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  1. Today
  2. In a new study, researchers from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases, the National Cancer Institute, the Shake Institute for Biology, and the Scripps Research Institute have discovered a key part of how a powerful class of HIV drugs bind the HIV intasome. By solving for the first time the three-dimensional structure of this intasome when combined with different drugs, they discovered what makes this class of drugs so effective. This study provides important insights that may help to design or improve new therapies for HIV. The relevant findings were recently published in the journal Science, and the paper was entitled “Structural basis for strand transfer inhibitor binding to HIV intasomes”. Dmitry Lyumkis, corresponding author of the paper and assistant professor of genetics laboratory at the Shake Institute for Biological Research, said, "The drugs we studied are the latest compounds available in clinical practice today, with several important preclinical molecules. Until then, no one knows exactly how they bind to this HIV intasome. A better understanding of the effects of these drugs will help us to improve them and design new therapeutic compounds." HIV intasome are a key structure of this viral infection, which consists of HIV protein integrase and viral DNA strands, and are formed when this virus invades human cells. This intasome enters human cells and subsequently undergoes the necessary chemical reaction, thereby integrating the genetic material of this virus into human DNA. Some drugs called integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) successfully block this intasome; when it cannot integrate viral DNA into the human genome, HIV is not able to infect human cells. Currently, four INSTI drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and some are under development. Despite the success of these molecules, efforts are still being made to investigate how to inhibit HIV intasome, mainly due to the difficulty in isolating such intasome for structural studies. In the past, most studies on HIV intasome and INSTIs were performed on another retrovirus called prototype foamy virus (PFV). In 2017, Lyumkis and colleagues first solved the structure of purified HIV intasome (Science, 2017, doi: 10.1126/science. Aah5163). In this new study, Lyumkis's team went further: they obtained the structure of the HIV intasome when blocked by one of four INSTIs—the commercially available drug bictegravir; and three experimental compounds called 4f, 4d, and 4c. They used single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (an imaging technique they helped optimize) to reveal the structure of each HIV intasome-drug complex. The first observation of Lyumkis is that these drugs are different when combined with HIV intasome than when they are combined with PFV intasome. For example, compound 4f loops back to itself when bound to PFV intasome, but remains relatively flat when bound to HIV intasome, and these details can help improve the binding properties of potential future molecules. Dario Oliveira Passos, co-first author of the paper and a researcher in the Lyumkis laboratory, said, “So far, everyone is still using PFV intasome structures to rationally think and understand the mechanism of action of these drugs. But we found that if we want to make further progress, this field does need to move forward and study HIV intasome structure.” Min Li, co-first author of the paper and a researcher at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases, said, “We and many others have worked for decades to achieve the goal. Excitingly, we can finally understand the detailed working principles of such HIV inhibitors and help develop new drugs.” These structures also reveal why these drugs are so effective and what makes them so outstanding in avoiding drug resistance. Lyumkis and colleagues found that these INSTIs fill the entire space usually occupied by DNA. This means that if HIV intasome undergo mutations that prevent INSTI drug binding, it will also make this intasome unable to invade human cells. Finally, these very high-resolution structures obtained by these researchers allowed them to observe detailed information about how these drugs interact chemically with this binding pocket and how these INSTIs displace water molecules to do this, which provided them with more information to let them know what makes INSTIs clinically successful. Lyumkis says, “In previous structures, we understood the biological properties of HIV intasome. But in this paper, we really begin to gain insight into how INSTI drugs target these important viral intasome from a therapeutic perspective.” These researchers are planning to carry out more studies on these experimental drugs, especially compound 4d. Based on preclinical testing and new structural insights, this compound is more expected to be resistant to HIV than other compounds. They also want to better understand what changes occur in the structure of HIV intasome in the event of resistance to INSTI drugs. Lyumkis says this may help them design more effective drugs in the future.
  3. Yesterday
  4. Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes by Japanese physicist Sumio Iijima in 1991, the atomic structure and properties of carbon nanotubes have attracted great interest from scientists. Carbon nanotubes have extremely high specific surface area, excellent mechanical properties (the theoretical axial elastic modulus and tensile strength of carbon nanotubes are 1~2TPa and 200Gpa, respectively), and thermal properties (heat-resistance temperature of carbon nanotubes under vacuum is up to 2800 °C) and the electrical properties (the electron carrying capacity of carbon nanotubes is 1000 times that of copper wires). These properties of carbon nanotubes make them an ideal filler in the field of composites. The carbon nanotube composite material can be easily processed and fabricated into a structurally complicated member, and does not damage the structure of the carbon nanotube during processing, thereby reducing production costs. Therefore, carbon nanotube composite materials have been extensively studied. There are three main preparation methods for carbon nanotube composite materials: liquid phase blending, melt blending and in-situ polymerization. Among them, the liquid phase blending method is the most commonly used preparation method. Liquid phase blending The solution method refers to the use of mechanical or magnetic stirring, or high-energy ultrasonic to separate the agglomerated carbon nanotubes and uniformly disperse in the polymer solution, and remove the excess solvent to obtain the carbon nanotube composite material. The advantage of this method is that it is simple to operate, and it is mainly used to prepare membrane materials. Xu et al and Lau et al. used this method to prepare CNT/epoxy composites and reported the properties of the composites. In addition to epoxy resins, other polymers such as polystyrene, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl chloride, etc. can also be used to prepare composite materials by this method. Melt blending The melt blending method is to disperse carbon nanotubes in a polymer melt by shear force applied by a rotor. This method is especially useful for preparing thermoplastic polymer/carbon nanotube composites. The advantage of this method is mainly to avoid contamination of the composite by solvent or surfactant, but this method is only suitable for polymers that are resistant to high temperatures and are not easily decomposed. Jin et al. used this method to prepare PMMA/MWNT composites and studied their properties. The results have shown that the carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix without significant damage and the storage modulus of the composite material is improved. In-situ polymerization The in-situ composite method refers to dispersing carbon nanotubes in a polymer monomer, adding an initiator, and initiating in-situ polymerization of the monomers to form polymer/carbon nanotube composites. This method is considered to be an effective method for increasing the dispersion of carbon nanotubes and enhancing their interaction with the polymer matrix. Jia et al. prepared PMMA/SWNT composites by in-situ polymerization. The results have shown that the main reason for the strong bonding between the carbon nanotubes and the polymer matrix is that AIBN opens the π bond of the carbon nanotubes during the initiation process, thereby allowing the carbon nanotubes to participate in the polymerization of PMMA. The use of surface-modified carbon nanotubes to prepare PMMA/carbon nanotube composites not only increases the dispersion ratio of carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix, but also greatly enhances the mechanical properties of the composite.
  5. Last week
  6. Americans spend $130 billion each year on wasted energy. Energy wastage not only takes a bite of out of your wallet but also harms the environment by producing unnecessary greenhouse gasses and pollution. If you're concerned that your home is an energy pit, here are four telltale signs that you're using too much. Your Bills Are Too High The first and most obvious sign that your home is wasting energy is that your monthly utility bills are higher than they should be. Many power companies include a chart on your bill or through their website that shows how your home's energy usage stacks up against the average and against homes similar to yours. If your utility provider doesn't offer this service, give them a call or compare your bill to neighbors with similarly sized homes. You Wait for Hot Water If you're like most homeowners, you turn on your shower or sink faucet and wait for ice-cold water to warm up. All those gallons of water going down the drain add up over time, but there are two effective solutions. One option is to hire a plumber with water heater installation experience to swap out your old tank for a new tankless model, which is the most efficient type of water heater on the market. An easier and less expensive solution is to install a recirculating pump in your existing unit. Your HVAC Runs Constantly The hum of your HVAC unit means your home is staying comfortably warm or cool, but it shouldn't be running all the time. If you almost never hear silence from your heating or cooling system, that means the unit is having trouble keeping up and constantly using energy. You may need to replace the unit with a larger one or improve your home's insulation. You can also consider a more efficient type of unit like a heat pump system. You Have Energy Vampires What's scarier than a blood-sucking monster? An energy-sucking appliance. You may not realize that your coffee maker, television or toaster is sucking power even when the off switch is flipped. Slay these energy vampires by unplugging them when not in use or use power strips that you can switch off to cut the electricity supply. Remember, your home isn't the only source of wasted energy in your life. Consumer products are also a large contributor, so choose low-waste materials like recycled products, paper and cardboard over those that use more energy to produce.
