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  1. Yesterday
  2. As we know, pollution has an enormous impact on our health. The amount of toxic matter in the air we breathe, the organic pollutants and heavy metals we ingest from our daily supply of water and food are damaging for millions of lives every year. There is a reason to be worried. An unhealthy environment causes annually diseases like heart conditions, chronic respiratory disease and stroke. These are all the products of air pollution. There are solutions, and each individual has the power to decrease the amount of pollution that we create. We can start by identifying a specific location or source of pollution, where we as individuals can make an actual difference. Pollution doesn’t appear from anywhere, there are small sources from large land areas that later are concentrated in streams or rivers. People, of any age, can help to reduce these problems by taking actions. If you’ve planned to make some changes and you feel an inclination towards a healthier environment, here are a few aspects you should consider: Use Energy Efficient Products There are many ways to decrease your household’s energy use, starting from simple habit adjustments to considerable home improvements. The main reasons why you should start taking action as soon as possible is to protect the environment and save on utility bills. Here are some simple actions you could include in your routine and house: Adjust Your Daily Routine If you’re avid to make some changes you should purchase only energy-efficient products and start making some adjustments in the way you use energy. Learn to use energy-efficient. Whenever you’re leaving the room, turn off the lights and devices when you don’t need them anymore. You can save plenty of energy by taking care of your household task manually. Why not washing your dishes manually? It simple efficient and your energy bill will unexpectedly decrease. Replace Traditional Light Bulbs It’s well-known that traditional light bulbs must be replaced more often than other energy alternatives and consume an excessive amount of electricity. To avoid this, you should embrace the halogen incandescent bulbs, or light-emitting diode bulbs (LEDs) that last three times longer than your old bulbs and use 25-28% less energy. Even though energy-efficient bulbs are more expensive, their benefits are amazing not only for your wallet but for the environment too. Reduce Emissions of Any Type Huge industries that produce a great number of toxic emissions are one of the main threats to air quality. Big businesses are already acting towards this issue. They advocate for the use of public transportation, waste control and some of them are even using technologies for fume extraction that have expanded considerably in the last few years. The environment must be protected, and everyone can do something. It only needs the right attitude towards it and a strong will for small changes. Consider Public Transportation If you’re willing to help reduce pollution, global warming and your monthly expenses, one of the great things you can do is to say goodbye to your car. By encouraging public transportation, you will significantly reduce the volume of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Public transportation can also be safer and healthier. People who are using public transportation tend to be healthier than those who don’t because they exercise by walking from subway stations, bus stops to their homes and offices. Moreover, you can take into consideration the reduction of costs overall. Use a Bike or Walk Choosing to cycle can be the best decision you’ve made in life. Replacing your car ride by walking or bicycling will not only help reduce traffic but also emissions. It’s an amazing way to stay healthy, save the environment and cut daily expenses on transportation. In particular, cities when some trips tend to be shorter, it will be much easier to choose cycling as an alternative to transportation where you’ll generate zero air pollution. Choose Sustainable Products and Consume Less To start reducing the amount of waste and develop a healthy life you should first imagine all the complex processes necessary to build new items from scratch. Every stage of manufacture is related to the emissions of polluting particles, chemicals and greenhouse gases. It’s clear how our consumption needs are affecting the environment. People should consume less and check twice before buying an item. Whenever you feel the need to buy new products, do some research and find some local companies that are dedicated to sustainable practices and decreasing air pollution. Plants Can Help Some cities suffer from environmental degradation while others preserve and improve their environmental quality. People should take as an alternative to fighting the “urban heat island” effects by taking care of their urban green spaces. The effects of urban heat could be highly dangerous to the environment. How do urban green spaces could fight pollution and reduce heat? By increasing the number of bushes and trees, the heat will be alleviated by the moisture and shade. This is how plants work. Not only do green spaces provide shade in the agglomerated cities but they also produce transpiration. It is the effect of moisture that is carried from the roots to the leaves and later released in the atmosphere. This effect helps reduce the heat and release the necessary moisture in the air. In this day and age is important to develop a strong mindset towards environmental solutions. There are answers to this problem, and everyone can act. Regardless of age and race, people should consider some small changes in their habits if they’re determined to help the environment. Many people are taking a stand, they’re waking up and going green. Simple changes will always make a big difference towards the environmental issues and you already have the know-how. Because life is a circuit of bad and good habits, people who are aware of this fact are more likely to improve their lifestyle. There is a chance for improvement and a better world and all it requires is a strong will to make better changes.
  3. Last week
  4. Conventional antibody Conventional antibodies or fully sized antibodies are glycoproteins called immunoglobulins that are produced by the reaction of plasma cells with foreign molecules or antigens. The most basic function of antibodies is to bind specific antigens and stimulate immune responses to protect the body from infection. Antibodies include several subtypes, and here IgG and IgM subtypes are mainly described. Antibodies to IgG and IgM subtypes are widely used in research, diagnosis and treatment. Structure of conventional antibodies The basic structure of an intact antibody consists of four peptide chains, including two heavy chains and two light chains, joined together by disulfide bonds. The antibody is shaped like a letter Y, and the hinge region of the Y structure is elastic. Each peptide chain has a constant region (very conserved across all antibodies) and a variable region (specific in antibody). The symbol of the light chain variable region is VL, and the symbol for the light chain constant region is CL (Fig. 1 left). Similarly, the variable and constant regions of the heavy chain are designated as (VH) and (CH), respectively. Carbohydrates usually bind to the CH2 region of the heavy chain. The Fc segment includes only the constant region (CH) of the heavy chain, but the Fab segment (Fab) that binds to the antigen includes a variable region of the constant region and the heavy chain and a variable region (VH and VL) of the light chain. The Fv region (variable fragment) contains only two variable regions. Fig. 1 The basic structure of a complete conventional antibody (left) and usual antibody fragment (right) Application of conventional antibodies Conventional antibodies have been used in research to detect target proteins by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for decades. Full-size antibodies are also used in clinical tests, such as pregnancy tests and the detection of HIV in the blood by ELISA. In addition, conventional intact antibodies are also used in the treatment of diseases. For example, infliximab is an antibody that recognizes tumor necrosis factor and is used to treat intestinal diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Trastuzumab or Herceptin is an antibody that binds to epithelial growth factor II and is used to treat metastatic breast cancer. In addition, there are many antibodies, including Muromomab, that are used in basic therapies after organ transplantation to prevent graft rejection. Advantages of using conventional antibodies include the ability of the Fc region to activate the body's immune response and bind to the target molecule to destroy it. Disadvantages of using intact antibodies include the inability to penetrate into certain tissues due to their large size. The ability of the Fc segment to activate some immune responses that are harmful to the patient is a disadvantage of clinically applied intact antibody therapy. The Fc region usually causes some non-specific binding and is detrimental to the application of antibody detection. Antibody fragment A fragment of an antibody can be obtained by chemical reagents and genetic engineering methods. The fragments obtained by chemical reagent are achieved by disrupting the disulfide bond in the hinge region or by digesting the antibody with proteases, including pepsin and papain. Genetically engineered fragments provide a large number of fragments, each with specific binding regions and functional traits. Fab, Fab', (Fab') 2, and Fv An antigen-binding fragment (Fab) can be obtained by chemical treatment and protease digestion, which is derived from the variable regions of the IgG and IgM. The antibody portion from which the Fabs fragment is removed is the Fc fragment and consists of the constant region of the heavy chain. Antigen-binding fragments include Fab, Fab', (Fab') 2, and Fv. These fragments are capable of binding antigen, but they lack the Fc segment, which includes constant regions 2 and 3 of the heavy chain. When the antibody was digested with papain, two separate F(ab) fragments were isolated from the Fc region. However, after digestion with pepsin, a F(ab')2 fragment with a small portion of the Fc hinge region was isolated from the antibody. Although the separation of antibody fragments by chemical means can produce many useful diagnostic and therapeutic tools, it is very time consuming and requires a large amount of antibody as a raw material. The monovalent F(ab) fragment has only one antigen-binding region, whereas the multivalent F(ab')2 fragment has two antigen-binding regions that are joined together by disulfide bonds. The F(ab')2 fragment produces two monovalent Fab' fragments and a free thio group that can be used for the binding of other molecules. The Fv fragment is the smallest fragment of the product after enzymatic analysis of IgG and IgM type antibodies. Fv fragment antigen binding region, which consists of VH and VC regions, but they lack the CH1 and CL regions (see Figure 1 right panel). VH and VL are combined in the Fv fragment by non-covalent bonds. ScFv, bispecific antibody, trispecific antibody, tetraspecific antibody, double-scFv, mimi antibody, Fab2, Fab3 The genetic engineering method is capable of producing a single-chain variable region (ScFv), which is an Fv-type fragment that includes VH and VL regions linked together by a flexible polypeptide (see Fig. 1 right panel). If the binding region has a length of at least 12 residues, the ScFv fragment is the monoclonal antibody. Different forms of Fv molecules can be created by manipulating the length of the V-domain and the hinge region. The resulting scFv molecule whose linker is a 3-11 residue cannot be folded into a functional Fv domain. Together with other scFv molecules, these molecules create a bivalent, bispecific antibody. If the length of the linker is less than 3 residues, the scFv molecules can interact to produce a trispecific or tetraspecific antibody. Multivalent scFvs have a stronger affinity for antigen binding than corresponding monovalent antibodies. The Mini antibody is a scFv-CH3 fusion protein that is loaded into a bivalent dimer. Bis-scFv fragments are bispecific. Miniaturized ScFv fragments can be produced by two different variable regions, allowing these Bis-scFv molecules to simultaneously bind two non-existing epitopes. Genetic methods can be used to generate bispecific Fab dimers (Fab2) and trispecific Fab trimers (Fab3). These antibody fragments are capable of binding to 2 (Fab2) or 3 (Fab3) different antibodies at the same time.
  5. There's been a big push in recent years to take a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) approach to energy conservation. Going green and onboarding sustainable practices has a number of tax benefits and can allow your organization to grow by helping you realize operational efficiencies in unexpected places. Energy Audit Industry plant experts say that energy is the number-one cost, so it makes sense to start there when you're talking about making a comprehensive energy audit. The sad part is that Plant Engineering found that fewer than half of industrial plants currently conduct a yearly energy audit. The essential part of a yearly energy audit - beyond conducting one in the first place! - is to determine how much energy you're currently using at each of your industrial plants. From there, you should determine what the source of that energy is so that you can potentially realize greener sources. Doing so might enable you to take advantage of federal subsidies for energy efficiency. Industrial brick refractory coating services can help industrial plants further reduce their fuel consumption. The refractory coating used in this process is ideal for the following applications: kiln, forge, furnace, oven, and metal equipment. Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Reducing hazardous raw materials and donating wood scraps leftover from the manufacturing process, as examples, can drastically reduce your carbon footprint and put your company on the right path towards environmental stewardship. Monitor HVAC and Lighting Where does the energy that comes in to an industrial plant ultimately go? Usually towards heating, cooling, and lighting. A programmable thermostat is probably the easiest way to optimize your heating and cooling processes, but take a look around as well to ensure that your insulation is up to snuff. Poor insulation in an industrial plant could mean that you're allowing your utility bills to skyrocket since so much heat is being allowed to exit the building. On the lighting side of things, many industrial plants waste a ton of money every year by stubbornly resisting the move from incandescent light bulbs to LED bulbs, which can provide as many lumens as incandescent bulbs without producing nearly the heat. Since providing light for a large industrial plant is no easy feat, the potential energy efficiency to be reaped from making the switch to LED bulbs is huge. LED bulbs will actually allow you to use three-fourths the energy and have your LED bulbs last 25 times longer than their incandescent counterparts.
