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  2. Relapsing fever is transmitted via arthropod vectors. The human body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis) transmits Borrelia recurrentis, the causative organism of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF), while Ornithodoros ticks are vectors for the at least 15 different species of Borrelia that cause endemic or tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF). While humans are the only known host for the LBRF spirochete, the TBRF-causing Borrelia species (with the exception of B. duttonii) have their reservoirs in small rodents and have been found in several locations worldwide. In North America, three species of Borrelia cause TBRF, and several outbreaks of the disease have been described. In East Africa, B. duttonii is the principal cause of TBRF. Antibody responses against relapsing fever Borrelia species are primarily directed against outer surface lipoproteins. Two major protein groups have been identified, namely, variable small proteins (approximately 22 kDa) and variable large proteins (approximately 38 kDa). These proteins have been studied most thoroughly for B. hermsii and B. turicatae. It is probable that all of the relapsing fever Borrelia species share the same antigenic variation scheme as that described in detail for these two species. When spirochetes are present in blood, they must evade the immune defense systems. Before the acquired immune responses lead to the production of antibodies, the alternative pathway of complement operates as a major innate immune defense system against the invading organisms. In the presence of antibodies, complement acts as an effector system, mainly via the classical pathway (CP). Both pathways lead to coating of the target surface with C3b. Together with their cleavage products, such as iC3b, the C3b molecules opsonize the target for phagocytosis. Further activation can lead to the formation of lytic membrane attack complexes. To avoid overconsumption of the components of the complement cascade and to protect self-cells from harmful attacks, complement activation must be tightly regulated. This is mediated by regulatory proteins in plasma and on cell surfaces. The major fluid-phase regulators of complement are factor H (FH), for antibody-independent alternative pathway activation, and C4b-binding protein (C4BP), for antibody-dependent CP activation. These regulators accelerate decay of the C3 convertases (C3bBb and C4b2a, respectively) and act as cofactors for the irreversible inactivation of C3b and C4b, respectively. As a net effect, these functions prevent complement-mediated destruction of the target in both the absence and presence of antibodies. Acquisition of the host plasma complement regulator FH has been shown to be beneficial for complement evasion among other spirochetes, such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii, which express at least two FH binding proteins. Also, the relapsing fever agents B. hermsii and B. parkeriihave been shown to bind FH, while no binding has been observed for B. turicatae. B. hermsiiexpresses a unique 20kDa outer surface protein (FhbA) responsible for FH binding. The bacteria that cause human Lyme disease belong to a group of at least 15 species, referred to as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, or the Lyme disease agent bacterial group. Among these, B.burgdorferi sensu stricto causes Lyme disease in North America, while in Europe and eastern Asia Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. are the best-known causes. However, more recently, Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia spielmanii, and Borrelia valaisiana have been isolated from Lyme disease patients. Other species in this bacterial group, such as Borrelia japonica and Borrelia sincia in Asia, have not been associated with human disease. To date, genome sequences have been reported for 14 B. burgdorferi isolates, two B. afzelii isolates, two B. garinii isolates, one B. bavariensis sp. nov. isolate and 1 isolate of unassigned species. The complete genome sequences for three additional Borrelia species: B. valaisiana isolate VS116, B. bissettii isolate DN127 clone 9, and B. spielmanii isolate A14S. DNA samples from low-passage isolates were sequenced to minimize plasmid loss, and genomes are sequenced to about 8-fold coverage as previously described. Genome annotation is performed using the JCVI Prokaryotic Annotation Pipeline . The DN127 chromosome and 35 of 39 plasmid sequence contigs are closed, but in order to maximize the use of available funds, the sequences of a few replicons are not closed and some gaps remained in these sequences (two chromosomes and one cp9 and three cp32 plasmids, because they are much less variable than the other plasmids). These three genome sequences include 3,914,891 bp in total (1,258,865, 1,403,466, and 1,252,560 bp for strains VS116, DN127, and A14S, respectively), with an average of 1,304,497 bp/genome. Like the sequences of other Borrelia species, they include numerous linear plasmids (6, 7, and 7, respectively) and circular plasmids (2, 2, and 2, respectively). Plasmid numbers in these three strains range from 11 in VS116 and 12 in A14S to 16 in DN127. Plasmids that are very similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto cp26, cp32 (7 in DN127, versus 3 in the other two strains analyzed), and lp54 plasmids are present in each of these isolates, and DN127 also contains an unusual fusion of four partial cp32 plasmids. Plasmids with predicted lp17 compatibility are also present in all three genomes, making it the only other plasmid type, in addition to cp26 and lp54, to be found in all 23 B. burgdorferi sensu lato sequenced genomes. However, the gene contents of the lp17s are much more variable than the other universally present plasmids. The detailed analyses of these genome sequences will be a major step forward in attaining a complete understanding of B. burgdorferi sensu lato diversity. They will contribute to the development of species- and group-specific vaccines and diagnostic tools, as well as inform us whether these species are in genetic contact with the more-common Lyme disease-associated agents. Reference [1] Barbour A G, Hayes S F. Biology of Borrelia species. [J]. Microbiological Reviews, 1986, 50(4):381-400. [2] Van H C, Comberbach M, De G D, et al. Evaluation of the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of three recombinant outer surface protein (OspA) lyme vaccines in healthy adults [J]. Vaccine, 1996, 14(17–18):1620-1626. [3] Kraiczy P. Whole-genome sequences of Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia spielmanii. [J]. Journal of Bacteriology, 2012, 194(2):545-6. [4] Cutler S J, Moss J, Fukunaga M, et al. Borrelia recurrentis characterization and comparison with relapsing-fever, Lyme-associated, and other Borrelia spp.[J]. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1997, 47(4):958-68.