  7. Recently, sustainable shopping has become more popular. Consumers are now looking for businesses that care about the environment and their impact on the planet more than ever. Consumers are currently looking for ways to become more eco-conscious in their own lives, which includes the way they purchase products. Here are ways to make sure you are buying the most sustainable products possible. High Quality Investing in high-quality products means you will be less likely to need to replace that item in the near future. This leads to higher sustainability. Through this, you will be using less materials and be requiring less energy to manufacture the product. Thrifting high-quality pieces of clothing or furniture can be a great move toward sustainability as well. However, if thrifting isn’t your thing or you are having trouble finding the right products, making new high-quality purchases is the next best thing. Sustainable Materials Today, more businesses are becoming mindful of the materials they use for their products. A great way to ensure you are consuming products made from sustainable materials is to look for ones made with recycled materials. This is becoming a more popular option. There are many options available for clothing and accessories made with recycled bottles or even recovered plastic from the ocean. Companies, like BionicYarn.com, are making this possible. Locally Made The less a product needs to travel to get to your home, the more sustainable it will be. Less travel cuts down on carbon emissions and leads to a better impact on the environment. Now is a great time to start supporting small, local businesses. A great way to do this is to visit farmer’s markets in your area for local food and handmade goods. Ethical Manufacturing Green manufacturing processes are more important than ever right now. It shows how responsible a business is when it comes to doing their part for the environment. Treatment of factory workers also plays a role in flourishing the economy and leading toward general sustainability. Look for businesses that offer transparency about their production practices. Only support those that act responsibly and are doing what they can to minimize their environmental and economic impact. Transitioning to a sustainable lifestyle can seem overwhelming in a world full of consumerism. However, each individual doing their part can make large strides in improving climate change and the environment.
  8. Selecting an indoor LED Grow Light set up is not as straightforward as you might imagine. To begin with, you might think that you would simply invest in a light, dangle it up above the plant, plug it in and watch the magic happen. This could not be farther from the truth, which can be both a good and a bad thing. This is a positive thing because being forced to spend some time and understand how to do something new is rewarding. There's unquestionably a learning curve when attempting to understand the best way to grow plants indoor with LED Lights; but it can definitely be rewarding and fun to understand. The bad thing about all of this learning is that it might be slightly overwhelming when your first getting started. Here are a few of the things you'll need to be familiar with when getting started as a hydroponic gardener. First of all, why don't we just ask the question on everyone's mind, "Do Led Grow Lights actually work?" There are more an more testimonials and independent studies sprouting up all over the Internet that demonstrate "YES" LED Grow Lights really do work, and they work pretty good. While many studies will show, at current technology levels, HID Lights may generate slightly better yields when compared with LED's. The advantage of LED's is that they will last as much as 8 times longer, run cooler and function more efficiently which will end up helping you save a ton of money over the long haul. These new kind of Indoor LED's operate at a very low voltage which means that they consume up to 90% less power than other kinds of common grow lights such as Metal Halide or High Pressure Sodium lights. Even though utilization of these new grow lights has only recently been useful for growing plants, it is quickly gaining traction as a result of many benefits provided by this kind of indoor gardening. Several people stated that LED's are excellent for vegetative growth but they were missing the power to actually fruit a plant. This is because most other grow lights use 120 degree lenses. This is considered a wide-angle lens, as it disperses the light over a broad area (even to the walls!). Penetration is the key to good results with any LED, as it directly influences the rate of light absorption. For any plant to absorb light effectively, light must pass through or "penetrate" the leaf. With inadequate light intensity, a plant will use just a small percentage of the light they're given, as that is not being "delivered" to them. The best thing about using LED's is that they make it possible for people to grow plants or pretty much any kind of plant species for that matter, almost anyplace they desire. As long as you have soil, water and something to hold everything together, then you can have your own private piece of jungle in your home. These new LED style lights can even make it easier to grow the plants in your home without having to expose them to direct sunlight. These new LED's have been adjusted to reproduce the specific spectrum's of the suns light that plants need to start photosynthesis. Using this type of focused light, there is far less wasted light and energy. These lights may not be the most popular choice being used by hydroponic plant growers today, but starting off small with one of these Energy Efficient Grow Lights will certainly be a great help to the environment as well as your pocketbook. Everybody has to start somewhere in regards to saving the environment, and full spectrum LED Grow Lights are a good place to begin.
  9. How fast does CBD oil work? It’s a question that many people have once they decide that they’d like to try CBD for the first time. Of course, understanding how quickly you’ll experience potential benefits is only part of the story. You’re also probably curious to learn about things like how long CBD stays in your system or which form of CBD offers the quickest results. Let’s unlock the answers! How long for CBD oil to take effect after a dose? First, it’s important to know that your experience will vary based on your own biology and the product you’re using. CBD generally “kicks in” between 15 minutes and three hours after consumption. We’ll cover the fastest ways to get CBD results in just a bit. Next, let’s explore some of the factors that contribute to each person’s unique experience with CBD. What Affects How Long CBD Stays in Your System? How long does CBD last in your system? This is a case where the answer is going to vary by person. A number of factors actually affect how long CBD stays in a person’s system. The general consensus based on research is that CBD stays in a person’s system for between two and five days. Some people could have CBD in their systems for weeks. That may be important to know if you’re interested in taking a full-spectrum CBD oil from CBDfx that contains traces of THC. Here’s a look at some of the key factors that will reduce or lengthen CBD’s lifespan in your system: Frequency of use. CBD builds in your body over time. The amount that you use. A higher dose of CBD will stay in your system for a longer time. Your personal body chemistry and metabolism. Bodymassindex (BMI). Methodofconsumption. Food intake can also impact how long CBD stays in your system. For instance, taking CBD on an empty stomach will cause the CBD to be metabolized and eliminated by your body in a faster cycle. Taking CBD on a full stomach slows the way it cycles through your system. Next, we’ll discuss how your method of consumption impacts your CBD experience. How You Take CBD Oil Matters Yes, the method you use to consume CBD is going to impact your experience. CBD vape products tend to offer the quickest results because the CBD is entering your lungs directly. This method also causes the CBD to leave your body quicker than other intake methods. How long for CBD vape to work? You can typically expect to feel the effects within a few minutes. CBD oils and tinctures also offer quick results. That’s because CBD oil that is applied under the tongue enters your bloodstream quickly. Unlike vape CBD products, CBD oil lingers in your system. How long does CBD tincture take to work? It typically takes between 30 minutes and three hours for a tincture to kick in. The potency of the oil you’re using will play a role in how quickly things get moving. High-potency CBD tinctures from Lazarus Naturals that are mixed into food can take longer to kick in than CBD oil that is applied directly under your tongue. The same goes for CBD edibles. You’ll have to wait for your digestive system to metabolize the CBD oil if you opt for the edible route. Lastly, you can opt for what is widely considered to be the “slowest” delivery method for CBD. That would be creams or lotions. CBD salves and roll on from Pure Ratios absorb slowly into the skin after being applied topically. Many people enjoy these products for long-term use. However, you generally won’t feel a huge impact upon the first application. CBD Duration Chart To summarize, let’s view CBD duration in the form of the table: CBD ProductType OnsetTime DurationoftheEffects CBD vapeoils 2 minutes 30 minutes – anhour CBD oils 30 minutes – 3 hours Upto 4 hours CBD edibles 60 minutes Upto 6 hours CBD topicals Hourstoshoweffect Upto 5 hours Do Quality, Manufacturer and Type of CBD Matter? A higher quality of CBD is likely going to produce sharper, more potent results. What’s more, effectiveness and potency can vary by manufacturer. Potency can play a role in how quickly you’ll feel results with something like a tincture. That’s why it’s important to measure strength in milligrams against product volume instead of simply assuming that a higher volume means higher potency. CBD type can also impact your experience. Generally, a full-spectrum CBD product is going to stay in your system longer than a broad-spectrum product. There is also the concern that the trace amount of THC contained in full-spectrum CBD could say in your system long enough to be detected in a blood test. Broad-spectrum CBD undergoes a process that eliminates THC. Conclusion How quickly does CBD oil work? The bottom line is that you can feel an impact within minutes using a direct method like vaping or sublingual oil. Edibles or tincture oils mixed with food create more of a “trickle” effect. Nobody can say for certain how long any form of CBD will stay in a person’s system. Most data points to a window of two to five days. However, it’s not impossible for CBD to be present in your system for weeks. Originally appeared on CBD.market blog. Alex Malkin is CBD-enthusiast, researcher, and co-founder of CBD.market, a trading platform for CBD products and educating. Alex is the author of the book "CBD: A Door to Better Health" and certified Nutrition and Wellness specialist.
  10. Starting your own garden is an excellent pastime that can provide you with an abundance of fresh produce, but this type of project is easier said than done. If you want to make sure that your first crop is successful, then you will need to put in a little bit of work before you plant your first seedlings. Choosing the Best Location Many new gardeners don’t realize just how important it is to spend some time figuring out exactly where they are going to be putting their new plants. Moving your garden from one side of the yard to the other could have a huge impact on which plants are going to survive and what type of yield you are going to get. As a general rule, a garden needs to get plenty of early morning sunlight so that newer plants thrive. You should also have easy access to a hose or some other source of water. Demo Another step that you need to take well before you start your garden is demoing the area where you will be planting. Demoing for a garden is going to involve removing any existing foliage, pulling up the grass, and getting all of the larger rocks out of the soil. If you aren’t interested in pulling up grass and sifting the soil, then you might want to consider building or buying a few raised beds. Collect Your Supplies Larger gardens require quite a few landscaping supplies, and you should collect all of the equipment and products that you are going to need at least a few weeks prior to planting. The type of supplies that you get will depend on a few different factors, and that includes how much demo work needs to be carried out, what the local climate is like, and which types of plants you are going to grow. At the very least, you are probably going to want a garden hose, a drip hose, a trowel, some pots in various sizes, and a good pair of gloves. Get Rid of Pests Pests could wreak havoc on your garden if you don’t come up with a plan for eradicating them. Scheduling preventative pest control services is a great start, but you might also want to install some type of netting or fencing to keep out birds, gophers, and squirrels. You can also contact a pest control expert and ask what types of insects you should be prepared for. After you have planted your first batch of seeds and seedlings, you should check up on your garden at least once or twice a day. A single pest or broken sprinkler could eradicate your crop and waste all of your hard work.