  6. Section I: Overview Recombinant protein drugs, also known as recombinant DNA protein drugs, and genetically engineered protein drugs, refer to the use of recombinant DNA technology to optimize the modification of the gene encoding the protein of interest, and use a certain vector to introduce the target gene into an appropriate host cell. A biologically active protein preparation obtained by expressing a protein of interest and subjected to extraction and purification techniques for the treatment or prevention of human diseases. First, the development of recombinant DNA technology and recombinant protein drugs The establishment of molecular biology theory On April 25, 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick, working at the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University, published a paper entitled "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" in the journal Nature and found double helix structure of DNA. At the same time, Nature published two papers by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, which proved the DNA structure model and jointly opened the era of molecular biology. Watson, Crick and Wilkins shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. In 1958, at the 12th Symposium on Experimental Biology in the United Kingdom, Francis Crick presented the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology and published it in the proceedings of the seminar (Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 12). In January and April 1965, Marshall Nirenberg published a paper, "RNA Codewords and Protein Synthesis" in Science and PNAS, deciphering the nucleotide genetic code, and thus achieved his collaboration with Har Khorana and Robert Holley in 1968 who got the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. Discovery of multiple tool enzymes In 1956, Arthur Kornberg of the University of Washington isolated DNA polymerase and shared the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine with Severo Ochoa. In 1967, DNA ligase was discovered almost simultaneously in laboratories such as Gellert, Lehman, Richardson, and Hurwitz. On July 28, 1970, Hamilton Othanel Smith of Johns Hopkins University published a paper "A Restriction enzyme from Hemophilus influenzae *1I. Purification and general properties" in the journal J. Molecular Biology, confirming restriction enzymes. And thus achieved the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans. Establishment of DNA recombinant technology On October 1, 1972, Paul Berg of Stanford University published a paper "Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli" in PNAS. This indicates that the recombination of DNA molecules was completed in vitro and shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Fredrick Sanger and Walter Gilbert. On November 15, 1973, Stanley Norman Cohen of Stanford University and Herbert Boyer of the University of California, San Francisco collaborated in the publication of the paper "Construction of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro" in the journal PNAS, which announcd the arrival of recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering. Recombinant protein drugs come out On August 24, 1978, David Goeddel of Genentech and others used E. coli to express and synthesize the world's first recombinant human insulin. On May 14, 1982, Eli Lilly submitted a request for the listing of human insulin, the world's first recombinant protein drug, to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). On October 28, 1982, the FDA approved the market for the drug (Humulin®). In 2017, the series still ranked the ninth in the global diabetes drug market with sales of US$1.34 billion/year. Second, the expression system and basic procedures of recombinant protein drug preparation The preparation of recombinant protein drugs mainly includes prokaryotic expression system and eukaryotic expression system. The prokaryotic expression system is mainly bacteria, and the most commonly used are Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The eukaryotic expression system is complex and has eukaryotic cell expression, including yeast cells, baculovirus-insect cells, mammalian cells, and transgenic animal and plant bioreactors. Like most drug development processes, recombinant protein drug development mainly includes three parts: pharmaceutical research, pharmacology research and clinical research. However, unlike traditional small molecule drugs, even if the drug preparation process has been determined, the preparation process of the recombinant protein drug will largely determine the quality of the drug and directly affect the safety and effectiveness of the drug. Therefore, analysis and discussion from the development process of recombinant protein drugs will help us better understand the preparation process. The pharmaceutical research of recombinant protein drugs mainly includes two stages: laboratory research and pilot research. The laboratory research is generally divided into the construction of recombinant engineering cells (including animal and plant bioreactors), cell culture and protein expression, and separation and purification of target proteins, protein pharmaceutical preparations, and quality research and quality control modules throughout. The pilot study mainly includes modules such as pilot process amplification, quality standard establishment and stability test. Pharmacological research mainly includes modules such as major pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety evaluation. When the target protein is isolated and purified to obtain a certain purity of the protein stock solution, after determining the preliminary formulation to prepare the pharmaceutical preparation, or after the laboratory basically determines the drug preparation process and produces at least one batch of samples that have passed the preliminary test (small test), it should be timely to carry out the stability study of protein and its preparations, the research data can be used as an important basis and content of the stability test; however, in the application of clinical materials, at least one batch of three consecutive trial samples must be completed under the pilot scale amplification process and the stability data of the sample should last for 6 months. Samples prepared in laboratory tests can be used to carry out major pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic studies, while samples for safety evaluation studies in principle use samples should be prepared by pilot studies. This can better reflect the safety of actual production products and only samples prepared on a pilot scale can meet the sample size required for the test. When drug research and development enters pharmaceutics pilot research and pharmacology research, it can be called into the preclinical research phase. In the laboratory pharmaceutical research stage, or only the initial pharmacodynamic or pharmacological test, it can not be called the preclinical research stage. To be continued in Part Two…
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  8. Keeping your home tidy, neat, and clean can be facilitated by removing household junk and waste routinely rather than to keep it sitting around indefinitely. However, waste can build up quickly, so you may want to line up a few tactics for reducing much of the trash that continues to accumulate on a daily basis. Recycle Many communities provide free recycle bins for household use, along with free curb pickup a couple times each month. This is a great way to help protect the environment and get rid of daily throwaways so they don’t stack up in your garage or trash can. You can also recycle old clothing and unused furniture to thrift stores or consignment shops by dropping things off on the designated days. To make some extra cash, recycle worn tires, scrap metal, and collected papers at the local recycling centers. Compost Food scraps, coffee grounds, and biodegradable organics can be used to compost a flower garden or vegetable garden in your backyard. Gather leftovers and sort them according to various composting needs. Layer them as directed in a compost guide to enhance the fertilization and productivity of your outdoor garden areas. Removal For large items you want to dispose of, like a garage full of rapidly-accumulating trash that includes containers, bottles, cans, discarded electronics, broken equipment and appliances, and just about anything else that has been stacked up or boxed for pickup, check into dumpster rental for a week or two. You might be able to share the dumpster space and cost with a neighbor. In addition to daily disposables, renting a dumpster is a great time to clean out the attic, the basement, the garage, and the shed to get rid of things you will never use again. Your home will feel much more open and accessible when you eliminate all the stuff that keeps building up and being ignored or stored in places that can be used for other things of value. Buy Less If you are tossing away too many takeout Styrofoam or plastic containers or getting rid of shoes or clothes you’ve only worn a few times, it may be time to review your budget and start making cuts. Not only will you be able to reduce spending, but you may also be able to reduce waste along with increasing available space and storage areas. No one likes unwanted waste sitting around the house. Consider these ways of reducing trash while enhancing your lifestyle as a bonus.
  9. Camel/shark source antibodies and Nanobodies In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids and sharks also contain specific heavy chain antibodies (hcAbs) that are composed entirely of heavy chain homodimers lacking the light chain. The Fab portion of these antibodies is referred to as VHH (the variable domain of the heavy chain antibody) and is the smallest antigen binding region found in nature. Nanobodies are VHH-derived recombinant domains and are capable of binding antigen. They are very stable and can be easily mass produced by traditional simple systems, such as bacteria (but conventional antibodies with light and heavy chains are difficult to express in bacterial systems) and are therefore promising tools for research and therapeutic applications, especially in the field of super-resolution microscopy, mass spectrometry and targeted protein degradation. Nanobodies can be delivered to living cells by covalent attachment to the polypeptide, or can be expressed and recognized directly in vivo, but conventional antibodies with both light and heavy chains cannot be used for living cells. For example, anti-GFP Nanobodies are used to develop electromagnetic control systems that study neuronal activity in vivo. When the anti-RFP or GFP Nanobody binds to the far red dye Atto, it can obtain a fluorescence signal amplification of 118 times that of GFP or RFP, which can be used to generate whole body mouse neuronal connections. They can also be used in structural studies to stabilize the active state of proteins. AAV expression vectors have been shown to produce universal influenza vaccines with linked Nanobodies against four different influenza strains. Recombinant anti-mouse and anti-rabbit IgG secondary Nanobodies have the potential to replace widely used polyclonal secondary antibodies. Nanobodies have a unique ability to cross the blood-brain barrier; however, they are often processed and cleared out of the body very quickly. Nanobodies can be used for specific purposes, such as (co)immunoprecipitation or real-time fluorescent protein tracing of intracellular targets in living cells. Cattle Long CDR3H Approximately 10% of bovine immunoglobulins contain a long CDR3H region with multiple cysteine residues that are believed to contribute to antibody diversity. Applications of antibody fragments In some applications, fragments are more advantageous than intact antibodies. This topic was recently disscussed by Nelson. One of the advantages is that the fragment is smaller than the intact antibody, and can enter the tissue in which the intact antibody cannot enter and exert therapeutic effects and immunohistochemical staining. Antibody fragments are smaller than conventional antibodies and are generally not glycosylated, allowing their products to be expressed in prokaryotic expression systems, saving time and money. However, fragments lacking the Fc domain are faster in vivo than conventional antibodies and are unable to elicit Fc-mediated cytotoxicity unless they bind to a valid original for better therapeutic purposes. While the lack of an Fc domain is advantageous for immunohistochemistry and other assays because of the reduced non-specific binding of antibodies to Fc receptors. Antibody fragments without an Fc region have the advantage of being able to reduce non-specific binding. The anti-influenza neuraminidase antibody is a ScFv that is widely used in diagnosis. The anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule Ep-CAM antibody MOC-31 is a ScFv for cancer therapy. Bispecific antibodies, trispecific antibodies and tetraspecific antibodies have potential applications in radioimmunotherapy and in vivo imaging diagnosis. Although various antibody fragments have certain advantages, they are generally not used in experiments. Of more than 45,000 articles surveyed, only a few articles were related to the application of antibody Fab fragments. Fc fragment receptor The Fc receptor (FcR) is a molecule expressed mainly on/in innate immune cells that recognizes and binds to the Fc domain of an antibody, thereby providing them with a cellular system to elicit an immune response. The multiple functions of FcR reflect the broad protection or regulation of antibodies, including mediation of targeting substrates for neutralization and clearance, and adaptive immunity. The biological function of FcR is regulated by an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) as receptor interfaces for activation and inhibition of signaling pathways, respectively. Thus, signaling by ITAMs can trigger cell activation, phagocytosis and endocytosis, while signaling by ITIMs has an inhibitory effect on cell activation. A description of the FcR of all classes of immunoglobulins is available, some of which are discussed below. IgG receptor This family includes FcγRI, FcγRII, FcγRIII and subtypes thereof. They are responsible for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ACDP). Another IgG-binding receptor is the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which is involved in the transfer of passive humoral immunity from the mother to the fetus. FcRn also protects IgG from degradation in vivo, which is why they have a long half-life in serum. The Fc-FcRn interaction is promoted by changes in the Fc region, which leads to the development of better therapeutic antibodies. IgE receptor They include a high affinity FcεRI capable of binding to monomeric IgE and a low affinity C-type lectin FcεRII capable of preferentially interacting with the IgE complex. FcεRI mediates immediate hypersensitivity responses to many allergic reactions by stimulating cell degranulation and releasing a range of inflammatory mediators on mast cells and basophils. FcεRII can exist in both membrane-bound forms for the delivery of down-regulated IgE synthesis and in the presence of soluble fragments to produce an up-regulation effect. Its role in the endocytic process of IgE allergen complexes in human airways and intestinal epithelial cells is being actively studied and may be a potential target for the treatment of allergic airway inflammation caused by food allergies. IgA receptor FcαRI is the only member of this type and is expressed only in bone marrow lineage cells. It plays a role in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses depending on the IgA binding state. Although secretory IgA (SIgA) binding to mucosal sites has anti-inflammatory effects, including prevention of pathogen invasion, binding of serum IgA leads to an inflammatory response. FcαRI also regulates neutrophil viability based on the inflammatory microenvironment. TRIM21 TRIM21 shows a very broad range of antibody specificities and can therefore be distinguished from other FcRs. It can bind IgG, IgM and IgA. In addition, it is expressed in most cells that produce tissue. TRIM2 is involved in antibody-mediated viral replication interference by targeting cytosolic virus-antibody complexes for proteasomal degradation. Binding of the Fc domain to FcR may have negative effects in monoclonal antibody-based assays such as immunohistochemistry (IHC), flow cytometry (FACS), and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Non-specific binding to FcR may introduce background noise, resulting in false positives. Solutions to this problem include the use of (i) an isotype control for gating, (ii) serum to compete extensively for non-specifically binding receptors, or (iii) purified IgG to specifically block Fc receptors .