  3. Going eco-friendly seems to be the next big trend. Big companies, small businesses and individuals altogether have teamed up to reduce the impact that human life has on the planet. Sustainable homes have increased in popularity, not only because they leave a much smaller footprint on the environment, but because they are a far better investment in the long run. The list of benefits you get by living in a green house is long and constantly updated, but the most important ones still remain the same: Low maintenance costs The main purpose of eco-friendly homes is to be built from materials that are both less invasive for the environment, but also more durable, so that you don’t have to constantly fix or rebuild things and waste more resources. This way, even though some green materials cost more than traditional ones, you will end up saving more in the future. When you buy or build a new house, don’t think only about the initial investment, but also about the impact it will have on your wallet in the next 10 or 15 years. For example, building a house that has lots of big windows, which allow sunlight to pass through, will help you save tremendously on energy costs. At the same time, the materials used have a much smaller impact on your health. Conventional construction materials give off chemical emissions that, although small, can affect the air you breathe. This is why lots of people recur to humidifiers or other appliances to help get rid of the dry, unbreathable air. Eco-friendly materials are not only safer, but help with air circulation and ventilation. Energy efficiency Possibly one of the first reasons people decide to move into eco-friendly houses is that they are extremely energy efficient, which means you utility bills will be much lower. One of the prime sources for energy is coal. But coal is a non-renewable resource, not to mention that mining coal is extremely polluting for the environment. A sustainable home is designed is such way that it takes advantage of as many natural resources as possible. For example, when setting up the layout of the house, rooms that are the most used, such as kitchen or living room are placed on the side of the house that receives the most natural light throughout the day, to avoid having to use artificial light. Big windows are also a part of the design, for the same reason. On top of that, green building constructors also recommend installing solar panels, so you can make use of the energy from the sun as much as possible. It makes for a good long-term investment The popularity of green buildings is increasing tremendously, which means that, in 10 years, traditional homes are going to become less and less desirable. Investing in an eco-friendly home now means staying ahead of the market and laying the ground for profit in the future. Even owners of luxurious homes are looking to make adjustments so that their houses are more environmentally friendly. Those adjustments help increase house value and turn their properties into mines of gold. The reason that people are looking to spend more on a sustainable home precisely because they will get more out of it in the future. Eco-friendly houses are also easier to sell and retail for more than traditional ones. Better living conditions Less invasive materials and more use of natural resources are what make a sustainable house better to live in. When you take advantage of natural light all day long, you are more prone to be productive, feel relaxed and enjoy living in your house. The materials used have a lower emission of chemicals, lowering the risks for asthma or allergies that may occur due to mold. Thus, the air inside is more breathable and makes for a healthier indoor environment. Temperature regulation is also one of the key elements that constructors take into consideration when building eco-friendly homes. Eco-friendly materials are designed in such way that they help with insulation and temperature fluctuation much more than traditional ones. Smaller environmental footprint Last, but not least, you will help the planet. By using materials that are not damaging the environment, you will become an active part of the movement that is trying to make Earth a better place. Meeting your needs does not mean you have to endanger the world around you and it is entirely possible to live comfortably, while at the same time thinking about nature. All processes of traditional building are affecting the environment in one way or another. Be it because constructors are not disposing of materials in a conscious way, or because traditional energy systems are leaving a huge carbon footprint. Green buildings contribute to reducing the greenhouse effect and lay out a better world for future generations to live in.
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  5. There are many residential and commercial property owners who extol the virtues of either artificial turf with its complete landscape system or a real grass lawn, and they have good reasons for their strong opinions. However, which type of lawn is best for you? If you’ve got blank patches of yard yearning to breathe green, read on to learn which type of lawn best suits your needs and preferences. Artificial Turf Benefits Artificial turf is eco-friendly and has the feel and look of real grass. The ground and drainage are prepared, the material used keeps the artificial blades erect, and there is a special “yarn” that creates the “soft-grass” realistic blades that come in a variety of textures, lengths, designs, and colors. This means that you get a soft, always-green lawn without all the many hassles of real grass and all its upkeep, mowing, fertilizing, weeding, re-seeding, and most importantly, watering. Although expensive, the artificial turf life expectancy could possibly be 15 or 25 years or more, which actually makes it less costly than real grass over its life span. Artificial Turf Drawbacks It is often made at least partially with recycled materials, so it is not biodegradable. While it doesn’t have the same watering needs as a real lawn, it cannot be so easily disposed of as a grass lawn. Another drawback is that artificial turf absorbs heat in the direct sun and feels hot when you touch it. The temperature in 80-90 degree weather can actually exceed 160 degrees, making it hazardous in the heat of summer for children and pets. An additional problem for dog owners is that it does not absorb an animal's waste, although liquids can pass through to the ground underneath. Real Grass Lawn Benefits Real grass, in the right climate, can make more sense than artificial turf by its entirely organic nature. Grass is bio-degradable and produces oxygen just like any other plant, and when only organic fertilizers are used, it can even be a beneficial snack to help the digestion of cats and dogs alike. While it does retain heat, it does not do so to the degree of artificial turf and is generally safe to walk on as long as there are no hazardous weeds growing with it. Organically sustained grass can also increase the bio-diversity in your neighborhood by providing food and refuge to a variety of animals and insects. Real Grass Lawn Drawbacks Immaculately maintained grass lawns come with a cost to the environment and account for one-third of residential water use. Use of toxic fertilizers and weed killers can pollute the groundwater and pose a serious health risk to children and animals that are exposed to it. Mowing, trimming, and blowing with gas and electric power tools also consumes energy and produces air pollution that otherwise wouldn’t be necessary. While a natural lawn can potentially be environmentally sustainable, it’s important to note that it likely will not be soft and green for a majority of the year. The type of lawn you choose is a personal preference. Both have pros and cons regarding cost, care, and the environment that must be considered on an individual basis. The climate you live in, your home, and your ability to care for and use a lawn of either kind must be considered. You must decide which benefits and drawbacks make the most sense to you and your lifestyle.