  11. From reducing your carbon footprint to eliminating toxins, running an environmentally sound household is within easy reach. Just as recycling and other day-to-day actions impact us all, home improvements offer advantages to both your family and the earth. If your goal is to go green, the following tips will help you cut heating and cooling costs while lessening negative environmental effects. Inspect Your Home for Leaks Don’t let heated or cooled air escape. Inspect your home for areas where leaks can occur. The most effective form of inspection is a blower door test, usually performed as part of an energy audit. For this test, a technician attaches a heavy-duty fan to an exterior door. The fan pulls air from your home to lower indoor air pressure. Higher outdoor air pressure forces air into holes, crevices, or other unwanted openings. If you’d rather do the inspecting yourself, visually check outside for gaps at corners, around the mail slot, at the line where your foundation touches the brick or siding, or in any place where two types of materials meet. Decrease Drafts Replace weather stripping to prevent leaks at exterior doorways. Caulk is perfect for preventing air loss around windows, but it also serves a purpose in other areas of your home. Caulking is also ideal for stopping air leaks around plumbing and wiring. Draft snakes reduce outside air entry, making your heating and cooling efforts more effective. For a longer-term solution, consider installing draft-stopping double-paned windows. New siding can also boost HVAC efficiency, especially when combined with new insulation. Durable siding backed by high-quality insulation protects your home from extreme temperatures and other harsh weather conditions. Research the best type of siding for your climate for keeping your home well insulated. In addition to resisting weather damage and preventing air loss, these two products work together to ensure your family’s comfort. Prevent Leaks via Unused Appliances Just as unplugging unused devices reduces power usage, covering or closing certain appliances while not in use is an easy way to reduce air loss. Exhaust fans, fireplace flue dampers and range hoods are just some examples of places where air can escape. Whether you purchase a cover for your exhaust fan or install an inflatable chimney balloon, take control of energy usage and costs by reducing opportunities for air to escape. In the hot summer months, you might want to reduce use of your oven as well. If you must use it, don’t leave it on for any amount of time after. Don’t let it heat up for too long either. This will prevent unnecessary heat from circulating around your home. Your home is your castle, but it doesn’t have to be drafty or low-functioning. Cut the effects of air loss by inspecting your home and making necessary adjustments. Even the most simple changes can make a huge difference. You’ll experience lower power bills and increased comfort while lessening your negative impact on the environment.
  12. Living a more eco-friendly lifestyle not only helps you do your part when it comes to sustainability but it can also save you money. Everyone wins when we take care of our local and global ecosystems. Let’s look at seven ways to remodel your home as more eco-friendly. Water Use While the term eco-friendly usually brings to mind your home’s energy consumption, it also means saving water. First of all, fix any plumbing leaks. Don’t let the faucet run while you brush your teeth or shave. Also, install low-flow faucets, toilets, and shower-heads; these can save tens of thousands gallons of water every year for a family of four. Tankless water heaters also can conserve a great deal of energy, as it heats water as needed rather than maintaining a heated tankful of water. Switch to LED Light Bulbs Not only are LED bulbs energy-efficient, but they also last longer. This means that on top of protecting nature, you’re saving money from the energy bill and the cost of frequently replacing bulbs. They’re also less likely to cause a headache or eye strain compared to fluorescent bulbs, which makes your home more enjoyable to be in. This is one of the easiest things you can do around the house. If you’ve been using fluorescents in the kitchen, get rid of those first thing and consider hanging pendant lights instead for more even lighting and a better overall aesthetic. Install a Solar System A solar roof installation, while expensive upfront, can save you a lot of money in the long run. However, many states and local energy companies have rebate programs to defray the cost. On top of that, once enough people in your neighborhood go solar, you can generate so much energy that you’ll be selling it back to the energy companies. Furthermore, a solar system with a home battery bank can keep your home up and running even when the grid goes down. Solar systems are also used by many who want to make their homes self sustainable and therefore emergency-ready at all times. Consider Wind Power If you live in a very windy area, a wind generator could be a good back-up for your solar system. It can supply your home with the power you need at night or when the skies are overcast. This can be especially effective for those living in areas with high winds, such as those near a coast, in high elevation, or areas with few forests to break up the wind. Wind power is yet another useful energy source for those seeking to get their home off the grid in a sustainable way, creating great energy independence. Implement Organic Gardening Practices Your landscaping is the main feature of your home’s curb appeal. Plant your yard with native plants, adapted to the local environment. They’ll need less water and soil amendments. Use natural and organic products to keep your landscaping vibrant and healthy. Not only is this healthier for the local ecosystems, but it also will allow your plants to grow mor vibrantly and easily than foreign plant types. Use Recycled Products for Remodeling You can use recycled metal, stone, brick, plastic, glass, and wood to remodel your home, inside and out. You can even find insulation made from recycled material, such as old cotton clothing. Recycled materials are not only eco-friendly, but they also add tons of character to your home. Other benefits include sturdier material, as recycled material goes through a compacting system that makes it naturally moisture resistant and strong. Using recycled material can be a serious money-saver as well, especially on big projects. If your roof is in need of replacement, or you’re having a home built house, then using recycled materials for your roof installation can seriously bring down the overall costs. Talk to your local contractors about recycled materials that they might have available or if they’d be willing to order out for them. Look to Hemp and Bamboo Hemp and bamboo products are the latest things for an eco-friendly home. These are organic and sustainably produced, and can be transformed into flooring, wall coverings, fabrics, and a lot more. For example, one of the hottest building materials right now is “hempcrete”. It’s good for non-weight bearing walls, it’s easier to work with compared to traditional concrete and it also has insulating properties. There are a variety of materials that nature provides for us to make our homes beautiful without being a danger to the ecosystem. Aim for more natural themes in your home and do some research to find what materials work best for your home projects. With a little effort and some creative thinking, you can find ways to make every part of your home more eco-friendly and sustainable for the environment
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  14. The 5.11 tactical store is the one roof where all tactical gear needed by the law enforcement officers can be located. The store sees to the clothing needs of both law enforcement and firefighting units. Tactical Shirts Tactical shirts are best suited for off-duty as well as on-duty wear. With these shirts, you don't need to go through the hassle of changing clothes frequently since you can also use the shirts at home attending to other home matters. These shirts are ultra lightweight and are designed of cotton and polyester, making them comfortable for use and also durable. You may choose 5.11 tactical shirts that are ideal for everyday tasks as well as climatic conditions. The pouches or pockets featured in the shirts are capable of holding maps, tickets, phones and other petite objects. Tactical Pants For better match, you can choose the 5.11 tactical pants for the 5.11 tactical shirts; this provides both professional and casual look. The pockets featured in the pants can take in flashlights, utility knife or baton. If you need the best suited clothing for adventures such as hiking and hunting, the 5.11 tactical pants will meet this need. You can find these pants in wide range of colors such as gray, black, sage, khaki etc. Recently; these special pants have become very popular among the military, law enforcement and fire fighting experts. You can also find these pants for women, featuring self-adjusting tunnel waistband. The tactical clothing provides professional and neat appearance. Tactical Boots You also need a pair of tactical boots to complete your tactical clothing outfit; these boots feature excellent comfort and superb elements. For instance, they have moisture wick lining that keeps the wearer's feet dry and convenient. This implies no itchy or sticky feeling on your feet. Indeed, these boots feature cutting edge elements that offer nothing but excellence all the way. The boots have been designed to be light weight so that you can maintain good speed while on motion. The tactical boots also feature insole foam which provides cushioning and ultimate comfort to the user. A number of these boots also feature side zipper to facilitate swift removal when necessary. You will also find oil and slip resistant technology in these shoes, making protection of the feet from slippery and oily surfaces possible. Tactical bags Another essential accessory to fit the 5.11 tactical items is the tactical backpack and bags; they are used to keep the accessories, as well as other emergency weapons needful in the course of special operations. These bags provide sufficient room as they have compartments. You can find them in wide range of sizes based on the kind of accessories you desire to store. The thrilling thing is that the bags have dividers that will help the user achieve easy identification of accessories and to help keep the items in place. You will not suffer from broken handles or straps since the carrying handles as well as the shoulder straps are made of heavy-duty nylon, so that the bag can carry heavy items without the straps and handles weighed down. These and more are the 5.11 tactical clothing items and accessories that are available.