  10. Many homeowners believe that they have little choice about how much money they must spend on their electric bills. They think that they have limited options because of various common factors that influence energy usage, such as the size of their homes and seasonal temperatures in their geographic locations. Yet, you don’t have to settle for the amount that you see on your average bill every month. A wide variety of technologies exist that can help lower energy costs. Consider the following easy changes that you can make around your home: Lights A home’s lights are typically a huge source of power consumption. People often buy light bulbs that use too much energy and forget to shut off lights when they go to bed or away for work or vacation. You can fix both of these problems with two simple swaps: Invest in energy-efficient LED light bulbs that use less energy than CFLs. Additionally, invest in light dimmers, timer switches and sunlight sensors. Dimmers can reduce the energy needed to run LED bulbs when you turn down the lights. Timers turn off the lights at a specific preset time. Sunlight sensors automatically switch off bulbs during the day. Outlets A lot of appliances and electronics consume power even when you’re not using them because they’re designed to remain in standby mode. Some devices also have internal clocks backed up by batteries that recharge while in standby. This type of power usage is referred to as a vampire power drain or an electricity leak. To save energy and money, swap out regular surge protectors that you’ve attached to these devices with timer-style ones. Surge protectors that feature timers block access to power after so much time of non-use has passed or at a preset time of day or night. HVAC Some people change thermostat settings based on how they feel at any particular moment. Unnecessary power usage occurs when they forget to re-adjust the settings later. Multiple people in a home manually controlling the thermostat compound the problem. Also, some people use temperature estimates to set their thermostats before leaving home and later discover that the estimates were wrong. To reduce these incidents, swap out your existing thermostat with a smart home temperature-monitoring one that adjusts heating and cooling systems automatically based on both your settings and real-time outdoor temperatures. Pick a thermostat that also offers remote app access so you can make additional adjustments as needed even when you’re not at home. Windows Homeowners often waste energy on cooling costs because they invest in the wrong types of window coverings. To decrease the amount of sunlight and associated heat that enters their homes from windows, many people use curtains. Fabric can absorb heat. It can also block cool air from entering your home. Invest in better options to reflect heat away and maintain air flow. Swap out your existing window coverings with shutters that you can adjust manually or automatically with a timer. Shutters also make it possible for you to reduce electric light usage by illuminating the interior of your home with indirect sunlight. Of course, there are plenty of other less simple swaps you can make in your home to lower energy beyond the four mentioned here. For example, you might replace older appliances in the kitchen or old wiring in the walls with newer, energy-efficient options. Make a list of your ideas and start with the simple ones today. As time and your budget allows, move on to the less simple ones that can provide you with long-term energy savings.
  11. Since 2000, a significant reduction in the emissions of air pollutants has been registered. Carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds decreased with 90%, sulphur oxides by 60%, and nitrogen oxides with 40%. Emissions from transportation are lower than two decades ago because auto-makers and vehicle users understood it’s their role to care for the environment and to cut air pollution. Air pollution from the transport sector slumped since 1990, even if the sector registered more intense activity than in the past. However, on continents like Europe transport is still one of the biggest climate issues, because it accounts for around 30% of the total EU emissions. Both consumers and authorities expect businesses to adopt eco-friendly solutions, and the freight forwarding industry makes efforts to integrate sustainability in its operations. Transport – world’s greatest climate problem Even if heavy duty-vehicles make up less than 5% of all the cars on the world’s streets, they produce over 25% of all carbon emissions. The biggest issue is that 20% of freight vehicles are driving empty, so they produce air pollution with no reason. This means that freight providers pay to transport nothing. The first change companies need to make is to fill their trucks to the maximum and minimise the kilometres they travel empty. Not only that will optimise their use of resources, but it will also reduce emissions. Cutting the number of kilometres trucks travel has environmental benefits because it reduces the number of vehicles on the roads, reduces congestion, and lowers the number of accidents. The freight forwarding market is turning to green prerogatives to make their operations more sustainable. Green freight forwarding aims to lower the environmental burden the transportation domain puts on the planet. Digitalisation makes sustainable freight forwarding possible Is eco-friendly logistics achievable? Yes, it is! Freight forwarding executives should put sustainability on their agenda because it brings new possibilities for business. The latest supply chain management systems allow businesses to reduce the harmful effects their fleets have on the environment. Companies can cut costs and reduce carbon emissions at the same time if they optimise the model of network they use, change the modes of transportation, and effectively organise their routes and load capacities. Digitalisation helps shippers to transport goods from the manufacturer to the client with reduced waste and a smaller carbon footprint. The freight forwarders that integrate SaaS solutions into their operations can better manage their network because they collaborate and deliver shipments together with other shippers. When companies are fully using the space in each of their vehicles, they need fewer individual trucks. This reduces their costs and CO2 emissions. Digitalisation is one of the most effective solutions companies can adopt to make their operations greener. Recycled and reusable packaging reduces waste Air pollution isn’t the only issue freight forwarders experience. SKD Freight, Inc, a leader in the industry, stated that it’s impossible to avoid waste generation due to the nature of the business. Their daily operations include using tons of paperwork for packing slips, invoices and bills of landing, shipping material and waste all businesses produce. But they make efforts to reduce the impact they have on the planet, and they come up with strategies that allow them to reuse and recycle. SKD Freight adopted some innovative ideas to lower the impact they have on the environment. · When they purchase new pieces of equipment, they choose only energy-efficient models. · They take part in numerous recycling programs that help them recycle various materials, from hazardous ones to the common plastic and paper. · With the help of automated systems, they try to adopt paperless operations when possible. · By actively monitoring their waste input they constantly identify the factors that lead to the greatest waste accumulation. On their website they share the strategies they adopt to make the last mile to green operations. 165 billion packages are delivered yearly, in the USA, and they amount more than a billion trees. And we shouldn’t mention the plastic used to transport goods that wreaks havoc on the ocean life. Logistics businesses try to reduce the damage these two materials make to our planet, and they use recycled and reusable materials for their packages. When they switch to sustainable materials, they give a boost to their reputation and show their activist clients they are worthy to work with. Sustainable packaging still faces challenges but freight forwarders are determined to work hard to find a solution that keeps the planet clean from plastic and filled with trees. Planning helps businesses reduce their footprint Freight forwarding businesses can cut their footprint if they design time-saving protocols. There are times when a client has half a load’s worth of product and doesn’t ask for fast delivery. The shipper can combine multiple partial loads into a single full load to save on fuel cost and reduce vehicle wear-and-tear. It’s better for the company’s financials and the environment because there’s no empty truck driving on the roads. When possible, they ship full container loads because they are cost-efficient and there are fewer chances the packages to get damaged. When the parcels are carefully stocked to fit in the truck, they don’t move during transport and they are less likely to deteriorate. International freight forwarders adopt this strategy because they create less emissions and cut costs. Air freight produces 40 to 50% higher carbon emissions than other transportation means, and environmental-friendly businesses choose other transportation means when possible. Most of the times, ocean transportation is a better choice when they need to deliver internationally. Sometimes air freight is the best option to preserve goods, but logistics businesses need to understand the impact it has on the planet and to prioritise their shipments. Their clients are aware of the harm airplanes do to the environment and they are willing to wait for their goods to be delivered if they are aware this option allows them to improve the air they are breathing. Sustainable freight forwarding boosts efficiency and is seen as one of the essential requirements companies need to meet if they want to maintain their profitability.
  12. Different LED Parking Lot Lights

    Parking lots are very important at buildings and even facilities. They offer the means for guests, tenants, and clients to access your business and building. We have a question for you, when was the last time your parking lot obtain an update? What about updates that made your business more energy-efficient and cut down your monthly expenses? Keep in mind that we are not talking about an air-conditioned parking lot, instead, we are talking about changing your lighting fixture with an LED parking lot light. LED parking lot lights are ideal for those who want to light up their parking area, basketball court, backyard, and other places using a light system that is energy efficient. This kind of lighting comes with several safety features like low energy consuming LEDs that will surely cut down your monthly electric bills. Not only that, it is also easy to maintain, install, and operate. Another reason why you should opt for these lights is that safety will be improved. If you are in a place where the parking area is poorly lit, it may cause problems such as violent crimes, attacks, burglary, and unexpected driving accidents. Parking lot lights have high-intensity to provide more brightness in bigger areas. These lights are also available in different styles. Keep on reading to know more about them. Types of LED Parking Lot Lights 1. Barn Light A barn light also known as an LED yard light is a kind of gooseneck fixture which faces in a single direction typically down. Usually, it is installed on a pole or a wall. The light will spread from the source and illuminate everything under it. At this moment, this type of parking lot light is used in various kinds of light settings. It is also energy-efficient, bright, and requires little to no maintenance. 2. Shoebox As the name implies, this type of LED parking light sports a rectangular shape. All parts like the lens, power supply, and heat sink system are fit to this compartment. Further, LED shoebox lights are easy to maintain and install, energy-saving, and sturdy. 3. Cobrahead Cobrahead lights sport a nice shape making them visually appealing. In fact, it shapes offers enough light spread that even in output. In addition to that, it is can cast a concentrated light. Also, it only operates at a lower wattage, meaning to say, you will save money on utility costs. Undeniably, parking lot lights can offer a lot of benefits. So what are you waiting for? Invest in a high-quality LED light for parking lots.