  6. When heavy toxic metals build up in the air, water, and land, it’s more difficult for the contaminated site to support life. Environmental pollution is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. It’s a problem that affects both developing countries and not only. Even if developed countries have the necessary resources and technology to combat the introduction of harmful or poisonous substances into the environment, they prefer to encourage over-energy consumption, waste and inefficiency. Industrialisation, which has a great impact on economic growth, isn’t a good thing for the environment. Factories use chemicals and fuels that contribute to air and water pollution. And let’s not forget about the excessive use of fossil fuels. Companies need to understand once and for all that they have a responsibility toward the environment. Business activities should be bringing benefits instead of causing irreparable losses. Make sure you do your bit for the environment. Implement environmental pollution control measures in the nick of time. Promote air quality Air pollution is so dangerous that it damages crops and kills people. According to the World Health Organization, about 7 million people die each year due to exposure to fine particles in the polluted air. Any solid or liquid particle that gets into the air affects its quality. Manufacturing industries are mostly responsible for polluting the atmosphere. If you’re engaged in the industry by the manufacture of products, you contribute to air pollution. One way to promote air quality is to install a fume extraction system. In addition to protecting the environment, this system reduces noise levels and minimises running costs. It’s essential to create a fume extraction maintenance strategy. It’s necessary to install a new filter every now and then. Fortunately, there are companies that can take over this operation for you. Good ventilation is important. The design of the ventilation system will take into account air quality, energy efficiency, and environmental impact. Write an environmental pollution policy People are inclined to comply with the rules, so if you wish to reduce environmental pollution, write a policy that promotes environmental protection. You’ll support the preservation of the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the ecosystem, not to mention there are many advantages to be gained for your business. Highlight how you’ll manage the environmental effects of business operations. You may need to demonstrate to customers or your commitment to Mother Earth and having such a policy in place will turn out to be useful. An environmental policy is necessary because, more often than not, environmental pollution isn’t taken into consideration when it comes down to decision-making. As an entrepreneur, you must think about the consequences of your actions and keep in mind that the negative effects take place somewhere in the future. This means that they’re not visible right away. Choose the right format for your environmental policy and don’t forget the fact that it’s personal to your business. You can craft any kind of content, but all policies must feature the same themes. Dispose of non-combustible solid waste As the name clearly suggests, non-combustible waste doesn’t ignite or burn when subjected to fire. Examples of such waste materials include rubbish, pieces of glass, and ash. These hazardous substances should be transported in transparent bags so that the content can be easily identified. Non-combustible solid waste can be recycled, which is the reason why it should end up in specialised recycling centres and not in the landfills. You may be under the impression that your organisation doesn’t produce a high amount of garbage. Well, you’re wrong. Non-combustible waste is generated by handling and treatment. It’s recommended to have a waste management system in place. Determine how many by-products your company produces, reduce the amount of waste that goes to the landfills, and identify collectors of non-combustible solid waste. Useless or unwanted products derived from industrial activities should be discarded in an adequate manner. It’s important to adopt a responsible attitude at all stages of production and consumption. Support actions to reduce water pollution Excessive water usage is threatening not only the economy but also the environment. What could be worse? Polluting drinkable water, of course. Unsafe water kills a high number of people each year and, needless to say, water pollution is the result of human activity. What happens is that pollutants are dumped into creeks, rivers, and swamps, which represent the main sources of water and sanitation. The good news is that many businesses are taking strict measures in an attempt to minimise water pollution. What can you do? Well, don’t dispose of chemicals or cleaning solutions as you please. Set up hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposal before getting started. If you discharge anything, make sure you have authorisation to do so. The solids, liquids, and gaseous substances that you’re getting rid of can possibly affect the quality of the groundwater. Finally yet importantly, tour the facility and gather background information. find out everything you can and identify prevention strategies. Eliminate automobiles that use gasoline or diesel fuel It’s no secret that vehicles that run on gasoline or diesel pose a threat to the environment. They emit far too much nitrogen compounds and particulate matter. Cars of this type have become subject to negative publicity and it’s not hard to understand why. If you’re serious on minimising pollution, offer employees different company cars. There’s no reason to withdraw this incentive. All you have to do is to make a few adjustments. A better strategy, at least from an environmentalist standpoint, is to offer employees green cars. Better yet, offer incentives for hybrids and alternative cars. The employees can use the sum of money receive to purchase an eco-friendly automobile like a Tesla Model 3. You’re not going to change the world through this initiative, but you’ll get people to think about change, and that’s more important. Implement this program and reap the benefits. You’ll be able to recruit and maintain the best employees if you offer incentives to purchase hybrid and alternative cars.