  15. As you plan your off-grid homestead, recycling wastewater into usable reclaimed water is something to consider. Doing so will save thousands of gallons of well or rainwater, and reclaimed water can easily be used to irrigate your garden. Steps to reclaim wastewater could include filtering, primary settling, biological treatment, and finally, tertiary treatment. Let’s look at how recycling your wastewater can be accomplished. Primary Settling Your gray water that goes down the drain in the kitchen sink and shower has small particles of food, hair soap, and other contaminants. A primary settling tank is the first place the wastewater goes. Here, those solid contaminants will settle to the bottom. Once settled, the water can be gently siphoned off the top into the next phase of reclamation, a biological treatment tank. Biological Treatment Biological wastewater treatments rely on bacteria and other microorganisms to break down organic waste, such as food particles, hair, and soap. The goal is to create a system in which these microorganisms eat up the pollutants. Biological treatment is divided into aerobic and anaerobic; aerobic is a process using oxygen loving bacteria, while anaerobic uses bacteria that do not need oxygen. Aerobic wastewater treatment is the preferred option, as it works quickly and produces better water quality. However, this method requires a wastewater aerator to make sure there is enough oxygen for the bacteria to thrive. A diffused aeration system, like those offered by VaraCorp, can be used to maximize oxygen while minimizing odors during the treatment process. Tertiary Treatment This is the final step in reclaiming your wastewater for use in your garden, or even as drinking water. Tertiary treatment is done to ensure the water is hygienically safe and free from viruses and bacteria. Ozonation uses ozone (03) to disinfect the water. Then reverse osmosis pushes the water through a semi-permeable membrane, which traps any contaminants and chemicals. Dual media filtration uses two different types of filters, usually sand and very fine granules of anthracite. Finally, advanced oxidation uses hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light to create an oxidant that not only disinfects the water, but also breaks down any remaining microorganisms and chemicals. Often, the cost and time required to reclaim wastewater are prohibitive. There are alternatives; for example, if you use biodegradable soaps, gray water from the kitchen and shower can be drained directly into the garden. However, if your homestead is in a very dry area, reclaiming your wastewater is something you should look into.
  16. Increasing operational efficiency and lowering the output of emissions are goals that companies across all industries have in common. Developing optimal strategies for controlling costs and limiting environmental impact is both a challenge and opportunity, so it’s something companies need to embrace rather than avoid. Not all of these strategies are appropriate for every business, but most companies can find numerous simple and surefire ways to improve their operations. Make the Most of Materials Reducing resource consumption and learning how to reuse or recycle materials whenever possible is essential for streamlining operations and ensuring environmentally responsible operations. Business leaders need to consider every aspect of their production process when looking for opportunities for efficiency, including onsite resource management, supply chains and product packaging. Rethink Policies and Procedures Just as companies examine and redesign the way they use materials, they also need to think about the workplace and operational policies that they have in place. Enshrining safe and efficient practices as workplace policy is a step in the right direction. However, educating employees about the importance of lowering emissions and how they can help the company reach this goal is also necessary for achieving meaningful results. Optimize Industrial Boilers Manufacturing, extraction and other industrial environments often rely on boilers for part of their production process. Whether these machines are permanent fixtures in a workplace or just a temporary augmentation, learning how to optimize and use them responsibly can make a big difference in long-term emission generation. Installing a rectifier or SCRS for water tube boilers can give companies more control over their boiler’s performance and can significantly reduce emissions associated with combustion. Stay Ahead of the Curve While many companies have taken their own initiative to minimize their environmental impact, all commercial operators also have to think about mandatory requirements enforced by national and local laws. Staying ahead of the curve means reading new research, exploring fresh ideas and preparing for possible legislation even before it has passed. Looking at potential future requirements as a milestone for internal efficiency can help companies avoid racing against a deadline in the future. Efficiency and emissions reduction don’t always go hand-in-hand, but most business can take advantage of various opportunities to improve both of these areas simultaneously. Cutting down on waste should always be a priority, as this strategy often yields sheer benefits across the board. Business owners should always consider all the optional available and think about the impact of industry rules or regulations before coming to their decision.
  17. One of the first expenses that new homeowners incur is their energy bills. Unless the house has just been built, there are usually several ways to reduce energy costs. And, even if owners do live in a new residence, there are measures that they can take to minimize their energy bills, some of which are quite simple. The solution is not just turning out lights in rooms that are not in use. Idle Electronics For one thing, there is a great amount of electricity used by idle electronics. Many people leave their computers, phones, and other devices on when they could shut them off and conserve much energy. For, the electricity consumed by idle electronics in the United States is equivalent to the electricity generated by as many as 50 power plants. This idle time costs households from $165-400 per year. Using power strips for the electronics can save money when owners turn off the strips that end idle time. Repairs to the Home Often the benefits of heating and air conditioning systems are minimalized by several areas of the home. Doors and windows can allow drafts if not sealed well as together windows and doors account for 20-25% of energy loss. The addition of storm windows is helpful in reducing energy costs. Repairing ceilings, wall vents and floors, too, can eliminate nearly 30% of energy loss. Closing off wall outlets not in use also helps reduce about 10% of air leaks. In addition, replacing old heating and air conditioning systems with a heat pump reduces the energy usage and expense in a home because heat pumps transfer heat from one site to another. For instance, it uses the outside air to produce cool temperatures inside and vice versa. Thus, a heat pump is capable of both heating and cooling the interior of a home. Ductwork and Roof Repair Another important repair that can be made to conserve energy is on the ductwork of the home. This ductwork should be well-insulated as should other areas such as exterior and interior walls, floors above crawl spaces, attics, cathedral ceilings and the roof. Windows need to be caulked and sealed as do doors. Of course, roof repair is essential to containing heat in cold weather since heat rises. A well-constructed roof also prevents water damage and mold from invading the home. Roofing companies provide many types of asphalt composition shingles, stone-coated steel and metal roofs.
  18. Proper nutrition is essential, especially in times when our immune system should be the highest priority. However, while many things might seem to be way beyond our control right now, the way we eat really is not. Indeed, comfort food is all we crave in times like, but a well-balanced meal should also be an integral part of your equation. While in lockdown, you might be tempted to rely on an abundance of food delivery services and even skip important meals, thus, ignoring how you eat, what, and when you eat can be easy. Moreover, since quarantines are associated with the interruption of work routine, this could result in boredom. Boredom, in turn, comes with greater energy intake, as well as the consumption of higher quantities of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Additionally, not only does boredom trigger your food cravings, but continuously hearing or reading about COVID 19 without giving yourself a break can be stressful. This, in turn, pushes you towards overeating, particularly looking for “comfort foods.” How do these food cravings manifest? This longing comes along with a strong desire to eat, seek, and think about food. Proper nutrition is crucial in uncertain times, particularly when our immune system needs all the necessary tools to fight back. And, because for some, the options are endless, here are some helpful suggestions regarding your lockdown nutrition. Strategize the use of ingredients and make sure you prioritize fresh products While nothing works well without a steady plan, you should start by strategizing and planning your food and try to avoid as much as possible a panic buying behaviour. It is, therefore, highly important to consider your needs, as well as those of others, regardless of how difficult a situation may appear to be. You can start by calmly evaluating your home food inventory and planning your intake. Indeed, you might feel like buying or experimenting with all sorts of recipes, now that you have got plenty of time, but a better idea would be to consider and utilize what you already have in your pantry. Doing so, you can allow other access to food they truly need and even avoid food waste. Strategizing your food intake is not an impossible task. First, consider your fresh ingredient and those that have a shorter shelf life. If fresh products, especially vegetables and fruits, continue to be available, make sure you prioritize them over durable products such as canned goods and dried fruits. Limit Salt Intake Because the amount of fresh foods is likely to decrease during this period, you might be tempted to rely more on frozen, processed, and canned foods. Many of these products contain high amounts of salt. And, while the World Health Organization advises us to consume less than 5 g of salt per day, you should prioritize foods with less or no added salt. Moreover, given that you might already consume enough salt, make sure you avoid extra salt intake when cooking. If you are avid to experience a more intense taste in your foods, we highly recommend you experiment with a variety of fresh or dried herbs and spices. Do not overlook supplements While many people are staying indoor to help slow the spread of COVID 19, as a result, they have less access to sunlight, which is a natural source of vitamin D. Not only that but neglecting your old eating routine due to boredom and stress, might drain your body of essential nutrients you might need to fight back prompt mood changes, anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Vitamin D Numerous studies have found that the” sunshine vitamin” helps protect against heart disease, diabetes, colds, flu, and cancer. Increasing your vitamin D intake while in isolation is optimal for your overall health and well-being. Omega-3 fatty acids Omega-3s are crucial for many conditions such as heart disease, depression, anxiety, arthritis, and asthma. If you need omega-3s, you should consider eating more fatty fish, like tuna, sardines, and salmon, but if you do not have fish a few times a week, you should consider supplements. Full-spectrum CBD oil, for instance, is an ideal source of both Omega 3 and Omega 6. Omega 3 acids play a crucial role in producing the hormones that regulate contraction, inflammation and relaxation of your arteries. They also reduce triglycerides levels in your blood, which lower your risk of suffering from stroker and heart disease. B vitamins There are three key B vitamins that should not miss from your diet. Vitamin B6, for example, is helpful for women suffering from depression that is linked to the PMSs and can easily be taken by eating more steady breakfast cereals, peanut butter, bananas, fish, and chicken. B12, in turn, can help you when you are struggling with memory loss and mood changes and can be found as supplements or in foods such as milk, eggs, meat, seafood and cereals. However, before taking any vitamins and supplements, make sure to tell your doctor so you can avoid unintended interaction with medications. Limit Sugar Intake The World Health Organization recommends us to not to exceed a 5% sugar intake. In case you crave something sweet, try not to forget healthier alternatives to sweets. Frozen fruits, fresh fruits, dried fruits are a great option. It is easy to fall into sugar cravings while indoors, a reason why paying attention to your portions is necessary. Practice mindful eating In uncertain times like these, it is normal to feel sad, anxious, stressed, and scared. However, being diligent in your daily routine can help you kick out some of that stress. One great way we can do that is by sticking to a certain mealtime and plan our meal in advance. Practicing mindful eating is a great way to maintain a healthy relationship with food. Stay still while you eat. Do not eat on the go; make sure you have a seat. Remove all sorts of distractions and ensure there is nothing like phones, laptops, TVs around you. Resist the urge to eat straight from the package. Prepare your meal like you would for someone else. Take yourself on a date. Chew your food because your stomach does not have teeth. Take small bites, taste, and enjoy the texture of your food. Avoid finishing the whole plate. If you feel full, then you surely are full. Spending more time at home will inevitably make you crave more food. But, following basic healthy living advice such as staying hydrated, being physically active, and eating a balanced diet are the best recommendations for staying healthy and sane during self-isolation.
