaving the bathroom light on now and then may not seem like a big deal, but it does solidly increase the size of your home’s carbon footprint (not to mention your energy bill). Smart home tech is specifically designed to help you go green, including turning off lights, controlling the heat and AC, and turning off TVs and radios. Investing in this tech will help you go green and save some green on your energy bill. Going green as a homeowner isn’t just about saving money, it’s about doing your part to be a responsible homeowner and lowering your home’s personal carbon footprint. If every homeowner did their part to be more eco-friendly and have a greener home, imagine the difference that could be made in the overall environment!
  26. These days, everyone worries about the environment and what we can do to lessen our environmental impact. It can be hard to be environmentally friendly all the time and do the right thing at every hour of the day, but there are a lot of things that we can do to have more of a positive impact on the environment. If we stop and think about where the things that we use each day come from, how they are made and how they are disposed of, we can see just how much our lives have an impact on the environment, and how important it is to be conscious of how our actions are affecting the world that we live in. Rent your clothing Keeping up with the latest fashion trends can be hard when you are trying to lessen your environmental impact. Buying items that are made of sustainable materials that can last for several years is a great way to combat the environmental issues that go with fast fashions, but it can be costly to buy these sorts of pieces. Renting your clothing instead of buying is another great way to have a positive impact on the environment through fashion, because it allows people to recycle clothing that others no longer want, by giving it them a new purpose. Clothing rental companies like The Volte are great for people that are looking to rent their clothing, because it allows customers to pick and choose from several designer items available, so you can be trendy and environmentally conscious. Start a compost heap If you want to do something about some of the scraps of fruit and vegetables that you are throwing away each day when you cook, you should start a compost heap in your garden. Starting a compost heap is easy, and it only requires a large bin or tub for you to put your waste into. You can put your clippings from the garden into the compost bin as well, so it too can be used again. The only things that you should not put in your compost bin are citrus and onion scraps because they do not break down easily like other natural foods, so try to leave them out of your compost bin. Having a compost heap is great for people that garden because you can use the broken down scraps and liquids to feed your plants, rather than letting them go into the garbage and ending up in landfill. Think about your transport If you are worried about your carbon footprint and want to make some changes to be more environmentally friendly, you might need to look at your current mode of transport. If you own a car that you drive by yourself regularly, you might want to consider walking or riding a bike instead, by you will not be creating any unnecessary emissions on your journey from A to B. Walking or cycling to work is also great for people who are looking to get fit, because you can fit some exercise into your day without changing your schedule too much. If you live far away from the place that you need to get to, you should consider using public transport instead of driving a car, because buses and trains are more environmentally friendly per person, compared to a car. Shop locally If you are concerned about how the things you buy each day are affecting the environment, you should start buying from local vendors to lower your impact. Shopping locally is not only great for the local economy, but it is great for the environment, too. Items that are bought locally do not need to be transported to get to the shop that you are buying them from, so the carbon emission created by locally sourced items would be much lower. Also, if you are buying local produce, you may find that it tastes better than foreign produce because it is fresher and has fewer chemicals added to it to keep it fresh. This means that you will reap the rewards yourself if you buy locally sourced food. Being environmentally friendly these days is not as hard as it used to be, now that we know how some of our actions can have a serious effect. Making a few changes here and there to your everyday life can significantly decrease your environmental impact, and a lot of the things you can do not require a lot of effort to make a difference. Starting with some small changes like turning the tap off when you brush your teeth is a great place to start because they are things that you can do easily. Then, you can move onto the bigger ones like walking to work instead of driving, which can have a big impact if a few people get on board. If all of us did this, we would see some big changes to the environment in no time at all.