  7. Going green has become a major focus for homeowners. Not only does going green decrease your carbon footprint, but it also saves you green (as in dollars). Below are four ways that today’s modern homeowner can help make their home more eco-friendly. Get an Energy Audit By now, nearly every energy provider offers a free home energy audit. If you haven’t had one yet, call your energy provider and they will send someone out to check your power use, AC service and advise you on how to go green and save energy. Go Native with Your Landscaping One of the latest trends in going green is native landscaping. This type of landscaping is tailored to the natural climate rather than the cookie-cutter style of landscaping reminiscent of the ‘50s. This helps homeowners go green by using little to no pesticides, cultivating the natural foliage, relying mostly on natural rainfall rather than consistently using a sprinkler, and allowing natural plants and flowers to thrive. Water is a precious resource, especially in drier climates, and natural landscaping is an excellent way to go green. Consider Solar Panels While solar panels may not be feasible for every homeowner (depending on the roof layout) it is one of the best ways to go green in your home. Yes, it is an investment. However, you’d be blown away at how much money you can save as well as how much energy. If you’re curious about solar panels, Google has created an ingenious way to check your roof for how many sunlight hours your home received per year called project sunroof. Enter your address and check it out! Get Smart (Home Tech) One of the biggest ways you can decrease your carbon footprint is by letting the latest technology do it for you. Sure, leaving the bathroom light on now and then may not seem like a big deal, but it does solidly increase the size of your home’s carbon footprint (not to mention your energy bill). Smart home tech is specifically designed to help you go green, including turning off lights, controlling the heat and AC, and turning off TVs and radios. Investing in this tech will help you go green and save some green on your energy bill. Going green as a homeowner isn’t just about saving money, it’s about doing your part to be a responsible homeowner and lowering your home’s personal carbon footprint. If every homeowner did their part to be more eco-friendly and have a greener home, imagine the difference that could be made in the overall environment!
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  9. These days, everyone worries about the environment and what we can do to lessen our environmental impact. It can be hard to be environmentally friendly all the time and do the right thing at every hour of the day, but there are a lot of things that we can do to have more of a positive impact on the environment. If we stop and think about where the things that we use each day come from, how they are made and how they are disposed of, we can see just how much our lives have an impact on the environment, and how important it is to be conscious of how our actions are affecting the world that we live in. Rent your clothing Keeping up with the latest fashion trends can be hard when you are trying to lessen your environmental impact. Buying items that are made of sustainable materials that can last for several years is a great way to combat the environmental issues that go with fast fashions, but it can be costly to buy these sorts of pieces. Renting your clothing instead of buying is another great way to have a positive impact on the environment through fashion, because it allows people to recycle clothing that others no longer want, by giving it them a new purpose. Clothing rental companies like The Volte are great for people that are looking to rent their clothing, because it allows customers to pick and choose from several designer items available, so you can be trendy and environmentally conscious. Start a compost heap If you want to do something about some of the scraps of fruit and vegetables that you are throwing away each day when you cook, you should start a compost heap in your garden. Starting a compost heap is easy, and it only requires a large bin or tub for you to put your waste into. You can put your clippings from the garden into the compost bin as well, so it too can be used again. The only things that you should not put in your compost bin are citrus and onion scraps because they do not break down easily like other natural foods, so try to leave them out of your compost bin. Having a compost heap is great for people that garden because you can use the broken down scraps and liquids to feed your plants, rather than letting them go into the garbage and ending up in landfill. Think about your transport If you are worried about your carbon footprint and want to make some changes to be more environmentally friendly, you might need to look at your current mode of transport. If you own a car that you drive by yourself regularly, you might want to consider walking or riding a bike instead, by you will not be creating any unnecessary emissions on your journey from A to B. Walking or cycling to work is also great for people who are looking to get fit, because you can fit some exercise into your day without changing your schedule too much. If you live far away from the place that you need to get to, you should consider using public transport instead of driving a car, because buses and trains are more environmentally friendly per person, compared to a car. Shop locally If you are concerned about how the things you buy each day are affecting the environment, you should start buying from local vendors to lower your impact. Shopping locally is not only great for the local economy, but it is great for the environment, too. Items that are bought locally do not need to be transported to get to the shop that you are buying them from, so the carbon emission created by locally sourced items would be much lower. Also, if you are buying local produce, you may find that it tastes better than foreign produce because it is fresher and has fewer chemicals added to it to keep it fresh. This means that you will reap the rewards yourself if you buy locally sourced food. Being environmentally friendly these days is not as hard as it used to be, now that we know how some of our actions can have a serious effect. Making a few changes here and there to your everyday life can significantly decrease your environmental impact, and a lot of the things you can do not require a lot of effort to make a difference. Starting with some small changes like turning the tap off when you brush your teeth is a great place to start because they are things that you can do easily. Then, you can move onto the bigger ones like walking to work instead of driving, which can have a big impact if a few people get on board. If all of us did this, we would see some big changes to the environment in no time at all.