  19. Whether you are renovating your home or building a new commercial office from the ground up, you will probably have to deal with at least a few hazardous materials. Instead of tossing those materials in the garbage bins, you might want to come up with a comprehensive disposal plan so that you don’t have to deal with any fines or fees. Conduct Some Research Well before your next major project, you should spend a little bit of time researching your local laws and codes regarding hazardous and environmentally unfriendly materials. It is important to realize that there are many different household items that are extremely bad for the environment if they get placed in a landfill. You will also need to be particularly careful if you are renovating an older building that might be filled with asbestos or some other toxic materials. Start Separating Materials Once you have done a little bit of research, you can then begin the process of separating all of the materials that you will be getting rid of. Creating multiple piles is going to make your life much easier when it comes time to figure out exactly how you are going to get rid of all the junk. You might also want to invest in a short-term storage unit for any possessions that you need to protect. Contact Your Local Waste Disposal Company For some of the environmentally unfriendly materials that are in your home, you might want to work with your local waste disposal company. Many of those organizations schedule regular hazardous material disposal days where they will take some of your items for free. They might even allow you to schedule a bulk drop-off for a small fee. Call in the Professionals After you have gotten rid of as much of the junk as possible, you should then consider waste management for hire. One of those companies should be able to drop off one or more bins near your project so that you can fill it up at your own speed. As soon as the bin is full, they can pick up all of the materials and take them to the proper disposal site. When working with any type of hazardous or toxic materials, you must always wear high-quality safety equipment. Wearing a good respirator, a pair of goggles, and a protective suit will greatly reduce your risk of developing serious health problems down the line.
  20. This article tries to narrow the definition, but not to exclude shoes, but to purify the discussion and how I think they should be described. I believe minimalist shoes can be described in three words; closest to barefoot. So I would describe true minimalist shoes with a different term; "barefoot-style shoes." If you listen to some manufacturers their definition is much broader. I don't believe that the manufactures can define this category in this case. I think it needs to be defined by healthcare professionals. Interestingly they probably wouldn't define it as a category at all. They would say that whatever shoes you buy should be comfortable, non-restrictive, as close to bare feet as possible while still maintaining some level of protection. If it were possible, they would probably recommend going barefoot as much as possible, particularly for your kids. It's all about maintaining the health of your feet as you age. In our younger years our feet are growing and need to be free and unrestricted so that they can grow properly. In those years we probably go barefoot much more than we do as we get older. Once you're grown it's just as important to go barefoot as much as possible, but life interferes and it isn't always convenient or desirable. What is the theory behind barefoot-style shoes? It is that our body provides all the cushioning and stability we need for walking and running barefoot without the added weight of shoes. So, barefoot-style shoes try to approximate that condition by being very flexible and basically flat with zero incline from front to back. They also allow your toes to spread out like they do when you're walking or running barefoot, while providing some protection from life's intrusions like stones and sticks. Even though they do provide a layer of protection, they also give you a feel for the ground that you cannot get with other shoes and are typically very lightweight. If you are not already, you should be aware that there is a whole movement around running in bare feet that is also very popular though adding a little extra "skin" for the rest of us is probably reasonable. That's not to say that immediately switching to barefoot-style shoes is the best approach, particularly for runners. If you're not used to going barefoot, then barefoot-style shoes will take a cautious and pragmatic approach to adapt your walking or running style. Barefoot-style shoes force walkers and runners to go back to basics and adapt to allow their feet and legs to provide primary cushioning and stability. Many say though that once they've gone barefoot-style it's hard to go back! This article is not designed to advocate barefoot-style shoes, but just to put it forward a brief opinion about how to describe them as part of minimalist shoes. I do suggest going barefoot as much as possible and to keep your feet unrestricted and healthy. You should also consider trying, with your healthcare professional's advice, a brand of barefoot-style shoes. Five Finger shoes are one of the best Barefoot Minimalist Shoes that can effectively exercise the muscles of the feet and calves, thereby improving running posture and better preventing injuries.
  21. Installing solar panels is one of the best ways homeowners can live more sustainably. While there are several upfront costs with switching to solar energy, the ROI for solar panels makes this investment well worth it. Read on to learn how installing solar panels can save money as you help to take down big oil companies. Cut Down on Electrical Bills One of the most significant ways you'll benefit from installing solar powers is by reducing your electric bill. These panels make it possible for homeowners to stop relying on utility companies as this switch to solar power will ultimately save 50% a month on electricity. With solar panels on your home, you’ll be able to harness the sun’s energy to power your house, as long as the sun is out. In the event that the sun isn’t present, you’ll be able to use electricity from your utility company. While this backup electricity comes at a cost, using the sun to power your home is free. Save on Maintenance Many homeowners are frequently charged by their utility company for maintenance fees or costly repairs. Relying on the sun as a power source makes it easy to skip out on these expenses. Once your panels are installed, you’re much less likely to encounter maintenance issues. With this in mind, you can easily consider the cost of installing your panels as a one-time fee for free power. Enjoy Steady Electric Costs It isn’t uncommon for homeowners to pay more during peak seasons like summer and winter. Whenever you’re using more electricity to heat or cool your home, relying on a utility company will cause your electric bill to skyrocket. Similarly, the utility companies themselves are vulnerable to the fluctuating natural gas, oil, and coal markets, leading to even more unpredictable pricing. If you’d prefer to deal with steady electric costs, consider investing in panels. By using the sun as your power source, you'll protect yourself from being susceptible to fluctuating electricity costs. Take Advantage of Tax Credits Tax credits are another way many homeowners benefit from using solar energy. Many states offer individuals that rely on sustainable energy sources clean energy grants and SRECs or Solar Renewable Energy Credits. These credits are an incentive for homeowners to install panels as they will cover up to 30% of the installation costs. Solar energy is a great way for homeowners to live sustainably as they avoid contributing to the wasteful practices of big oil companies. As you learn more about solar panels, keep these four benefits in mind.
  22. Installing solar panels is one of the best ways homeowners can live more sustainably. While there are several upfront costs with switching to solar energy, the ROI for solar panels makes this investment well worth it. Read on to learn how installing solar panels can save money as you help to take down big oil companies. Cut Down on Electrical Bills One of the most significant ways you'll benefit from installing solar powers is by reducing your electric bill. These panels make it possible for homeowners to stop relying on utility companies as this switch to solar power will ultimately save 50% a month on electricity. With solar panels on your home, you’ll be able to harness the sun’s energy to power your house, as long as the sun is out. In the event that the sun isn’t present, you’ll be able to use electricity from your utility company. While this backup electricity comes at a cost, using the sun to power your home is free. Save on Maintenance Many homeowners are frequently charged by their utility company for maintenance fees or costly repairs. Relying on the sun as a power source makes it easy to skip out on these expenses. Once your panels are installed, you’re much less likely to encounter maintenance issues. With this in mind, you can easily consider the cost of installing your panels as a one-time fee for free power. Enjoy Steady Electric Costs It isn’t uncommon for homeowners to pay more during peak seasons like summer and winter. Whenever you’re using more electricity to heat or cool your home, relying on a utility company will cause your electric bill to skyrocket. Similarly, the utility companies themselves are vulnerable to the fluctuating natural gas, oil, and coal markets, leading to even more unpredictable pricing. If you’d prefer to deal with steady electric costs, consider investing in panels. By using the sun as your power source, you'll protect yourself from being susceptible to fluctuating electricity costs. Take Advantage of Tax Credits Tax credits are another way many homeowners benefit from using solar energy. Many states offer individuals that rely on sustainable energy sources clean energy grants and SRECs or Solar Renewable Energy Credits. These credits are an incentive for homeowners to install panels as they will cover up to 30% of the installation costs. Solar energy is a great way for homeowners to live sustainably as they avoid contributing to the wasteful practices of big oil companies. As you learn more about solar panels, keep these four benefits in mind.