  13. If you’ve invested in solar panels for your home, then you’ve made the first step toward reducing your energy bill. When your solar panels work effectively, they produce energy for your home to use throughout the day. To ensure that your panels are working at their optimum throughout the winter months, here are four common practices you’ll want to implement. Clear Off Excess Snow When you get a snowstorm, you should go out and clear off your panels. This will allow them to get direct sunlight sooner than waiting for the sun to melt the snow. There are various special squeegees out there that can assist you in removing the excess snow from your panels without damaging them. You must take precautions when using any tool to remove the snow from your solar panels as you don’t want to damage the panels while doing so. Mind Your Battery Bank Your solar energy system has a battery bank that must be maintained properly throughout the winter months to store your solar power. In most cases, you should have these batteries installed indoors to keep them free from the outdoor elements. However, some homeowners have their batteries installed outdoors. If this is your scenario, be sure that your batteries are properly insulated for the cold winter months. Assess Your Panel Angle During the winter months, the sun is at a lower angle than in the summer months. For your panels to be as effective as possible, they should be directly facing the sun. In the wintertime, this is going to be about 15 degrees. Many adjustable racks will easily allow you to alter the angling degree of your solar panels so that you can make them as efficient as possible depending on the path of the sun. Wash Them Regularly The winter snow can bring a lot of debris to your solar panels. That debris gets stuck on and creates a dirty layer that can hinder the performance of your panels. Do yourself a favor and wash your solar panels regularly throughout the winter months. This way, they stay free from debris and work effectively. Having solar panels installed at your home can be a great way to reduce your wintertime energy costs. However, you want to ensure that you’re getting the most of your solar system throughout the wintertime. The above are four practices that you should be implementing when winter rolls around.
  14. FHA is encoded by the fhaB gene and synthesized as a precursor of 367 kDa, the C-terminal portion of which is cleaved to yield the mature 220kDa FHA protein28. Mature FHA is exported and expressed on the bacterial surface, and is also released from the cell surface into the environment. FHA has several different binding activities that implicate it as an important adhesin. An Arg–Gly–Asp (RGD) amino acid motif promotes adherence to monocytes by the leukocyte-response integrin/integrin-associated protein complex and complement receptor type 3 (CR3). A carbo-hydrate-recognition domain allows adherence to cilia, and a lectin-like binding domain promotes adherence to sulphated carbohydrates and heparin, which are found at the surface of the respiratory tract. Despite these binding activities, in vivo studies have failed to define clearly the role of FHA in Bordetella pathogenesis. Some have failed to observe a difference between wild-type and an FHA-mutant B. pertussis in a mouse model of infection, whereas others have observed B. pertussis FHA mutants to be deficient in tracheal colonization. A protease, SphB1, was recently shown to be required for the secretion of FHA. B. pertussis SphB1 mutants were impaired in their ability to colonize the mouse respiratory tract. Instillation of purified FHA into the respiratory tract before inoculation with the SphB1 mutants, or co-infection with wild-type bacteria alleviated the attenuation of the mutants. This indicates that release of FHA from the bacterial surface contributes to the colonization process. Such contradictions might derive from the use of the human-specific pathogen B. pertussis in a mouse model. Studies using B. bronchiseptica indicated that FHA is required, but is not sufficient, for colonization of the rat trachea. It has been proposed that FHA forms a hairpin-like rod. Its amino acid sequence contains two regions of different, imperfect direct repeats of 19 residues, known as repeat regions 1 and 2 (R1 and R2), which are proposed to form β-sheet structures which comprise much of the hairpin shaft. Both the RGD and carbohydrate recognition domains are located at the tip of the hairpin shaft, and might be ideally placed for interaction with host structures. Study of the amino-terminal segment of FHA led to the proposal of an alternative structure in which the overall shape of the molecule is a rod, but in which the shaft comprises β-helical segments that are derived mainly from the repeat regions. In this model, the CR3-binding domain, the RGD motif and the carbohydrate-recognition domain are located in the middle of the shaft. Genome sequence information revealed that the fhaB sequences of the three bordetellae are highly conserved. The B. bronchiseptica FhaB protein is predicted to contain copies of R1, whereas the B. pertussis and B. parapertussis FhaB proteins are predicted to each contain only 38 copies. The FhaB protein of B. bronchiseptica might therefore be expected to form a longer shaft than the FhaB protein of B. pertussis or B. parapertussis. Previous studies have also determined that B. bronchiseptica FhaB contains more copies of R1 than the FhaB of B. pertussis; however, the B. bronchiseptica strain that was studied (strain GP1) contained only 40 copies of R1. So, the repeat number of R1 could vary not only between species, but also between strains of the same species. The consequences of this variability should be further investigated. An FHA homologue was recently characterized in Bordetella avium. Although the amino acid sequence of this FhaB is clearly different to those of the three mammalian-adapted species, B. avium FHA seems to have a similar role in the infection biology of this species. The completion of the B. avium genome sequence project will enable a full evaluation of B. avium FHA-like genes and their similarity to those described here. Two other genes, fhaS and fhaL, which are predicted to encode FHA-like proteins, have also been identified in the Bordetella genome sequences. The B. bronchiseptica genome contains a locus that seems to encode the bio-synthesis of Type IV secretion system protein ptlF homolog (ptlf processs) Tfg and which is absent from the B. pertussis and B. parapertussis genomes. Tfg are distinguished from other pili by their polar location. They have several functions, including adherence of pathogens to host cells, twitching and social motility and DNA uptake in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Bacillus subtilis. The Tfp secretion machinery has homology to the type II secretion apparatus, which forms the general secretory pathway. Tfp fibres are formed from multimers of the major pilin subunit, although minor subunits might also be present. The identity of the major pilin subunit gene in the putative B. bronchiseptica tfp locus is not obvious. However, there are several genes that could encode either the major or minor pilin subunits on the basis of a highly conserved amino-terminal leader sequence that is characteristic of Tfp pilins and is cleaved by the prepilin peptidase PilD (BB0792). After cleavage, the N-terminal residue is often phenylalanine, which subsequently becomes N-methylated. Many of the predicted proteins of the tfp locus are also homologous to type II secretion apparatus proteins. We propose that this locus encodes Tfp biosynthesis on the basis that the predicted protein product of BB0791 is approximately 70% identical to PilT proteins of other Tfp secretion systems throughout the entire protein. PilT is specific to tfp loci and is responsible for pilus retraction, which is required for twitching motility56. There are no reports of Tfp secretion systems in the bordetellae. Future work is likely to investigate the ability of this locus to direct expression of the Tfp secretion apparatus and characterize its role in the adherence of B. bronchiseptica to host structures. B. bronchiseptica encodes a type III secretion system (TTSS). A TTSS is an export apparatus that delivers specific effector proteins into host cells with subsequent alterations in host-cell behaviour. The B. bronchiseptica TTSS is involved in the alteration of host immune cell function, which reduces the effectiveness of the host response to B. bronchiseptica infection. Previously, the locus had been shown to be present in B. parapertussis and B. pertussis. An ovine isolate of B. parapertussis was shown to transcribe some TTSS genes, but information regarding the expression of the TTSS locus in B. pertussis is contradictory. One study failed to demonstrate expression of some genes of the locus, whereas another study demonstrated the transcription of TTSS genes. The genome sequence information showed that, in B. parapertussis, two of the gene— one regulatory (BPP2241) and one structural (BPP2262)— are pseudogenes, which might indicate that the locus is non-functional in B. parapertussis, at least in this human isolate. However the B. pertussis locus is intact, which might indicate that there are mutations in unlinked regulatory genes that are required for TTSS expression. Some of this confusion might stem from the fact that studies of the expression of the B. pertussis TTSS locus are incomplete, and have only examined a small number of the genes in the locus. Future work is likely to investigate the expression of the locus as a whole, at both the translational and transcriptional levels. Reference [1] Bishop R E. The lipid A palmitoyltransferase PagP: molecular mechanisms and role in bacterial pathogenesis [J]. Molecular Microbiology, 2005, 57(4):900-912. [2] The bordetellae: lessons from genomics. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004 May; 2(5):379-90. [3] Cherry, J. D. Pertussis — the trials and tribulations of old and new pertussis vaccines. Vaccine 10, 1033–1038 (1992). 2. [4] Cherry, J. D. Historical review of pertussis and the classical vaccine. J. Infect. Dis. 174 (Suppl.), S259–S263 (1996). [5] Heininger, U. et al. Clinical characteristics of illness caused by Bordetella parapertussis compared with illness caused by Bordetella pertussis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13, 306–309 (1994).