  10. Water is a scarce resource in many places around the country. A few cities in drought-stricken areas have implemented watering rations. They give fines to homeowners who violate these regulations, and this has caused many of these homeowners to search for alternative materials for landscaping, ones that help conserve water. You’ll find four of those materials below. Rocks and Gravel Rocks come in many sizes and types; you can even buy multi-ton boulders. Nothing drinks less water than a rock, so that’s a plus for the environment, and landscaping stores have truckloads of them in all different sizes, colors, and shapes. Gravel may not sound like the most beautiful landscaping material, but it works great. You can buy it in different colors and sizes, and maintaining it won’t cost you any water at all. Drought Resistant Plants When water’s tight, there’s no better choice of a plant than one that has low water needs. Many of these hearty plants can go weeks without water yet still retain their beauty. When introducing drought-resistant plants to your area, make sure they’re not invasive, or they might cause you some headaches. Also, after planting them, contact someone local that offers residential mulch services to mulch and maintain the mulch around the plants. Artificial Turf Artificial turf has come a long way and is no longer the surface of years ago. Today’s various artificial lawns are much softer than those in the past. They are also more heat-resistant today. There has been some controversy surrounding some of the chemicals that make up certain artificial turfs and their risk to human health. The way to avoid this risk is to purchase non-toxic turf. Concrete Pavement and Pavers Putting down concrete pavement will cost you some water upfront, but after that, it’s water-free forever. If you have a piece of lawn that’s drinking too much H2O, you might consider throwing a small slab down and turning it into a patio or sitting area. Concrete pavers don’t need any water at all and come in an array of different sizes, shapes, and colors. They make an excellent replacement for the areas of your yard that are too water-intensive and are easy to install. The materials listed above may not be the first landscaping choices of many. However, they are a great option if you are wanting and needing to conserve water. Remember, water conservation can lead to a beautiful landscape and a healthier environment.
  11. There is no doubt in accepting the fact that solar energy yields a lot of advantages, and this is the prime reason why people in today’s age are opting for this option for saving the environment. Solar energy Long Island has received huge popularity for several reasons. However, protecting the environment is not the only factor. There are many other benefits associated with the use of solar energy such as cost-benefit, low maintenance, energy independence etc. whether you are interested about protecting the environment from global warming or you are more attracted towards the low-cost factor, going green is remarkably a smart idea. Here, in this article, you will come to know about a number of reasons why using solar energy panels is the most beneficial option. Knowing these reasons will let you understand why it is the most viable and attractive alternative fossil fuel energy. So, now, let’s have a look at those reasons below so you can take an informed and wise decision. Why is solar energy Long Island the most demanding option? 1. Protect the environment The most important and prominent factor is the environmental benefit. The overuse or overexploitation of the non-renewable resources leadsto some burning problems such as extreme level of pollution, higher costs, paucity, and so on. We, people, should not depend on fossil fuel for creating energy because the resources will gradually disappear over the years. Above all, depending on fossil fuel continuously will lead to even more pollution, and this will eventually affect people’s health and the climate. Therefore, opting for a safe, clean, healthy and renewable source of energy is imperative. 2. Solar energy is renewable One of the most important advantages is that it is a renewable form of energy which we can use for billions of years. The sun will shine forever, and thus, using its power will never diminish, unlike those fossil fuel energy sources. When fossil fuel energy will not be available on the earth anymore, the Sun will still be there and provide enough power to the world. 3. Solar energy is clean Unlike fossil fuel energy, solar energy is clean and harmless. There is no unpleasant smell, no gas emission, no smoke – it is completely clean. Considering the harmful green-house effect and climate changes, finding a clean source of energy like solar energy is the best way to protect the environment and reduce the negative effects that fossil fuel releases in the environment. Using solar energy is like protecting ourselves and our generation to come. Living in a safe and healthy environment is everyone’s right, and it is our responsibility to protect it from harmful gaseous effect. 4. Low-cost factor Solar energy is associated with the low-cost factor, and it is environment-friendly. As its main source of energy is the Sun, once you install a solar panel, you can use free energy as long as you want. It is for everybody, and you don’t need to spend a penny on availing this. You can relish its benefits. While for using fossil fuels, you need to pay a certain amount as it is brought from different sources and suppliers, and thus, it is not free like solar energy. Therefore, these are the above-mentioned reasons why solar energy Long Island has received so much acceptance from the people. It is the best means of energy which you can use for a long time without bearing any harmful effect.
  12. Energy consumption without a doubt is a hot topic in this day and age. It’s been a big topic for quite some time now, too, and with good reason. People are becoming more and more thoughtful with regard to their approaches to energy use. If you want to minimize your consumption of energy in a big way, there are all sorts of intelligent things that you can try right now. Unplug, Unplug, Unplug Unplugging may seem like a simple thing. It can actually be a game-changing strategy for people who are passionate about decreasing their energy consumption substantially, however. If you want to do the planet a massive favor, you should take the time to unplug your household appliances any time you do not require them. Doing so only takes a couple of seconds or so. Learn All About Electric Water Heating Electric water heating is often the answer for people who want to lower energy consumption dramatically. You can work with a capable electrician who can point you into the right direction regarding electric water heater selection. Try to find out about electric water heaters that are known for superior energy efficiency. Your electrician should be able to provide you with fantastic recommendations. Take Advantage of the Gift of Daylight Lighting should be one of your focal points. If you want to take charge of your use of energy, you should contemplate your lighting strategy at home in great detail. It can be a wonderful idea to buy lighting products that are associated with energy efficiency. It can be just as wonderful an idea to prioritize daylight. Skylights and windows make taking advantage of daylight a possibility. They’re both highly energy-efficient as well. Invest in Residential Insulation Residential insulation can go an incredibly long way for all households that are keen on the concept of lowering energy consumption significantly. If you insulate your living space well, then you can stop the frustrating loss of heat from taking place. Basement, attic and wall insulation can all do a lot to lower wintertime electricity use dramatically. Don’t forget that insulation can even aid you in times of higher temperatures. People these days have more concerns about the world than ever before. If you’re in that camp, then you don’t have to feel helpless in any sense. If you want to aid the planet, you can do your part by minimizing your energy consumption.