  23. Overfishing has become a major concern among environmentalists. All fisheries are aware of illegal, wasteful fishing practices that are putting the local fish populations at the risk of being depleted. Alaska is one of many regions that has strict fishing regulations. People who consume fish should do their part to eat more sustainably. Don’t Eat Endangered Fish Do not eat fish species that are on the endangered list. It’s easy to find this list by doing a simple search online or visiting the Marine Conservation Society’s website. Environmental organizations provide lists of fish to avoid and to eat on a regular basis. Eat More Sustainable Fish Eat more fish that are sustainable, meaning they are in abundant supply. Sardines are a plentiful, fast-growing species that are found in many locations in Europe and North America. Alaskan salmon, clams, oysters, tuna, mussels and mackerel are caught responsibly by modern fishermen. Prepare meals that are more sustainable like a salmon or tuna recipe, and save the rare, exotic fish for special occasions. Buy Local or Seasonal Fish Buy fish that is caught and sold by local fishermen. They are more likely to use smaller nets and use less destructive fishing techniques. Buy less of the kind that is overfished in the oceans, caught in large nets and shipped over long distances. Also, buy fish that are available only during certain times of the year. Buy Organic Fish Organic fish is grown, caught and sold in its natural state without pesticides or harmful chemicals. Organic fish products have a long list of stringent requirements that they must pass before being labeled as organic. Organic fishing is not as common as traditional fishing that includes the use of longline nets. Buying organic fish is another conscious method of preserving different fish species. Read the Label Know the origins of your fish by reading the label. Some fish have sustainable labels. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) has blue labels that indicate which wild fish and seafood products are certified to meet their standards of sustainability. Everyone enjoys seafood from tuna to Alaskan salmon. However, not everyone practices safe, environmentally conservative fishing techniques. When they go out into the ocean, they take out more than they can put back into the water. Many fishermen and fisheries are taking up the practice of eco-fishing. People who love seafood are encouraged to eat sustainably to protect the wildlife in the oceans, rivers and lakes.
  24. History of organic photovoltaic cells Photovoltaic effect refers to the phenomenon in which a potential difference is generated between different regions of a semiconductor or a combination of semiconductors and metals that are illuminated by light. The term "photo-voltaic" appeared in English in 1849, which means that electromotive force is generated by light, that is, light generates volts. With the gradual understanding of the physical properties of semiconductors and the advancement of processing technology, in 1954, researchers from Bell Laboratories in the United States discovered that when silicon was doped with a certain amount of impurities, it became more sensitive to light. The first solar cell with practical application value was born in Bell Laboratories in 1954, marking the arrival of the era of solar cells. Basic principles of organic photovoltaic cells The basic principle of organic photovoltaic cells is similar to inorganic solar cells: (1) After a certain amount of light is irradiated to an organic photovoltaic device, a photon having energy is absorbed by the organic semiconductor layer, and an electron is excited to transition from the valence band to the conduction band, leaving a vacancy at the valence band. This vacancy called holes and the holes have a positive charge. (2) In conventional semiconductors, the excited electrons and formed holes move freely toward the opposite electrode. In conductive polymers, the electrons and holes formed by the excitation of incident photons will exist in a bound form, that is, they become excitons. (3) Usually these electron holes are formed when excited by photons. If they are in the electric field or at the interface, these electron hole pairs will be separated into electrons and holes, which are called charged carriers. Photocurrents are formed during the migration of charged carriers. Classification of organic photovoltaic cell materials According to mechanical properties and processability, organic photovoltaic cell materials can be divided into insoluble materials, soluble materials, and liquid crystal materials. These materials usually include small molecules or oligomers, polymers, and liquid crystal molecules. Among them, oligomers or monomers capable of absorbing visible light are called chromophores, those with solubility are called dyes, and those without solubility are called pigments. At present, the polymer materials used in photovoltaic device research mainly include polythiophene (PTH) derivatives, polyphenylacetylene (PPV) derivatives, polyparaphenylene (PPP) fluorene derivatives, polyaniline (PANI) and other polymer materials. Advantages of organic photovoltaic cells Compared with inorganic solar cells, organic solar cells have the following advantages: (1) Compared with the materials used for inorganic solar cells, the raw materials of organic semiconductor materials are widely available, cheap, light weight, high environmental stability, and have a high absorption coefficient (usually> 105cm-1) and good photovoltaic effect. (2) The preparation process of organic solar cells is more flexible and simple. It can be prepared by vacuum evaporation, coating, printing or spraying. The energy consumption of organic solar cells in production is lower than that of inorganic materials, and the production process has no environmental pollution. Organic solar cells can be processed on flexible or non-flexible substrates, and have the characteristics of large manufacturing area, ultra-thin, cheap, good flexibility and so on. (3) Organic solar cell products are translucent, easy to decorate and use. Application prospects of organic photovoltaic cells As fossil energy is limited and non-renewable, finding an alternative energy source has become an important task to maintain the sustainable development of the global economy. Photovoltaic power generation directly converts solar energy into electricity, which is a green renewable energy source with high commercial development value. And it is expected to become one of the main energy sources at the end of this century. With the continuous improvement of photovoltaic cell manufacturing technology and the continuous rise in the price of fossil energy, the photovoltaic power generation industry has entered a stage of rapid development. The international community is also increasingly optimistic about the development prospects of the photovoltaic power generation industry. The International Energy Agency (IEA) predicted in the solar photovoltaic roadmap published in May 2010 that the proportion of photovoltaic power generation in total global electricity will reach 1.3% in 2020 and rise to 4.6% in 2030. Conclusion The current research direction of photovoltaic cells is to develop efficient and low-cost battery materials and manufacturing technologies. Organic polymer photovoltaic cells use conjugated polymer as the photovoltaic material, and the manufacturing process is simple, the cost is low, and they can be manufactured on a large area, which makes the research of organic polymer photovoltaic cells more and more important. Although the research of polymer photovoltaic cells has made remarkable progress in recent years, its photoelectric conversion efficiency is still very low. Only by obtaining highly efficient and stable photovoltaic cells can the commercialization of polymer photovoltaic cells be achieved. The improvement of the efficiency of organic polymer photovoltaic cells can be achieved through the selection of materials and optimization of the structure of photonic and optical devices.
  25. Pollution and waste have bombarded the planet. We are now tasked with finding effective solutions to help reduce their effects without sacrificing comfort. You are probably at home thinking about how you can help the environment while also lowering your energy bills. Here are 5 repairs to make in your home to help you save money, reduce your environmental impact, and live a greener life. Insulation Weather stripping, caulking, and sealing your home's openings can help you save money and reduce your environmental impact. How? Repairing your home's insulation will maintain the home's temperature. This means less energy consumption, which translates to saving money while reducing your environmental impact. Windows Just like insulation, repairing your home's windows can also help you lower your energy bills while reducing your environmental impact. Cracks and chips on your windows can leak out cool or warm air, causing your HVAC system to continuously operate. This means consuming more energy, which leads to a higher energy bill. Plumbing Water is a natural resource that is quickly depleting. Making necessary maintenance repairs to your plumbing like pump repairs can help reduce your water consumption while also lowering your environmental impact. For instance, a broken water pump can leak significant amounts of valuable water in and around your property, causing both damage and waste. So, to help reduce your environmental impact, consider preventive maintenance repairs to your home's plumbing. Lighting Look up. Do you see that light above you? Is it emitting a lot of heat? If it is, then it may perhaps be an incandescent bulb. Another way to reduce your environmental impact and lower your energy bill is by repairing or replacing the incandescent bulbs around your home with LED lighting. LED bulbs or lighting are more efficient and cost-effective than incandescent bulbs. So, use LED lighting to save money and to save the environment. Appliances Maybe there are a few appliances in your home that are beginning to show their age. Perhaps your washer or dishwasher seems to use more water during a cycle. Maybe your dryer is taking a little longer to dry your clothes. If your appliances are no longer operating efficiently, then having them repaired would be beneficial to help you reduce your energy bills and energy consumption while also lowering your environmental impact. These are only to name 5 repairs to make in your home to help you save money and reduce your environmental impact. Along with these, reuse, recycle, upcycle, and use sustainable materials to do your part in saving the environment.