  15. The Autoimmune disease models 1. Childhood Asthma Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease. Due to the persistence of this chronic inflammatory reaction, the airway is highly reactive, and the symptoms recur when exposed to the cause. The study of the pathogenesis of asthma has evolved from the theory of sputum to the theory of chronic inflammation of the airways, and has now developed into a parallel theory of smooth muscle dysfunction and airway inflammation. Clinical treatment can also be done by repeated treatment, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory and relief of smooth muscle spasm. In the 1950s, non-selective adrenaline was used as an antispasmodic agent to treat asthma. In 1956, a selective strong short-acting β2 agonist (Short Acting Beta 2 Agonist SABA) was introduced. In 1971, a β2 agonist (Long Acting Beta2 Agonist LABA) came out. Oral glucocorticoids were used in the 1960s to antagonize airway inflammation, which is effective but has many side effects. In 1972, beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) was successfully developed. In the 1980s, budesonide (BUD) and fluticasone propionate (FP) were developed. By analogy, these inhaled corticosteroids have a stronger anti-inflammatory effect on the airway, and their side effects are significantly reduced. When children are stimulated by allergens, cold air or other incentives, they often first manifest as symptoms of upper respiratory tract allergy, such as itchy eyes, itchy nose, sneezing, etc. Because infants and young children are difficult to express itching, their symptoms often only express as blinking, blowing nose, etc, and further manifest as itching, dry cough and expectoration. These symptoms usually last for hours or days before the onset of asthma. Sudden onset of wheezing is a major feature of childhood asthma. The wheezing symptoms of asthma in children vary greatly depending on the severity of asthma. Children may have high-pitched wheezing that can be heard without a stethoscope or at a distance. Due to frequent breathing or difficulty breathing, asthma symptoms in infants and young children can be expressed as mouth breathing and nose flapping, and many children may be accompanied by a cough. Under normal circumstances, dry cough will appear at the beginning of the disease. When the seizure subsides, a white mucus-like phlegm will be coughed out. In severe cases, the symptoms of asthma can be expressed as irritability, purpura, pale, and cold sweat. Physical examination revealed an increase in heart rate and wheezing in both lungs. Symptoms of heart failure may be further aggravated with jugular vein engorgement, edema, middle lung, small blisters, and enlarged liver. Signs of emphysema can be seen in children with chronic asthma, such as barrel chest and chest percussion. In the remission period, children with asthma may have no symptoms or signs, have no effect on activities, or only manifest as symptoms of allergic rhinitis and pharyngitis. A small number of children may have chest discomfort, with or without wheezing in the lungs. Specific immunoassay is an important indicator for evaluating allergic conditions in children with asthma. Most children's asthma is associated with allergies, and allergies can increase the persistence and severity of asthma. The original test is very important for guiding allergen immunotherapy and preventing asthma attacks. The skin prick test is the most basic test method to help clinicians find allergens and assist clinicians in the diagnosis of asthma. Skin tests are usually carried out using a variety of common inhaled allergens, including indoor dust, cockroaches, pollen, fungi, animal skins, and silk. Usually, the above-mentioned allergen immersion liquid is diluted into a skin test solution in a certain ratio, and a skin pricking needle is used for percutaneous test on the forearm palm side, and 0.01% of histamine phosphate and physiological saline are used as controls to eliminate false negatives and false positives. Antihistamines, corticosteroids and other drugs should be discontinued before the skin test. This method is safe, simple fast, economical, and has been popularized and applied internationally, and it is painless, so it is very suitable for children. The specific IgE (sIgE) assay is one of the most important detection methods for in vitro diagnosis of allergies when the asthmatic children are allergic to an allergen, and the sIgE assay for the allergen is performed in vivo. The classical detection method is Radioallergosorbent test (RAST), which is a CAP method. There are two reporting methods for the CAP system to detect sIgE results. The method is sensitive, specific, accurate and absolutely safe, avoiding the severe side effects that may be induced by skin tests or systemic responses (very few SPT), and the test is not subject to operator proficiency, medication, and skin conditions (such as severe skin disease, skin scratches). The detection of total serum IgE has been widely used as a screening test for the diagnosis of allergies for many years. However, in addition to allergic diseases, many factors such as race, gender, age, parasitic infection and seasonality can affect IgE levels in serum. In addition, the total IgE level of serum in 20-30% of allergic patients is normal, or even lower than normal level. And the total IgE is not specific, because allergic reaction is not determined by the body, but by the specific IgE corresponding to the allergen. Therefore, the detection of total IgE by serum alone is not perfect for judging the allergic condition of children with asthma, nor does it indicate which allergen is allergic. However, IgE and IgG can be used as indicators to evaluate the efficacy of specific immunotherapy. If the treatment is effective, the former decreases and the latter increases. The Phadiatop screening test is to embed more than 90% of the common allergens in the air in the same CAP and measure them using the CAP system. For example, one or several sIgE phadiatops in serum indicate an allergic reaction, but a negative result can’t exclude allergies because phadiatop only includes common but not all inhaled allergens, and the types of allergens are regional. 2. Mucous membrane pemphigoid Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a heterogeneous group of chronic, autoimmune subepithelial blistering diseases which predominantly affects the mucous membranes and occasionally involves the skin. In vivo, MMP is characterized by linear deposition of IgG, IgA, or C3 along the epithelial basement membrane zone. Although the oral and ocular mucosae are the most common sites affected, the nasopharynx, esophagus, larynx and anogenital region may also be involved. This disorder results in mucosal and/or skin blistering, ulceration, and subsequent scarring. The severity and distribution of the disease is highly variable from mild cases involving only oral mucosa to severe cases involving the eye, genital and esophageal mucosa. The disease may be implicated in the larynx or esophagus, causing stenosis, and may even be life-threatening. Since the consequences of this disease can be severe and limited therapeutic options are available once scarring is developed, early diagnosis of this disease is critical. However, as the disease is rare and the early symptoms are non-specific, MMP is often unrecognized in the early inflammatory stage. Other nomenclatures for MMP include cicatricial pemphigoid, oral pemphigoid, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP), ocular pemphigoid, and benign mucous membrane pemphigoid. Autoantibodies to one or several autoantigens in the mucosal or epithelial BMZ have been identified in MMP patients. The association of MMP with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) major histocompatibility class II HLA-DQB1*0301 has been demonstrated. The cause is usually unknown, but there are some reports say that MMP can be triggered by medications such as methyldopa, clonidine and D-penicillamine. The pathogenesis of MMP is complex. MMP has been found to be heterogeneous and involves several different antigens. The pathogenicity of autoantibodies in MMP has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. Circulating IgG and/or IgA autoantibodies against components of the basement membrane zone found in MMP patients’ serum indicate that MMP is mediated by a humoral immune response. Loss of immunologic tolerance to structural proteins in the BMZ results in development of MMP antibodies. By using immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation techniques, a variety of autoantigens including the bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAg1) (a 230-kDa protein, BP230), the bullous pemphigoid antigen 2 (BPAg2) (a 180-kDa protein, BP180), integrin subunits α6/β4, laminin-332 (also called epiligrin and laminin-5), laminin-6, and collagen type I have been identified. BPAg1 is an intracellular protein, whereas BPAg2 and α6/β4 integrins are transmembrane proteins. The most frequently targeted autoantigen in MMP is BPAg2. Laminin-5 is thought to be the major ligand between the transmembrane proteins and the anchoring filaments. Anchoring fibrils, composed of type VII collagen, are located deeper in the lamina densa. These autoantigens are not exclusive to MMP. Although BPAg2 is more common, autoantibodies to both BPAg1 and BPAg2 can be present in BP, and autoantibodies against type VII collagen are also found in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. An antibody-induced complement-mediated process results in epithelial detachment. Passive transfer studies in newborn mice have shown that antibodies to BPAg2 induce subepidermal blisters by an inflammatory mechanism. This interaction triggers immunologic events that result in the expression of inflammatory mediators that induce migration of lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, and mast cells to the BMZ. The separation of epithelium from the underlying tissue within the BMZ results from either direct cytotoxic action or the effect of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes. Passive transfer of antibodies against laminin 5 induced non-inflammatory subepidermal blisters, indicating that anti-laminin 5 IgG is pathogenic, although the mechanism is not clear. Anti-α6 antibody produced separation of epithelium from basement membrane. Fibroblasts can also be activated by the process of producing inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), which is known to induce fibrosis. The collagen produced may lead to scarring. Several studies have shown a predominance of CD4+ T cell and Langerhans cell infiltrates in the conjunctiva of MMP patients, indicating the involvement of cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of MMP. The presence of Th17 lymphocytes in conjunctival biopsies was significantly increased in patients with OCP. MMP can affect multiple mucosal sites, occasionally involve the skin. It is a chronic, progressive disease that most frequently involves the oral mucosa (85% of patients), followed by ocular conjunctiva (65%), nasal mucosa (20–40%), skin (25–30%), anogenital area and/or pharynx (20%), larynx (5–15%), and esophagus (5–15%). Lesions occurring at any site may heal with scarring. There is a great variability in the presentation and severity among patients with both localized and extensive involvement. Localized disease can progress to extensive disease. Those who have the disease affecting only the oral mucosa and/or the skin with less tendency of scarring and with minimal clinical significance are defined as “low-risk” MMP patients. On the contrary, “high-risk” patients are those who have disease occurring in any of the following sites: ocular, nasopharyngeal, esophageal, laryngeal, and genital mucosa. Despite medical treatment of MMP, the high likelihood of scar formation at these sites is associated with a poor prognosis. The ocular involvement can result in blindness, scarring of the laryngeal mucosa can result in sudden asphyxiation, scarring of the esophagus can influence food taking, and scarring of the anogenital mucosa can seriously affect the patients’ daily activities. To be continued in Part Three…
  16. Being more eco-conscious not only will help you do your part towards sustainability but it can also save you money. Here are seven easy ways to make your home a more eco-friendly place. Mindful Water Use A truly eco-friendly home means you need to also save water as well as electricity. First, fix any plumbing leaks. Don’t keep the tap running while you shave or brush your teeth. Also, consider installing a low-flow shower-head; they can save a family of four up to 42,260 gallons of water a year. Maintain Your Cooling and Heating Systems An inefficient air conditioner or furnace can burn up a lot more energy than you realize. Make sure to keep the filters clean, and change them when necessary. For more complex maintenance, a yearly appointment with a reputable AC repair company is a wise investment towards sustainability. Switch to LED Light Bulbs Not only do energy-efficient LED bulbs use less electricity and last longer, but they’re also less likely to trigger eye strain or a headache than fluorescent bulbs. Use Organic and Natural Cleaning Products Harmful cleaning chemicals are not only bad for the environment, but they’re also bad for your health. When you wash them down the drain you’re simply flushing them into the environment and water supply. For most ordinary cleaning, natural and organic products made from vinegar, hydrogen peroxide, citric acid and bicarbonate of soda can be used effectively. Buy Recycled Products It’s a good thing to purchase recycled products whenever you can. This can be toilet paper and paper towels made from recycled paper, to shopping at thrift stores for lightly used furniture and clothing. Cook Smart It’s easy to cook smart, which contributes to an eco-friendly home. Buy organic and sustainably produced food, it’s not only good for the Earth, but it’s also good for your health. Eat more raw foods; not using the oven or stove will save you energy. And once again, eating raw food is good for your health. Avoid products with excessive plastic packaging; for example, coffee pods contribute tons of plastic waste to the environment. Switch back to a drip coffee maker. Make Your Own Compost Don’t scrape your leftovers and kitchen scraps into the trash, turn them into compost. Learn about composting, and start a backyard compost pile or get a compost bin for your yard. You can make lots of high-quality fertilizer for your garden for free.
  17. If you feel that your company is losing energy, then it may be because your processes are no longer efficient. Fixing this issue may seem daunting, but we have four ideas that you may find attractive. Check out some excellent ways to cut energy consumption. Invest in renewable energy Industrial production accounts for over 30 percent of the energy America uses. Expert predictions say this number will rise by 11 percent in the next quarter of a century. By changing power sources to incorporate wind farms, solar panels, or biomasses, these companies can reduce power usage over 20 percent. Upgrade old equipment Worn out machinery is inefficient. Old equipment tends to break down more often. Maintenance crews lose precious work hours when machinery moves from helpful to sucking energy. Pulleys, brakes, wiring, and hydraulic equipment wears over time. There is a tipping point when equipment is past its life cycle. It is at this point the machinery stops being profitable. With newer machines, a simple part change is effective. For example, buying new rotary shaft seals for various industries will keep the system running smoothly. There is no drag or hesitation in the equipment. When machines operate at an even keel, they use less energy. Get an energy audit to find more efficient wiring methods Energy audits discover places where businesses are losing energy. When electricity rates are high, the wiring or the machinery could be to blame. These inspections offer tips on ways to cut down lengthy stretches of wire. How to route tight areas, which wires are too small or large, and loose connections are a few things the inspector checks. Adding additional outlets or breakers can lower demand. Cut down on duplicate functions Sometimes, the simplest way to cut back on energy loss is by getting rid of doubles. For example, if you have two grinders, but people only use one, then shut the second one down until you need it. Automation is one of the most efficient ways to manage duplicates. With regular inspections and a keen eye for detail, your business can save money on energy costs. Keeping machinery in tip-top shape, getting rid of worn items, and using automation can reduce utility usage. By simplifying production, you save time on processing adding more benefits. When you constantly evaluate the need for multiple machines, you will find more ways to save costs and consumption.