  13. More people are becoming more environmentally friendly. More of us are realizing how important it is to use various measures for a cleaner, healthier air for our families. And while many eco-friendly measures have been adopted in our homes, we can also implement these practices in our businesses. Sustainability is often ignored in businesses, and as a result, there are more toxins released in the air which can cause different health ailments, ranging from allergies to even cancer. Because of this, it is vital to implement the sustainability of resources in your business, and the following includes four ways to implement sustainable usage of resources in your business: Change Your Light Bulbs Changing to LED lighting is great. These lightings utilize much lower energy than regular light bulbs. Also, these bulbs don’t have toxic gases, like mercury, that are contained by fluorescent and incandescent lights. And even though they are more expensive than other bulbs, they last five times longer than other bulbs as well. Stop Using Plastic Bottles There are millions of plastic waste bottle generated in the US every year even though some of these bottles were recycled. To reduce this ecosystem burden, installing a water filtration system is a good idea for your office. The water will be clean and fresh, and you will save money and time by eliminating the package water buying routine. Use Green Vendors From septic tanks to recycled paper for your printer, you can do business with reputable companies. Perform your due diligence in researching which companies are serious about their sustainability efforts. Doing this is key to finding the right vendors. Search for businesses that use energy-efficient manufacturing plants and vehicles. Conserving Human Energy An energetic, healthy staff is more productive and creative. To help keep your team healthy, you can serve healthy snacks at meetings, such as nuts, dark chocolate, and organic fruits and vegetables. You should also maintain a safe, non-toxic environment. There are more toxins released in the air which can cause different health issues. In some cases, health issues can be dangerous. Nevertheless, we all can join the movement to sustain a healthier environment even at our companies. Using these sustainable ways will help businesses significantly in this movement. Not only are more homes participating, but businesses are doing their part as well to make a difference.
  14. You already know the importance of recycling paper, aluminum cans, plastic bottles and other common household items. However, you might not be aware of the many other materials that might be around your home that can be recycled. Here are four surprising household items that you can recycle. Plant Pots If you’re tempted to discard old plant pots that you no longer need in the trash, you should think again. Most plant pots are made from plastic and other recyclable materials that can be used to make new pots or other items. Many municipal curbside recycling programs allow plant pots to be included in recycle bins for pickup. Another option is to take old pots to a hardware store that accepts them for recycling. Mattresses The mattresses that you use on the beds in your home can also be recycled when you’re ready to replace them. Some mattresses contain chemicals that are potentially harmful to the environment, so giving them to a recycler that accepts old mattresses will be a good idea. The springs in mattresses along with old bed frames can be recycled as well. Refrigerators Even though it may initially seem easier to have an old refrigerator hauled away to the dump, you should be aware of the chemicals that are found in refrigerators that can negatively impact delicate ecosystems if they’re released into the environment. Many of the metals that refrigerators contain can be given to scrap metal services for recycling. Other components of a refrigerator can be recycled at a recycling center. You’ll want to make sure that any recycler you’re thinking of giving your old refrigerator to removes Freon. If they don’t remove Freon, you’ll need to have a professional remove it first before your refrigerator can be recycled. Crayons Coloring crayons that children often use can be recycled by either giving them away to other children who are in need or using old bits to make new crayons. In certain recycling facilities, old crayon bits are divided into smaller pieces and placed in an oven with high heat. The heat from the oven melts the wax into a liquid substance, which is then poured into molds to make new crayons. There are many ways to do your part for the planet by recycling. Making yourself aware of all the items and other materials around your home that are recyclable can help you adopt better green living habits.