  26. Background As one of the most common and important protein modification methods, protein glycosylation has always been the focus. In the past years, the commonly used method of N-linked glycoproteomics research is to analyze released glycans or de-glycosylated peptides separately. This strategy reduces the difficulty of analysis, while it also lost glycosite-specific glycosylation information. In recent years, mass spectrometry strategies and methods for intact glycopeptides have been gradually established. Generally, to achieve the identification and quantification of intact glycopeptides, the first step is to enrich glycopeptides from complex samples to reduce the affects from non-glycosylated peptides, then the mass spectrometry parameter settings need to be adjusted to satisfy the fragment features of glycopeptides, importantly the related software also need to be developed for the precise identification of the peptide sequence and glycan structures or compositions of the intact glycopeptides. These three main aspects of the strategies for mass spectrometry-based intact glycopeptide analysis are discussed in this article. 1. Enrichment strategy for intact glycopeptides In glycoproteomics research, the research object is usually complex biological sample. The dynamic range of protein abundance in the sample varies greatly. At the same time, many glycoproteins have low abundance. All or specific glycoprotein groups are studied. Enrichment will help to identify more glycoproteins. In addition, because glycosylated peptides often only account for 2% to 5% of protein digested peptides, the signal during mass spectrometry analysis is easy to be inhibited by non-glycopeptides, so the primary problem faced by glycoproteomics research is the effective separation and enrichment of glycoproteins / glycopeptides, that is, the removal of non-glycoproteins / non-glycopeptides. The methods currently available for the enrichment of intact glycopeptides include hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), lectin affinity and boric acid affinity, etc. HILIC is based on the strong hydrophilic property of the polyhydroxy-rich sugar chain structure, which enables the separation of glycopeptides and non-glycosylated peptides, and can maintain the integrity of the sugar chain structure, both for N-glycopeptides and for O-glycopeptide. However, due to the weak interaction between the sugar chain and the stationary phase, glycopeptides that only link monosaccharides or oligosaccharides (such as O-glycopeptides) are often not well enriched by HILIC. Lectins are a class of sugar-binding proteins that can specifically recognize and bind to specific glycosyl sequences in structure-specific monosaccharides or glycans. Their binding to sugar chains is non-covalent and reversible. After the glycoprotein or glycopeptide is captured by the lectin, the glycoprotein or glycopeptide is usually eluted with a specific monosaccharide by competitively binding the lectin, thereby achieving enrichment of the glycoprotein. 2. Intact glycopeptides analysis by mass spectrometry 2.1. Intact glycopeptide in MS1 During the mass spectrometry analysis, due to the high complexity of biological protein samples, the samples enriched with glycopeptides are usually still doped with many non-glycosylated peptides, which often interfere with the mass spectrometry of intact glycopeptides. At present, there are some simple and effective methods to screen the mass spectrum peaks of intact glycopeptides from the spectrum of first stage of mass spectrometry (MS1). These primary screening can effectively reduce the mass spectrum of non-glycosylated peptides. Analyze time to increase the opportunity for the identification of intact glycopeptides. The methods reported include: 2.1.1. Direct identification of molecular mass The fundamental basis is that the concept of molecular mass is determined by defining the molecular mass of 12C as 12, and the molecular mass of other elements is determined by comparing with the molecular mass of 12C. Elements can be divided into exactly positive integers according to mass (Such as 12C, 12.00000), or greater than a positive integer (such as 1H, 1.00783; 14N, 14.00307) or less than a positive integer (such as 16O, 15.99491; 32S, 31.97207). Usually in peptides, N and H content is the highest, their actual mass is slightly larger than the molecular weight after rounding, and in glycopeptides, O and S content is relatively high, their actual mass is slightly smaller than the molecular weight after rounding. So for the molecule Glycopeptides of equal mass and ordinary polypeptides without glycosylation, the molecular mass of glycopeptides is usually smaller than polypeptides. This feature can be used to distinguish glycopeptides from ordinary polypeptides. Froehlich et al. used this method to simulate experiments, and got a simple classifier that can distinguish the glycopeptide precursor ion from the peptide precursor ion, and divide the integer part and fraction part of the mass of the glycopeptide / peptide into equations to classify the glycopeptide. In the mass spectrometry mass accuracy is 10ppm, the method can identify intact glycopeptides with a sensitivity of more than 89% and a specificity of more than 93%. With the emergence and popularity of higher resolution and mass accuracy mass spectrometry, it can identify intact glycopeptide. The specificity of the peptide will be further enhanced. However, this method requires that the sugar chain portion of the glycopeptide occupies a large molecular mass ratio, that is, the content of oxygen atoms (O) in the glycopeptide is high, which is more distinguishable from ordinary peptides. 2.1.2. Isotope distribution identification Because most intact glycopeptides (especially N-glycopeptides) contain more oxygen (O) than non-glycosylated polypeptides, and the isotope of the O element in nature contains 2u difference between 16O and 18O, which is different from the peptide Other major elements C, H, N, etc. (there is only 1u difference between isotopes). Therefore, intact glycopeptides and ordinary peptides usually have different isotope abundance distributions, and their characteristic isotope peak patterns can theoretically be used to identify MS1 Whether the detected molecule is a glycopeptide precursor ion peak. However, the premise of the application of this method is to detect accurate isotope abundance, which is rarely used alone in actual applications. However, the direct identification of molecular mass is used in conjunction with the isotope abundance. Combined with high-resolution and high-precision mass spectrometry, it is theoretically feasible to identify intact glycopeptides at the level of the MS1 precursor ion. Direct identification of the intact glycopeptide at the MS1 level, and then selective MS2 analysis can increase the glycopeptide precursor ion to achieve the purpose of maximum analysis and identification of intact glycopeptides. To be continued in Part II…
  27. JAMA: Wuhan public health intervention significantly controls the large-scale outbreak of new coronary pneumonia On April 10, 2020, Wu Tangchun, Hua Sheng University of Science and Technology, Wei Sheng, and Lin Xihong of Harvard University published a newsletter entitled "Association of Public Health Interventions with the Epidemiology of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Wuhan, China" online in the top medical journal JAMA. The research paper found that among the 32,583 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, the median age of female patients was 56.7 years and that of females was 16,817 (51.6%). The daily confirmed case rate peaks in the third stage (traffic restrictions and family segregation stage), and then decreases in geographic areas, gender and age groups, except for children and adolescents, whose confirmed case rate continues to rise. Throughout the period, the daily confirmed case rate of local health care workers (130.5 per million people) was higher than that of the general population (41.5 per million people). During these five periods, the proportion of severe and critical cases fell from 53.1% to 10.3%. The risk of severity increases with age: the risk of serious or critical illness in the elderly (≥80 years old) is higher (proportion is 41.3%) compared with the population in the 20-39 age group (the proportion of severe and critical cases is 12.1%). In summary, a series of multifaceted public health interventions are related in time to improved control of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China. These findings may contribute to public health policies in other countries and regions. NEJM: Large-scale clinical trial is released, Radecivir can treat severe patients: 68% of patients have observed improvement in clinical symptoms On April 10, 2020, Jonathan Grein and others published a research paper titled "Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19" online in the top international medical journal NEJM. The study analyzed data from 53 critically ill patients. 22 in the US, 22 in Europe, and 9 in Japan. At baseline, 30 patients (57%) were receiving mechanical ventilation, and 4 (8%) were undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. During the 18-day median follow-up period, 36 patients (68%) had improved oxygen support levels, and 17 of 30 (57%) patients who received mechanical ventilation had extubated the tube. A total of 25 patients (47%) were discharged and 7 patients (13%) died; among patients receiving invasive ventilation, the mortality rate was 18% (6 out of 34), while patients not receiving invasive ventilation 5% (1 out of 19). In general, among patients receiving sympathetic use of remdesivirr (reduxivir), clinical improvement was observed in 36 of 53 patients (68%). The measurement of efficacy will require randomized, placebo-controlled trials of remdesivir treatment. Significant progress made by in the field of epidemiology and propagation dynamics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). "The Lancet Infectious Diseases" recently published the important progress made by Yu Hongjie's group at the School of Public Health of Fudan University in the field of epidemiology and transmission dynamics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 2019. The study aims to explain the epidemiological characteristics and dynamic changes of transmission dynamics parameters of COVID-19 in areas outside Hubei Province, mainland China. The article emphasizes that the effectiveness of prevention and control measures is only applicable when the measures are in place. If the existing public health interventions are relaxed or major changes in crowd behavior occur, it may lead to increased follow-up transmission. Given that COVID-19 is spreading globally, the results of this study not only provide important scientific evidence for China to formulate prevention and control strategies, but also provide important references for other countries in the progress of the epidemic. The results of the study show that the median age of the cases is 44 years old. As the epidemic progresses, the proportion of minors and elderly people aged 65 and above has increased. Although about 20% of China's total population is minors, the proportion of minors in confirmed cases is only 5%. The above results do not yet indicate that minors have a lower susceptibility risk or have a lighter clinical manifestation after infection. Because the epidemic is due to the 2020 winter vacation and the Chinese New Year, schools in China are closed. The reduction in the number of school-age children may be related to a lower risk of infection, but further research is still needed. The average time between case onset and admission was shortened from 4.4 days before January 27 (95% CI: 0.0-14.0) to 2.6 days from January 28 to February 17 (95% CI: 0.0-9.0). The time from onset to admission and isolation has gradually shortened, reflecting the faster action of governments at all levels to control the epidemic. The average incubation period is 5.2 days (95% CI: 1.8-12.4), and the 95% quantile (10.5 days) indicates that tracking and medical observation of close contacts is very important for the detection of cases with a longer incubation period. The average intergenerational interval is 5.1 days (95% CI: 1.3-11.6), which is shorter than the estimated intergenerational interval of early cases in Wuhan in the previous studies (7.5 days). The shorter intergenerational interval outside Hubei Province may be related to the shorter interval from onset to admission. The average intergenerational interval is shorter than the incubation period, indicating that the case may be infectious before symptoms appear. Andrew S Azman of the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health and Francisco J Luquero of Epicentre, France, under the title "From China: Hope and Experience in Controlling COVID-19", wrote an expert review for this study, stating: " Yu Hongjie's group used public data to answer the key epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in China, and found that the effective reproduction index of nine severely epidemic areas outside Hubei Province fell below the epidemic threshold by the end of January 2020, effectively slowing the epidemic of local transmission. The author also found that the incubation period and the intergenerational interval have a similar length of time, indicating that the case is contagious before or shortly after the onset of symptoms. " Transparency and timeliness have surpassed most countries, and rapid data analysis and model research have provided important decision-making basis for other countries in the progress of the epidemic. Based on limited historical information on newly emerging infectious diseases, the Chinese government weighed the economy, social and public health and other aspects, the most stringent prevention and control measures have been adopted the country ’s similar measures have provided important advance experience. The results of this study have increased confidence in the possibility of the epidemic being quickly controlled globally. "