  18. Although we wish that large corporations would implement more green alternatives into their day to day, the fact is that because of their size; it simply may be impossible. However, one particular area of the business community does hold that power. The small business community is able to implement these features quicker and more efficient due to their smaller status. Not only is going green a great way to protect the environment, but it can also save a good amount of money on your yearly budget. The following list entails four inexpensive ways your business can start being greener today. Allow People to Go Paperless One of the easiest and most cost-effective ways to update your company to go green is to offer your customers or clients the ability to receive everything electronic. Often when large deals are in play, clients and vendors tend to provide both electronic and paper copies of their orders. This, of course, can really accumulate very quickly. In fact, according to The Daily Green, over 25% of our nation's landfills consist of paper. One of the reasons more companies don't follow this is because they are told they should completely eliminate paper. This, of course, is an impossible thing to do within any business. However, by actively attempting to eliminate the use of paper as much as you can is a way better strategy than trying to run a business without it. Office Lighting Keeping an office lit up for eight-plus hours a day plus outdoor lights that may be on throughout the night can be both harmful to the environment and to your pockets. Therefore, our second tip to update your company to a greener alternative is to eliminate the traditional light bulb. You could either invest in longer-lasting light bulbs that, although cost more, will provide you with a longer-lasting energy source, or you can invest in motion lighting. Motion lighting will essentially turn off any lights within rooms not being used. This can really help you save on your electric bills as unnecessary lights will be automatically turned off. Window Sealing You might be thinking to yourself that your business is pretty well insulated. However, there are areas that are often overlooked and often the major cause of lost energy. The most common are poorly insulated windows. Older buildings tend to have this issue, but over time, even new buildings will experience it as well. The best way to protect your energy costs and reduce the amount you use is to seal your windows. These sealers are easy to use and find, or you can hire a professional such as a hermetic sealing solutions provider in order to get the job done well and right the first time. Start a Recycling Program Even when companies opt-in for greener alternatives such as energy-efficient light bulbs or going paperless, the fact is that you will still be throwing out the trash every day. Often this trash is compiled into a single can that goes into a single trash compactor at the end of the day. Therefore, a great and easy solution to implement into your company is to start adding recycling bins in your offices. Motivate your staff to throw their trash out accordingly so recyclable items can be processed and reused in your city's facility.
  19. The physical properties of metal powder are mainly reflected in the following aspects: 1.Theparticle size and composition The particle size and composition of the metal powder depends on the preparation conditions of the metal powder, and it has a great influence on the behavior of the metal powder during pressing and sintering as well as the properties of the product. Using particle diameters to characterize metal powder particle sizes is only accurate for ideal spherical metal powders, while metal shapes for other shapes can only be approximated. The metal powder used in the metal powder metallurgy porous material has a particle size mainly between several micrometers and 500 micrometers. 2.Shapes The shape of the metal powder particles is an important indicator of the properties of the metal powder, which has a great influence on the process performance of the metal powder. The strength, permeability, and uniformity of properties (isotropy) of the article are related to the shape of the metal powder particles. Both spherical metal powder and non-spherical metal powder can be used to produce a porous material, but it is desirable that the metal powder be spherical in order to improve the pore uniformity and permeability of the article. For the convenience of describing the spherical metal powder, we cite a characteristic coefficient such as the ratio of the major axis to the minor axis of the spherical metal powder, and consider the metal powder having a coefficient of less than 1.2 as a spherical metal powder. For complex shaped metal powders, this can be represented by deviation from the equivalent volume of spheres or by the length of the particles: the ratio of width to thickness. In the production of a highly permeable porous material, the sphericity of the metal powder (i.e., the percentage of the number of spherical metal powder particles to the total number of metal powders) is required to be 60% or more. 3.Metal powder specific surface Most reactions start on the surface of the particles, so the ratio of the surface area of the metal powder particles to their volume or weight - specific surface is one of the important parameters in the metal powder metallurgy process, which directly affects the pressing properties and sintering properties of the metal powder. For most metal powders, the specific surface value can range from 0.01 square meters per gram to tens of square meters per gram. The specific surface of the metal powder depends not only on the particle size and shape of the metal powder, but also on the surface state of the particles (or the degree of development of the surface). The finer the particle size of the metal powder, the more complicated the shape, and the rougher the surface, the larger the specific surface of the metal powder; on the contrary, the coarser the particle size of the metal powder, the more regular the shape (such as a sphere), the smoother the surface (no unevenness) of metal powder, the smaller the specific surface. The particle size, shape and surface state of the metal powder are determined by the conditions and methods for preparing the metal powder. 4.True density and microhardness of metal powder The density of the metal powder particles is usually smaller than the theoretical density of the raw materials from which it is produced because many of the metal powders produced by the method have considerable internal pores and a large number of lattice vacancies. The true density of the so-called metal powder refers to the density of the metal powder, including only the closed pores inside the particles. The true density of the metal powder varies with the method of milling, and the true density of the metal powder is also strongly dependent on the oxide content. The microhardness of metal powder particles is an indicator of the plasticity of metal powder. The microhardness value depends to a large extent on the content of various impurities and alloying elements in the matrix metal, and is related to the degree of lattice twist. When preparing a porous material, the metal powder has a certain hardness, which is beneficial for ensuring high permeability of the product. Therefore, for a plastically good metal (such as sodium titanium powder), in order to achieve a certain hardness value, it is often performed before pressing. 5.Lattice state of metal powder The metal powder particles are usually composed of crystal grains of various sizes, and the size and orientation of the crystal grains also depend on the manufacturing method of the metal powder. In many cases, there is a correlation between metal powder particle size and grain size. In the process of atomizing the metal powder, the droplets are cooled from the molten liquid phase, and the smaller particles are cooled rapidly, so that the crystal grains of the atomized metal powder fine particles are usually smaller than the coarse particles. In general, metal powders are produced under non-equilibrium conditions. Therefore, the metal powders obtained by various methods have crystal defects to varying degrees. For example, in the reduction of oxides, the crystal structure of the oxide is converted into a metal crystal structure, but in practice this transformation is incomplete; the atomized metal powder is crystallized from the liquid state quickly, and oxides are present, of course, there may be lattice defects.
  20. There are plenty of good reasons to look at reducing your energy consumption. You might want to save money, for example, or you might want to do your part to help the environment. No matter what your needs, you can take a look at the four systems below to make an impact on your energy efficiency. Water Heater Your water heater is probably one part of your home that you don't think of as inefficient, but technology has marched on to the point that many heaters that are fifteen or twenty years old are wildly out of date. Switching over to a tankless heater will not only save you quite a bit on your energy bills, but it will also allow you to get hot water faster. Switching over to a new unit can be a great way to save money over the long run. The AC Unit Your AC unit is another home system that can be incredibly inefficient. This time, it's not just technology that's at fault - if you have a system that's the wrong size for your home, your energy bills might go through the roof. It's a good idea to have an AC installation service come out to your home and take a look at your system to see if it could be replaced with something that's a bit more efficient. Your Washer and Dryer This is another area in which technology has changed for the better. Many modern washers are much more efficient than their older counterparts, washing more thoroughly while still using less water. Modern dryers, on the other hand, use less energy while still getting your clothing dry. Upgrading to a new washer and dryer can actually save you the money over the course of a few years while still allowing you to do something to help the environment. Lighting Finally, lighting is an upgradable area that is often overlooked. At a bare minimum, you can switch out old lights for energy-efficient lighting. If you really want to go all-out, though, you can switch over to smart lights. These lights automatically turn off when you're not in the room, adjust their brightness based on personal settings, and can even be set to timers so they're only on when they are really needed. If you want the most efficient lighting, smart lights are the way to go. Reducing your energy usage may really be as simple as replacing some common systems in your home. Look at the lighting, air conditioning, washing, and even your water heater as places where you can make a change. With a little effort, you can really dial down your energy consumption.
  21. Incidence of lung cancer Lung cancer has the highest incidence of cancer in the world. According to WHO’ statistics, there are an estimated 18.1 million new cancer patients worldwide in 2018, of which lung cancer accounts for about 2.094 million, accounting for 11.6%. Lung cancer treatment drugs are also the focus of research and development of major pharmaceutical enterprises. From earlier afatinib and gefitinib to now osimertinib and PD-1/L1 inhibitors, it can be found that although these drugs have been approved for lung cancer, but the specific types of lung cancer are different. Classification of lung cancer The classification of lung cancer is a very complicated problem. To define exactly what kind of lung cancer is, it needs to be combined with the three aspects of typing, staging and molecular information to understand. Cancer typing mainly describes what lung cancer cells look like. According to the morphological characteristics of lung cancer cells under microscope, lung cancer cells can be initially divided into two types: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The growth characteristics, diffusion risk and treatment regimen of these two types of lung cancer are different, so we should first distinguish between the two types of lung cancer. The vast majority of lung cancer is NSCLC, which accounts for about 85%. NSCLC can be further divided into three types: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is the main type, accounting for about 50% of NSCLC. Staging mainly describes the diffusion degree of lung cancer cells. After lung cancer is diagnosed, doctors use a series of tests to determine the staging of lung cancer by examining whether the cancer is only locally or has spread to lymph nodes or other organs of the body. NSCLC and SCLC are slightly different in the professional staging system, but for the convenience of communication, they can be summarized into 0, I, II, III or IV. I, II, III will sometimes be divided into A and B, such as IIA, IIIB and so on. Stage 0 and I have the best prognosis and the highest cure rate, while stage IV is commonly referred to as advanced cancer, indicating that the cancer has metastasized to other tissues or organs. Molecular information is genotyping. According to the type of gene mutation, lung cancer can be divided into EGFR mutation, ALK mutation and ROS1 mutation. Different types of gene mutations are suitable for different targeted drugs. Classification of drugs for lung cancer At present, targeted drugs are mainly aimed at the types of gene mutations in NSCLC. According to the staging of lung cancer, surgical treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other traditional methods are generally used in stage I, II and III. In addition, stage IV has different treatment methods according to the type of gene mutation. Targeted therapeutic drugs and immunotherapeutic drugs are the two mainstream therapeutic drugs for lung cancer, in which targeted therapeutic drugs are divided into small molecules and macromolecules. Small molecule targeted drugs are mainly used in the treatment of NSCLC, such as mutation of EGFR and ALK, while macromolecular targeted drugs mainly refer to VEGF/VEGFR monoclonal antibodies. Immunotherapy is a good choice for patients without obvious driving gene, mainly refers to PD-1/PD-L1. Genotyping and treatment of lung cancer EGFR-TKI: EGFR mutation is a type of gene mutation with high incidence in lung cancer. In view of this mutation, erlotinib, gefitinib and afatinib have been approved one after another. In the FLAURA trial, the median progression-free survival time of osimertinib was 18.9 months, which was much higher than that of gefitinib / erlotinib group (10.2 months). However, there is no solution to the treatment after first-line drug resistance of osimertinib. ALK-TKI: ALK-TKI is mainly used to treat NSCLC with ALK positive mutation. The first, second and third generations of ALK-TKI have been approved, which are crizotinib, ceritinib and alectinib, respectively. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend alectinib as the first line of treatment for NSCLC with ALK positive mutation. Among them, crizotinib and alectinib are used in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients with ALK positive mutation. Ceritinib is used in patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC who have previously progressed after treatment with crizotinib or who are intolerant to crizotinib. VEGF/VEGFR monoclonal antibodies: bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy, EGFR-TKI and PD-L1 immune checkpoint for the treatment of NSCLC has been approved by FDA. At the same time, bevacizumab combined with ALK-TKI is also in the clinical trial stage. PD-1/L1: PD-1/L1 is mainly aimed at lung cancer without obvious driving gene. FDA has approved multiple PD-1/L1 therapies for various indications of lung cancer.