  15. 4 Eco-Friendly Garden Projects

    What better way to bring out your creativity and care for the environment at the same time than by creating a backyard garden? The use of recycled items to embellish the backyard garden space helps to add some touch to the project. It also assists in highlighting your fun personality as you seek out new ways of using readily available materials to garden. As you continue looking for new ideas and new methods to spruce up your garden project, consider the projects listed below: Bring Out Your Old Boots and Fill Them with Flowers The old rain boots that you outgrew or a member of your family outgrew in the past year should not have to end up in a landfill or in your trash bag. Take a few pairs of old boots and use some scissors to make drain holes in their soles. Proceed to fill the boots using potting soil. You can then use these boots to plant your preferred seasonal blooms. The boots will look adorable when you line them up along the length of your entryway. Alternatively, you can also place them in your vegetable garden to help you add a touch of color. Use Artificial Grass to Create a Walking Path Gardening is a fun activity, but it can easily turn messy, especially when wet soil gets into your pristine looking shoes. Using recycled artificial grass will help you maintain that lush green look in the garden while getting rid of the mess that comes with gardening. Use the grass to come up with walkways between the sections present in your garden. Taking into account that this grass will never require watering, it means that you can now focus your attention to tending to your plants. Lawn maintenance should not interfere with your gardening activities. The good thing about the artificial grass is that you can place it with ease on your preferred location. Create a Raised Bed Garden Using Old Tractor Tires The good thing with home gardens is that you are at liberty to innovate as much as you would like. And as it is, old tires tend to easily clutter landfills as they take ages before they can start biodegrading. So why not keep the tires from the landfill by giving them an all-new purpose? By collecting a few old tires, you can easily create a raised bed garden while at the same time getting to extend the purpose of these rubber items. You can choose to stack up these tires to help you add interest. Or you can also paint them using whimsical colors as a way of brightening the space available in your backyard. Use Old Silverware as Your Plant Markers Old silverware can easily be put into use by decoupage to help transform them into suitable plant markers. All you need to do is to print a photo of each plant type present in your garden. Proceed to use the decoupage media to affix the printed photo to the back of your silverware. You could also label the silverware making sure to give each spoon a name of the plant you are growing. While at it, make sure that you have a place to store all your garden tools and supplies. An EasyShed for instance, helps you to store gardening essentials away from the elements. It also ensures that your tools are within easy reach whenever you need to tend to your plants. Turning the items in your trash bin into great gardening treasures is not complicated when you choose to adopt a new outlook to life. You do not have to look farther than your home for you to create the ideal backyard garden.
  16. The Impacts of Littering

    Nobody likes a litterbug. However, studies show that out of everyone across the country, people from Queensland and New South Wales are responsible for disposing of the most waste improperly. Because of this, the achievements of others around the country who are trying to dispose of their waste properly has been overshadowed. However, if we can teach people just how much their littering impacts the rest of the world, we may see some improvements sooner than we think. It can kill animals We’ve all seen the advertisements and posters about how disposing of our rubbish in the wrong places can kill animals. However, most of us don’t realise that even getting rid of something small like a gum wrapper or a bottle cap can have a big impact later on. And even though it can be hard to clean up on land, it can be even harder to keep the oceans clean, and plastic rubbish is the main form of litter floating in our oceans. It is estimated that about 88% of the ocean’s surface across the world is covered in plastic debris, with about 8 million metric tons of plastic being thrown into the ocean annually. These numbers will continue to grow if we don’t do something about it and the animals that live in the ocean will feel this impact the most because many animals will either ingest this rubbish by accident or get caught in it because it has no idea what it is. This also means that humans that consume marine animals that have plastic inside them will be impacted because the plastic can not be fully digested by any living creature. It pollutes the soil, water and air When you litter, some of the toxins in the products that you are throwing away can actually leach out into the ground and pollute the soil around it. Because soil is absorbent and it can take on a bit of any substance that you add to it, when you add things like plastic or rubbish that contain chemicals to it, the soil will absorb some of the toxins in the litter. Now you may be thinking that there is no way that this can affect you, but you have to remember that most of the things that you eat are grown and raised in soil. So this is another way that littering can directly impact your diet in a negative way. These toxins from plastics and litter that absorbs into the soil can also seep into the water from the ground so that even the water that we drink can be impacted. It costs the economy Littering is not just about the environmental impacts, there are terrible social impacts that littering has as well. For example, it has been noted that areas, where littering is more common, are places where people are most likely to litter, because they may subconsciously follow what other people are doing or have done before. It can also impact other attitudes in the area towards things like crime and graffiti because the atmosphere in these areas is different from those that are cleaner and well looked after. Because littering is such a big problem in city and suburban areas, local, state and federal governments have had to start allocating funds to combat the problem by paying for more people and organisations to clean up litter on the streets. If more people reduced their amount of waste they produce, reused items that can be reused and recycled things that can be made into something new, there would be a lot less rubbish on our streets that has to be disposed of. There are a number of ways that littering can impact our everyday lives. Littering can affect the water you drink, the food that you eat and the streets that you live on and it is something that can be easily fixed if all of us work together to do the right thing. If you are interested in limiting the litter in your area and making a positive change to help the environment, you should join a group in your local area that is focused on conservation and limiting the waste in your area. Littering is not a problem that can be solved quickly and easily, but every little bit counts, so doing what you can when you can, will make a big impact. Author Bio: Susie is a content manager at 1300 Rubbish, a rubbish removal company that can help you to dispose of any residential, commercial, construction or green waste that you want to get rid of in a responsible way. 1300 Rubbish is based in Australia and offers rubbish removal services to people across the country in all of the major towns and cities.