  28. Definition of antibody affinity maturation Antibody affinity maturation refers to a state of immune function that normally exists in the body. In humoral immunity, the average affinity of the antibody produced by the second response is higher than the initial immune response. This phenomenon is called antibody affinity maturation. It is due to the genetic mutation of the antibody forming cell itself and the selective activation of the B cell clone by the antigen. This functional state of the body is the result of long-term evolution and continuous adaptation to the external environment, and is of great significance for the body's defense and maintenance of its own immune monitoring. Significance of antibody affinity maturation Currently, the development of pharmaceutical antibodies is mainly based on hybridoma cells or in vitro antibody libraries. Through antigen design and antibody screening, people initially obtain positive hits, and then further pass a series of biological property detection and functional verification, and finally obtain antibodies with medicinal potential. In the actual research and development process, the antibodies obtained after routine screening have many aspects that need more detailed improvement, including affinity, immunogenicity, half-life, etc. In the field of antibodies, many related researches and practices have been done over the years. Among them, antibody affinity maturation is one of the important research directions. Theoretically, the increased affinity of antibodies will help to improve the specificity and efficacy of antibodies, help to reduce the dosage of drugs, and reduce toxic and side effects. Although the actual research work proves that the increase in affinity and the increase in antibody titer are not always linear, especially in the treatment of solid tumors (refer to Weinstein's "binding site barrier" hypothesis), in many cases, this linear relationship is obvious. In addition, the development of mature technology of antibody affinity not only helps the development and quality improvement of antibody drugs, but also helps people better understand the mechanism of antibody interaction with the target and better understand the function of the target. Commonly strategies used for in vitro antibody affinity maturation According to the principle of in vivo antibody affinity maturation, in the process of in vitro antibody affinity maturation, the selection of mutation regions and how to introduce mutations are a key issue. The current mutation strategies are mainly divided into three categories, random mutation, substitution and directed mutation. One of the strategies for antibody affinity maturation is to simulate high-frequency mutations in somatic cells, and screen for antibodies with high affinity for antigens through cell mutation and display of antibody proteins. Chain replacement Chain replacement is to retain the heavy chain or light chain of a specific antibody, and the other chain is combined with a randomized complementary chain to select higher activity mutant strains. By fixing one of the two chains of the antibody and constructing a replacement library with sufficient diversity for the other chain, random combinations are likely to produce the best chain combination, and new antibodies with high affinity can be obtained through phage display antibody screening. Light chain replacement is often used in chain replacement. Site-directed mutation Due to the affinity maturation of natural antibodies, the regions where high-frequency mutations of somatic cells occur are not evenly distributed, but are mainly concentrated in the CDR regions that directly contact the antigen. During the in vitro maturation of the antibody's affinity, the CDR region is the most commonly selected site-directed mutation region, so that it can obtain sufficient sequence diversity without destroying the protein structure. When performing site-directed mutation on CDRs, multiple CDRs can be changed in parallel or optimized step by step. DNA shuffling DNA shuffling is a technology that uses homologous antibody genes to cut them into fragments of no more than 50 bp using deoxyribonuclease I, and then randomly combines them to perform PCR amplification to complete anti-rest genes. It contains the process of randomized cutting, recombination and screening of antibody fragments, which mimics the natural process of affinity maturation of antibodies and accelerates the speed of directed evolution in vitro. Antibody affinity maturation based on antibody libraries is not essentially different from antibody library-based antibody screening. Both are in vitro high-affinity antibody screening. The focus is still on two aspects, namely, library construction and selection of screening systems. The difference is that the library used in the latter is not biased in construction or synthesis or only has a limited bias against an antigen; while the library used in the former is constructed based on the determined antibody sequence template. The strategy of building a library can be divided into two large categories: one is to build a larger library, random mutation of antibody CDR regions or even the entire V region; the other is to build a smaller library, focusing mutations on antibody sequences on a specific area. As for the method of introducing mutations, the simpler is error-prone PCR, but it is difficult to achieve good mutation effects. Another popular method is to design mutations on primers, that is, artificially synthesize primer libraries with mutation regions. There are many specific design methods, including controlling the number of mutated bases, controlling the probability of occurrence of various bases at each site, etc., in order to meet the needs of library capacity and bias. Error-prone PCR Error-prone PCR is currently the most commonly used antibody mutation technique, which can randomly introduce mutations in the entire length or part of the region of the antibody gene. When the polymerase amplifies the target sub-cause, by applying a polymerase with a high mismatch rate or adjusting the reaction conditions, a mutation is randomly introduced into the target gene at a certain frequency, and random mutagenesis is repeated through multiple rounds of PCR, Cumulative mutation effect, and finally obtain a random mutant of the target protein.
  29. DNA sequencing technology, that is, technology to determine the DNA sequence. In molecular biology research, DNA sequence analysis is the basis for further research and transformation of target genes. The current technologies used for sequencing are the dideoxy chain end termination method invented by Sanger et al. (1977) and the chemical degradation method invented by Maxam and Gilbert (1977). These two methods are very different in principle, but they are based on nucleotides starting at a fixed point and randomly ending at a specific base, resulting in four groups of A, T, C, G with different length A series of nucleotides are then detected by electrophoresis on urea-denatured PAGE gel to obtain the DNA sequence. At present, Sanger sequencing method has been widely used. Introduction DNA sequencing technology is also called gene sequencing technology. The human genome is composed of four letters A, T, G, and C. The vast and intricate divine book of life is like a treasure trove, holding secrets that people have been eager to know for thousands of years. DNA sequencing technology is like "opening the door of sesame seeds". The mantra is our golden key to open the treasure trove. The first method in the world to determine the DNA sequence was invented by the British biochemist Frederick Sanger. Since then, the speed of DNA sequencing has been accelerating. The 2001 human genome sketch cost 437 million US dollars and took 13 years. By 2007, the birth of the first complete human genome sequence map cost only $ 1.5 million, and it took only three months to complete. On January 2, 2009, scientists from California Pacific Biosciences, Jonas Kaurrach, Stephen Turner and their research team published a paper in the journal Science, saying that they compared nanotechnology with chip technology in combination, a new sequencing method was invented, which is 30,000 times faster than the existing technology. DNA sequencing technology The principle of Sanger sequencing is to use a DNA polymerase to extend the primers bound to the template of the sequence to be determined. Until one chain termination nucleotide is incorporated. Each sequence determination consists of a set of four separate reactions, each of which contains all four deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTP), mixed with a limited amount of a different dideoxynucleoside triphosphate (ddNTP). Because ddNTP lacks the 3-OH group required for extension, the extended oligonucleotide is selectively terminated at G, A, T, or C. The termination point is determined by the corresponding dideoxygenation in the reaction. The relative concentration of each kind of dNTPs and ddNTPs can be adjusted, so that the reaction can get a group of chain termination products with hundreds to thousands of bases. They have a common starting point, but terminate at different nucleotides, and can be separated by high-resolution denaturing gel electrophoresis. After gel treatment, X-ray film autoradiography or non-isotopic labeling can be used for detection. DNA sequencing strategy Taq DNA polymerase is extremely thermally stable at 95 ° C. The sequencing-level Taq DNA polymerase used in this system is a modified product of Taq DNA polymerase. It has a very good effect on double-stranded DNA templates, has a high degree of accuracy, can produce uniform bands, and has a low background. Material The purified DNA to be tested can be single-stranded or double-stranded. Scientists placed thousands of waveguides on a microarray chip etched with nanostructures. This is a miniature, hollow metal tube with a diameter of about 20 nanometers and a volume of about 1 femtoliter. A DNA molecule plus a DNA polymerase molecule can fill up the space in the tube. In this way, thousands of sequencing reactions can be performed simultaneously on a small chip. Especially valuable is that when performing sequencing reactions in such miniature waveguides, the interference will be significantly reduced, which means that the accuracy can be greatly improved. In the current product, there are about 3,000 waveguides on each chip. Pacific Biosciences intends to launch this level of product in 2010. According to the company’s founder Turner, by 2013, one million waveguides will be placed on each chip, and the complete sequence of the human genome will be measured within half an hour, with an accuracy of 99.999% and a cost of less than $ 1,000. Although Dr. Michael Metzke of Baylor College of Medicine in Texas said that Turner ’s outlook is too optimistic, such an amazing speed makes us seem to see the previous progress of computer CPUs-the number of transistors on integrated circuits, every 18 Months will double, and performance will double. Someone commented that DNA sequencing technology will follow computer technology and communication technology to become the third "Moore's Law" subject industry. About us We work hard to offer you the same dependable services to pharmaceutical and biotech companies, as well as academia and government agencies for the purpose of satisfying all your sequencing or array needs. Through nearly ten years’ hard working and depend on our professional work team, we are proud of satisfying the needs of our clients both at home and abroad, which across more than 50 countries and districts. We always devote ourselves to providing you with the best and professional service. Here are some our products: amplicon sequencing, viral genome, bacterial rna sequencing, Ribosome Profiling, etc.
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