  22. Having a home garden can be a great hobby. You can enjoy beautiful flowers and tasty vegetables throughout the year. If you’re considering trying to make your garden more green, here are four great eco-friendly tips that you can employ this year. Install a Rain Barrel One of the best ways to help be eco-friendly while saving yourself some green in the process is using rainwater to water your garden. By installing a simple rain barrel to collect the drainage from the gutters in your home, you can have freely accessible water to feed your garden. All you’ll need is a watering can and you’ll be set. If you don’t have access to rainwater from gutters, strategically place a few barrels around your yard to collect free falling rain. Use Compost Soil One of the best things you can do for your garden is to use compost soil. This natural soil is enriched with various nutrients that your average soil could be lacking. If you don’t know anybody that has a compost where you can get soil from, don’t be afraid to start your own. There are many guides on how to compost online that you can refer to in order to get started. We’re sure you’ll be super happy with your harvest when you use composted soil over regular soil. Install Bird Feeders This one may have you thinking a little bit, but let us explain. Birds are natural predators for grub worms, snails, and other insects that can be harmful to your plants. By installing bird feeders near your garden, these birds will act as a natural protector for your plants. This will help to reduce your need for insecticide. Choose Your Plant Pairings Wisely Just the process of picking out the right plants that complement each other can do wonders for reducing your need for natural growth simulators and insecticides. For example, marigolds are well-known for deterring unwanted soil-based and flying insects. They make a great pair for plant varieties that are commonly preyed by these types of insects. Hosta, also known as a plantain lily, is a nice tall plant that helps to offer shade to those plants which are shorter. Being a more eco-friendly gardener doesn’t have to be a difficult transition. By simply learning tactics like the ones above, you’ll be well on your way to making the transition. The more eco-friendly habits that you can get used to, the more helpful you’ll be to the environment around you.
  23. Making eco-conscious choices can be a barrier because they often require serious lifestyle modifications, and that makes it hard to stick with the environmentally friendly choice. Effortless choices are more likely to stick and become part of your lifestyle, routine and daily life. Try these four methods for making effortless environmentally friendly choices daily. Don't Believe Labels Buzzwords related to environmentally conscious choices are used in marketing and product design to get you to buy those organic-reusable bags, bleach-free paper products and countless other products you use on a daily basis. Labels are helpful for choosing eco-conscious products, but they don't always tell the full story. For example, organic cotton is often touted as a better choice over regular cotton, but that is hardly the case. What you aren't told is that organic cotton is one of the most environmentally damaging crops, and it's an especially finicky crop to grow and harvest. Processing organic cotton also uses just as much water as conventional cotton. It's not as eco-friendly as previously thought. Reduce Consumption Everyone gets hung up on recycling, but reducing consumption of new goods is often forgotten about. It's one of the easiest ways to make eco-conscious choices for sustainable living. Instead of buying a new reusable bag, search a thrift store for some or repurpose old t-shirts. Several little choices throughout the day or week can make the biggest impact. Choose Appliance Settings Carefully Appliances, including heating and cooling systems, drain energy on a regular basis. They're necessary to have, but they don't have to be a drain on the grid. Choose settings for your ducted air conditioning carefully in hotter months, and set heat temperatures wisely when it is colder. Take this a step further by doing some research on your home appliances to figure out what is most eco-conscious, and from there, it's effortless. Buy Only What You Need Buying only what is needed is critically important when it comes to food waste, but it also applies to everything else you buy. Bulk food is only a sustainable choice when that food will be consumed before it goes bad. Where it's permitted, taking your own containers to the grocery store can make this lifestyle change effortless. Looking at your choices through the lens of what is sustainable will make it easier for you to make better decisions about how you live. No one is perfect, but daily choices add up to benefit your local environment and beyond.
  24. In the 1970s, China witnessed a growth of its economy and its expansion only continued over the course of the next few decades, accelerating as the years went by. However, China’s massive economic growth has come with a hefty price in the form of vast environmental pollution that followed its rapid expansion. In this article, we are taking a look at the air pollution as the number one problem on the country’s national scale, all the different ideas and strategies that China is employing in order to tackle the problem, as well as the progress it has made in recent years. Declaring war on air pollution Six years have passed since China had faced the much dreaded ‘airpocalypse’ when smog scores exceeded the safety limits up to 35 times in the capital city of Beijing in 2013. After Beijing acknowledged that the situation had escalated to the point of threatening the safety of its citizens and realized that its air pollution problem can no longer be masked, the air pollution crisis it was caught up in was finally recognized by China’s government, who promised to take serious action. Reaching GDP targets wasn’t the only goal the government was trying to attain, as it started placing emphasis on the quality of the growth. The industries that added to the environmental pollution were now discouraged, and so did those that relied on the intensive use of resources. In addition, the factories and plants that didn’t manage to meet the newly-imposed standards were shut down, and the new policy applied to even the largest enterprises, and those who violated these obligations faced penalties. The idea and the strategy A couple of ideas and strategies were employed as a way of dealing with the alarming environmental crisis China found itself in. Li Keqiang, China’s Premier, promised a greener future for the citizens of China, declaring war to pollution the same way he declared war to poverty. As a result of his commitment, urban areas were asked to reduce the concentration of pollutants in the air by ten percent as an attempt to improve the national air quality, while metropolitan areas such as Beijing had an even higher target. The plants had to reduce emissions, while the coal-fueled power plants were prohibited from being constructed. Urban areas saw a drop in vehicle emissions, and coal boilers for residential heating were replaced with gas heating. A number of measures against pollution were introduced as a way of achieving cleaner air, water, and soil, and that’s when the problem of pollution in China finally started to look solvable, and the seemingly dismal look at the future was replaced with the ray of hope for the citizens of China. Waging war on environmental pollution While green policies continue to be applied throughout the country, there are many fronts where China has to wage its war for greener future. While the PM2.5 pollution was managed to be brought down significantly, the ozone gas rose, and the scientists warn about its detrimental effects on human health as well as agricultural yields. The reduction of coal-fueled power continues to be high on the country’s list of priorities, and while the consumption of coal has increased by 3%, China persists in its pursuit to make a switch to gas, nuclear, and renewable power. In its attempt to reduce environmental pollution, China has also made a decision to stop importing waste from other countries and has even made efforts to employ a harsher residential recycling regime. Clearing the air For decades, China has been putting its economic growth before the preservation of the environment. However, it seems that it has made a significant amount of progress since 1995. According to a study published in the Science Advances journal, the pollution that once went hand in hand with the economic growth of the country had begun to decline, which lead to the weakening of this relationship. A number of factors played a significant role in the research, some of them being environmental conditions, living standards in the country, health care, as well as regional differences. The forty-year-long study relied on multiple sources of existing data and showed that, while significant progress has been made, there’s still room for improvement when it comes to greenhouse gas emissions. In its efforts to save the planet and change its status as the biggest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, China has taken drastic measures to improve the national air quality. Its declaration of war on pollution has already started to pay off, while its response to the environmental crisis and implementation of eco-conscious ideas and strategies have opened up the possibility of China establishing itself as a leader in environmental protection and preservation.