  27. Water is a scarce resource in many places around the country. A few cities in drought-stricken areas have implemented watering rations. They give fines to homeowners who violate these regulations, and this has caused many of these homeowners to search for alternative materials for landscaping, ones that help conserve water. You’ll find four of those materials below. Rocks and Gravel Rocks come in many sizes and types; you can even buy multi-ton boulders. Nothing drinks less water than a rock, so that’s a plus for the environment, and landscaping stores have truckloads of them in all different sizes, colors, and shapes. Gravel may not sound like the most beautiful landscaping material, but it works great. You can buy it in different colors and sizes, and maintaining it won’t cost you any water at all. Drought Resistant Plants When water’s tight, there’s no better choice of a plant than one that has low water needs. Many of these hearty plants can go weeks without water yet still retain their beauty. When introducing drought-resistant plants to your area, make sure they’re not invasive, or they might cause you some headaches. Also, after planting them, contact someone local that offers residential mulch services to mulch and maintain the mulch around the plants. Artificial Turf Artificial turf has come a long way and is no longer the surface of years ago. Today’s various artificial lawns are much softer than those in the past. They are also more heat-resistant today. There has been some controversy surrounding some of the chemicals that make up certain artificial turfs and their risk to human health. The way to avoid this risk is to purchase non-toxic turf. Concrete Pavement and Pavers Putting down concrete pavement will cost you some water upfront, but after that, it’s water-free forever. If you have a piece of lawn that’s drinking too much H2O, you might consider throwing a small slab down and turning it into a patio or sitting area. Concrete pavers don’t need any water at all and come in an array of different sizes, shapes, and colors. They make an excellent replacement for the areas of your yard that are too water-intensive and are easy to install. The materials listed above may not be the first landscaping choices of many. However, they are a great option if you are wanting and needing to conserve water. Remember, water conservation can lead to a beautiful landscape and a healthier environment.
  28. There is no doubt in accepting the fact that solar energy yields a lot of advantages, and this is the prime reason why people in today’s age are opting for this option for saving the environment. Solar energy Long Island has received huge popularity for several reasons. However, protecting the environment is not the only factor. There are many other benefits associated with the use of solar energy such as cost-benefit, low maintenance, energy independence etc. whether you are interested about protecting the environment from global warming or you are more attracted towards the low-cost factor, going green is remarkably a smart idea. Here, in this article, you will come to know about a number of reasons why using solar energy panels is the most beneficial option. Knowing these reasons will let you understand why it is the most viable and attractive alternative fossil fuel energy. So, now, let’s have a look at those reasons below so you can take an informed and wise decision. Why is solar energy Long Island the most demanding option? 1. Protect the environment The most important and prominent factor is the environmental benefit. The overuse or overexploitation of the non-renewable resources leadsto some burning problems such as extreme level of pollution, higher costs, paucity, and so on. We, people, should not depend on fossil fuel for creating energy because the resources will gradually disappear over the years. Above all, depending on fossil fuel continuously will lead to even more pollution, and this will eventually affect people’s health and the climate. Therefore, opting for a safe, clean, healthy and renewable source of energy is imperative. 2. Solar energy is renewable One of the most important advantages is that it is a renewable form of energy which we can use for billions of years. The sun will shine forever, and thus, using its power will never diminish, unlike those fossil fuel energy sources. When fossil fuel energy will not be available on the earth anymore, the Sun will still be there and provide enough power to the world. 3. Solar energy is clean Unlike fossil fuel energy, solar energy is clean and harmless. There is no unpleasant smell, no gas emission, no smoke – it is completely clean. Considering the harmful green-house effect and climate changes, finding a clean source of energy like solar energy is the best way to protect the environment and reduce the negative effects that fossil fuel releases in the environment. Using solar energy is like protecting ourselves and our generation to come. Living in a safe and healthy environment is everyone’s right, and it is our responsibility to protect it from harmful gaseous effect. 4. Low-cost factor Solar energy is associated with the low-cost factor, and it is environment-friendly. As its main source of energy is the Sun, once you install a solar panel, you can use free energy as long as you want. It is for everybody, and you don’t need to spend a penny on availing this. You can relish its benefits. While for using fossil fuels, you need to pay a certain amount as it is brought from different sources and suppliers, and thus, it is not free like solar energy. Therefore, these are the above-mentioned reasons why solar energy Long Island has received so much acceptance from the people. It is the best means of energy which you can use for a long time without bearing any harmful effect.
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