  25. Chromatographic analysis is one of the active branches of analytical chemistry and an important means of material separation analysis. It is increasingly used in environmental, biochemical, and fine chemical product analysis. Application of chromatography related technologies is involved in almost all fields. From classical plate chromatography to column chromatography, from gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography to capillary electrophoresis and electrochromatography, it plays an important role in scientific research and industrial production. Originof chromatographic technology The ancient Romans used a piece of cloth or a piece of paper to analyze dyes and pigments. More than 100 years ago, German chemists improved the method to make it more reproducible and quantitative, which later became today's paper chromatography technology. In 1901, Russian botanists used calcium carbonate as an adsorbent to separate plant pigments. Then in 1903, a new method for separating plant pigments by adsorption principle was proposed. In 1906, this method was officially named as chromatography, but it was not taken seriously due to the slow and inefficient separation. Until 1931, German scientists used a similar method to separate more than 60 kinds of pigments such as carotene, and chromatographic methods were then widely used. Development and application of gas chromatography technology Since the first creation of practical gas-liquid chromatography in the world in 1952, gas chromatographs, as a representative of modern analytical instruments, have developed into an industry with considerable production scale and formed a discipline with considerable knowledge of detection technology. Gas chromatography is widely used in environmental samples for pollutant analysis, drug quality testing, natural product composition analysis, pesticide residue determination in food and industrial products, quality control and other fields due to its high separation efficiency, fast analysis speed and good selectivity. With the advent of new gas chromatography instruments, detectors, and data analysis methods, the application fields of gas chromatography will become more and more extensive. The combination of gas chromatography and other technologies has also developed very rapidly in recent years. It is mainly used in combination with mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, etc., combined with chemical reactions, and computer. Gas chromatography is an effective tool for separating complex mixtures, but it is not possible to qualitatively identify unknowns; mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetics are effective tools for identifying unknown structures, but require that the samples analyzed be as simple as possible, not complex mixtures. The combination of chromatography and these techniques is therefore a recognized and effective tool for dissecting the structure of unknowns in complex mixtures. In recent years, the development of the two technologies is directly combined, eliminating the need to collect condensation in the middle, so that the analysis time is shortened and the sample consumption is reduced. Organic mass spectrometers, magnetic mass spectrometry, quadrupole mass spectrometry, ion trap mass spectrometry, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (T0F), and Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) are currently available on the market to be combined with gas chromatography. With the continuous updating of interface technology, the interface devices are smaller and simpler, and the shape is lighter. The function of GC-MS is more powerful. The resolution of GC-TOFMS can reach about 50M. The combination of GC-MS plays an important role in many areas of analytical testing and scientific research, especially as a necessary tool in the routine testing of many organic compounds. It is widely used in environmental protection, health, food, agriculture, petroleum, chemical and other industries. Development and application of liquid chromatography At the beginning of liquid chromatography, a large diameter glass column is used to transport the mobile phase with a liquid level difference at room temperature and pressure, called classical liquid chromatography. Liquid chromatography is a type of separation and analysis technique characterized by a liquid as a mobile phase. The stationary phase can take many forms, such as paper, sheets, and packed beds. The mobile phase of classical liquid chromatography relies on gravity to flow slowly through the column, so the particle size of the stationary phase cannot be too small. The separated samples are collected after classification and analyzed, so that the classical liquid chromatography not only has low separation efficiency, slow analysis speed, but also complicated operation. It was not until the 1960s that a stationary phase with a particle size of less than 10 μm was developed, and a high-pressure infusion pump and an automatically recorded detector were used to overcome the shortcomings of classical liquid chromatography and to develop into liquid chromatography. Liquid chromatography (LC) is a widely used field in various chromatographic modes. About 80% of the compounds in the world are analyzed by different modes of HPLC (such as normal phase HPLC, reverse phase HPLC, ion exchange chromatography and ion chromatography, volume exclusion chromatography, affinity chromatography, etc.) , including high molecular compounds, ionic compounds, heat labile compounds and biologically active compounds. Liquid chromatography is developed from gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, and its structure and operation process are perfect. New research and development of liquid chromatography and its combined technologies have been widely used in chemical production, pharmaceutical industry, food industry, biochemical, medical clinical testing and environmental monitoring. Compared with the chromatography method, many other detection methods are ultimately not as stable, reliable and eliminated as liquid chromatography after long-term repeated verification, their feasibility, accuracy, precision and efficiency. It can be seen that liquid chromatography is not only of extraordinary significance to the present, but also has considerable development prospects in the near future. Development and application of supercritical fluid chromatography Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a chromatographic method in which a supercritical fluid is used as a mobile phase. Supercritical fluids are substances that are neither gases nor liquids. Their physical properties are between gas and liquid. Supercritical fluid chromatography is a new chromatographic technique developed in the 1980s. It has advantages not found in the gas phase and liquid phase, and it can separate and analyze some objects that cannot be solved by gas and liquid chromatography. The application is very extensive and the development is very rapid. According to industry estimates, about 25% of all separations have involved difficult-to-handle substances, and supercritical fluid chromatography can achieve satisfactory results. Supercritical fluids have physical properties that are extremely advantageous for separation, which are just between the gas and the liquid. The diffusion coefficient and viscosity of the supercritical fluid are close to that of gas chromatography, so the mass transfer resistance of the solute is small, and rapid separation can be obtained. On the other hand, its density is similar to that of liquid chromatography, which facilitates the separation and analysis of substances with high thermal instability relative to molecular mass at lower temperatures. In addition, the physical and chemical properties of supercritical fluids, such as diffusion, viscosity, and solvent forces, are functions of density. Therefore, as long as the density of the fluid is changed, the properties of the fluid can be changed, and it is not necessary to pass the gas-liquid equilibrium curve from a similar gas to a similar liquid. Supercritical fluid chromatography is widely used in environmental protection, medicine, food and agriculture. Development and application of capillary electrochromatography Capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is a new separation technique developed on the basis of capillary electrophoresis and microcolumn liquid chromatography. Due to technical limitations, until the 1990s, the research of capillary electrochromatography was rapidly developed. At present, capillary electrochromatography is the leader tool in drug analysis, focusing on the separation of drug-related impurities and the separation of chiral drugs. The analysis targets mainly neutral drugs and polycyclic aromatic compounds. With the continuous improvement and improvement of capillary electrochromatography technology, it will be applied in the analysis of biotechnology, environmental protection, agricultural chemistry, fine chemical products, food industry and other fields. According to the current development trend of capillary electrochromatography technology, CEC as a developing separation technology will have wider application prospects in the foreseeable future. Since the establishment of chromatography, whether it is the development and improvement of basic theory of chromatography, new separation mode, new stationary phase equipment, chromatography or capillary electrophoresis instruments, it has been rapidly developed in its practical application. In terms of column type, classical columns are currently commonly used. The capillary column is very suitable for trace analysis and has fast analysis speed and low sample consumption, which is one of the future development directions of the column type. It is foreseeable that future chromatographic technologies will be developed in conjunction with other technologies, to high precision, high sensitivity and miniaturization. About Creative Proteomics Established in 2004, Creative Proteomics has gradually developed into an integrated company that provides proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, and bioinformatics analysis services to researchers in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, agriculture and nutrition industries, as well as academic and government organizations. With a continuing focus on quality, we are proud of satisfying the needs of our clients both at home and abroad covering more than 50 countries and districts.
  26. Having solar panels installed at your home is a great first step towards being more energy-efficient. It can really help to cut down on your energy costs as well. Here are four of our best tips to help ensure you get the most out of your home solar panels things year. Keep Them Clean This can sound like a very simple feat. However, keeping up with regular maintenance can sometimes be tricky. When it comes to your solar panels, they need to remain clean to work effectively. When debris gets stuck on top of the solar panels, it can prevent them from in-taking the UV light. This will make your panels less effective at manufacturing solar energy. Cut Down Shading Branches For your solar panels to work at their optimal state, you need to have them in the direct sunlight. When your trees mature, the branches will grow further out, and they can create shading over the panels. You should take a look at your shrubbery every few weeks and trim any branches that are shading your panels. This will help to assure they stay effective throughout the day. Ensure They Stay Cool Your solar panels have semiconductors inside of them that transfer the UV rays into usable solar energy. As the semiconductors heat up, they become less efficient at their job. Therefore, it’s important to consider ways to keep your solar panels cool throughout the day. The most effective is to have at least a seven-inch cushion between your roof and the panels. This allows for proper circulation that cools down the panels throughout the daytime. Ensure Your Batteries Are Efficient You can do everything possible to make your solar panels as efficient as can be. However, you must consider where the energy is going. Your system doesn’t use all the solar energy as it’s created by your solar panels. Rather, your system stores unused energy in batteries. If your batteries are outdated or ineffective, it can really wreak havoc on the amount of solar energy that your system maintains for your use. You should be updating your batteries and ensuring they’re just as optimal as your system to get the most out of it. Installing solar panels is a great first step towards being greener. Getting your system to run effectively should be one of your top concerns. The more effective your system is, the less you’ll have to spend on energy costs each month.
  27. Learning to take care of the environment outside is something that should be passed down to your children. There’s no one right way to institute this knowledge. Each family will be a bit different in how they show their love for the environment. If you’re not sure where to start, here are four eco-friendly activities that you can do with the family. Composting There are many guides out there on how to make compost bins at home. You can make this project as small as a Rubbermaid container or as large as a trash container in your backyard. You and your family can decide on what size compost pile works best for you. Balanced compost piles should have browns, such as wood chips and dead leaves, greens, such as fruit and vegetable scraps and lawn clippings, and water. Aside from that, how you compost is completely up to you and your family. Your family will have fun building your compost area and taking care of it regularly. Opt for Reusable Items The convenience of throw-away items tends to get the attention of many families. However, by opting for reusable items that require a little bit of cleaning from time to time, you and your family can do your part to save the environment. The best part about this strategy is that it’s one that you can continue to employ well into the future. Make it a regular activity to find ways to replace throw-away items with reusable ones. Some popular examples are lunch bags, water bottles, and shopping bags. Replace Incandescent Bulbs One really cool way to visually show your children how little things can make a difference is changing out the incandescent bulbs in your home. When you replace these with CFL lights, they use significantly less energy. Allow your kids to read the labeling to see how much each CFL bulb is saving in energy costs compared to your old incandescent bulbs. Teach the Off When Not in Use Policy Conserving energy and reducing your family’s carbon footprint is as easy as just remembering to turn off items when you’re not using them. This is an important habit to teach your children to help them conserve energy in the future. Start with items like lights and televisions. When they get into the habit of turning those off whenever they’re not using them or when they leave the room, you can move on to bigger things. Next teach them to turn off and unplug appliances and other items once the most-used ones become a habit. Not only will this decrease your family’s carbon footprint, it will safe you on your power bill. Your kid might not appreciate that now, but if they get the habit down, they’ll appreciate it when they’re older and paying the bill. Teaching your children the importance of being eco-friendly is a priceless trait. While there are many ways to do so, you may find that some tactics work better for your family than others. The above are just four activities you can try out with your family.
  28. Chemokines are small protein families that play a central role in inflammation. During the inflammatory process, chemokines are locally produced at the site of noxious stimuli and act as central agents to recruit immune cells expressing their cognate receptors, 7 transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). CCL20, an alternatively named liver and activation-regulated chemokine, is a soluble chemokine expressed by epithelial cells. Epithelial keratinocytes and synovial-lining cells are known to produce large amounts of CCL20 during homeostatic as well as inflammatory and pathological conditions such as cancer, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The homologous receptor for CCL20 is CC chemokine receptor 6; CCL20 antibody is the only chemokine known to interact with CCR6. In response to CCL20 signaling, immune cells with CCR6, such as immature dendritic cells, effector/memory T-cells, and B cells, migrate and infiltrate surrounding tissues, thereby activating the inflammatory cascade. Because ccl20 cancer expression is significantly enhanced in inflammation induced by inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, CCL20-CCR6 interaction is thought to be pathologically inflammatory. The process plays a role. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. The first sign of RA is often synovitis, which appears as a swollen, painful joint. Although specific factors that initiate synovitis are not known, synovial lining epithelial cells and synovial fibroblasts are considered to be major inducers of the inflammatory response. Synovial fluid from RA patients is effective chemistries - attracting human monocytes and pro-inflammatory T helper 17 cells, which then induce and worsen the RA inflammatory process. Because reactive synoviocytes produce large amounts of CCL20, and CCR6 is the major receptor for Th17 cells, the CCL20-CCR6 interaction is thought to play during the inflammatory process. play a key role in. The CCL20-CCR6 interaction can also play an important role in certain types of dermatitis. Psoriasis, for example, a harmful psoriasis event that begins in the skin is followed by infiltration of Th17 cells. Because CCR6 is expressed on the surface of Thl7 cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and tissue damage effector T cells, CCL20 can represent the major chemoattractant of these cell types in psoriasis. Further evidence for the importance of the CCL20-CCR6 interaction can be found in the study of the psoriasis mouse model induced by interleukin 23. In this model, injection of IL-23 resulted in inflammation of interleukin 22 (IL-22)-dependent psoriasis. However, Ccre+ mice did not present psoriasis-like symptoms when injected with IL-23, indicating that CCR6 requires the development of psoriasis. Human keratinocytes produce large amounts of CCL20, particularly under the influence of the cytokine interleukin-17, IL-22 and TNF-α derived from Th17. While CCL20 and CCR6 are rarely detected in normal skin, both present increased expression levels in atopic dermatitis and pustular psoriasis. Strong induction of CCL20 and accumulation of CCR6+ cells can be observed in microscopic immunohistochemical analysis of human dermatitis lesions. These observations provide additional evidence for the role of CCL20 and CCR6 in the inflammatory process of dermatitis. MAb biologics currently available for the treatment of immune disorders can be roughly divided into three groups: immunostimulatory cytokine inhibitors, immune cell depletion, and A subsidiary molecular blocker. These biological products may be useful for treating inflammatory diseases; however, due to the gradual decrease in the rate of non-response or response to these treatments, for patients with new mechanisms of action to cater for, for example, CCL20/CCR6-mediated disorders There is an urgent need for alternative biological products for medical needs. The antibodies of the subject invention represent the alternative biological product.
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