  17. Perhaps the most important factor in choosing the insulation for your new home is its ability to reduce energy costs. In the winter, insulation should keep warm air in, and in the summer, it should keep hot air out. Choosing the right insulation can reduce your energy bill by as much as 30 percent. For decades, most homes were constructed using fiberglass insulation; however, fiberglass can cause many health issues. Whether you’re building a new home or remodeling, consider an eco-friendly insulation alternative to make your home both comfortable and safe. Consider removing your ceiling insulation and replacing it with one of the following upgraded, eco-friendly options. Recycled Cotton Since cotton is both natural and a renewable resource, it’s among the most eco-friendly insulation options. Scraps from old blue jeans and other used clothing are shredded and produced into heavy batts that fit between your wall studs just like fiberglass insulation. To make cotton insulation non-flammable, it’s treated with a borate solution. Cotton does not contain harmful formaldehyde and does not cause respiratory problems. Likewise, cotton insulation is a natural insect repellent. Cork This option is made from the outer bark of cork trees. It’s free of toxins, renewable, biodegradable, and recyclable. It also helps to deaden noise. Cork is among the most versatile materials, and can be used for a wide variety of products. Although cork has been used for more than a century as a building material, it’s eco-friendly value has only recently become widely known. Cellulose Cellulose insulation is made from recycled paper; it’s toxin-free and safe to install. Modern cellulose insulation is often made from recycled newspaper with an added fire retardant, made from a combination of ammonium sulfate and borate. The insulating performance of loose cellulose insulation compares well to other types of affordable insulation. Sheep’s Wool Sheep’s wool is a natural fire retardant, and in recent years, the insulating qualities of sheep’s wool have been applied to home construction. The wool fiber’s outer layers are water-resistant while the inner layers absorb moisture. This insulates your home while preventing condensation within the walls. When you insulate with sheep’s wool, you will save both energy and money in the long run. There is no right or wrong choice when it comes to green options for insulating your home. Just do your own research, weighing the pros and cons of each type of insulation to find the one that works best for your home.
  18. Jute bags and their promotional aspect

    Jute is a super fiber that has been around since ancient times. It is a natural fiber that is derived from a mix of different vegetable fibers. The main plant is generally the jute plant. It has a rustic yellowish brown look to it. Jute hessian bags changes its strong personality to somewhat beautiful as these bags are great to look at as well. Companies often make promotional jute bags due to the strength and durability of this material. This signifies the feeling of generosity and care towards customers. In the current time when people are stressed over ecological issues, jute can be a promising answer as it is totally natural and is easily biodegraded. Mentioned below are some types of jute bags used for promotional purposes by a lot of businesses and especially retail and wholesale stores: 1) Jute vine Bags A lot of small businesses specially retail and wholesale firms have been using these for promotional purposes for a long time now as they order custom vine bags with their logo and contacts mentioned there. These accessories have a very positive impact on customers as it makes them feel special and they will always remember your business whenever they buy vine due to the bag. This increases the number of returning customers. 2) Carry bags Jute is an eco-friendly material and with governments around the world restricting the use of plastic bags, this is a great way to earn some loyal customers by providing them jute carry bags for their daily shopping. Stores have been doing this for a long time and it allows them to please both customers and the government with one blow. These bags can have your stores name and details printed on it which will act as a source of advertising whenever that bag is out in public. 3) Jute handbags There are a lot of designer jute handbags which can be gifted to loyal customers. Make sure you don’t overdo the advertisement on the bag as handbags can be used daily. It is human nature to talk about their belonging hence by giving customers beautiful handbags you are advertising yourself at a large scale as whenever someone asks them about the bag, the name of your business will surely pop-up and you will have a high chance of gathering potential new customers. Customizations available for jute bags When you decide to do promotional giveaways of jute bags there are certain things that the agency will offer you, they are as follows- 1) High quality image printing As a business you can print the services you offer on these bags along with your name and images of your products. All this is done in high quality and acts as a source of advertisement. 2) Print your logo Printing your log on the promotional bag is optional but somewhat important as you can make your presence felt without disturbing the overall looks. This is a great way for maintaining goodwill among costumers. 3) Customize the color scheme You can customize the color scheme of the bag and can make it more matching to the color scheme of your logo or you can do this to simply improve the looks of the bags.
  19. Antibody drugs are one of the fastest growing biopharmaceuticals, which bring huge benefits to the innovative drug market, with anti-tumor antibody drugs predominating. Since rituximab, the first antibody drug for cancer treatment, was approved by the US FDA in 1979, 17 antibody drugs have been approved for cancer treatment, but the gemtuzumab has withdrawn from the market. According to statistics from 2013, there are about 350 antibody drugs currently in clinical research, most of which are in the early evaluation stage. Therapeutic antibodies in Phase III clinical studies include 28 monoclonal antibodies and a mixture of monoclonal antibodies mainly used for cancer, inflammation or immune diseases, Alzheimer's disease and infectious diseases, 10 of which are cancer therapeutic antibodies.There are also many antibody drugs in preclinical studies, and their research trends are mainly focused on the following aspects, including: the discovery and confirmation of new antibody targets, new strategies to reduce antibody immunogenicity, conjugates of antibodies and drugs, and research on bispecific antibodies as well as other novel antibody drugs. 1.Discover new antibody target molecules At present, the target molecules of antibody drugs are mainly divided into three categories: 1. Clinically validated target molecules, the efficacy of which has been confirmed, for example: CD20, HER2, EpCAM and CTLA-4; 2. Experimentally verified target molecules, the efficacy of this type of target molecule has been confirmed in cells and animals, such as IGF-1R, CD19, CD80, CXCR4 and ICAM-1; 3. New functional target molecules, newly discovered target molecules with certain efficacy, such as RAAG12, CD151, TSN-1, etc. To date, only a few target molecules for anti-tumor antibody drugs have been approved for marketing, and currently only nine. Many tumor-associated biomarker molecules have been reported, and thus so many target molecules for antibody therapy can be excavated. Even if the same target molecule has been developed, different molecular epitopes exist, and antibody drugs against different epitopes can be developed. For example, 5. Anti-CD20 antibody drugs have been marketed, and the 5 are now in clinical research. In addition, many tumor cell transmembrane receptors and extracellular matrix-related genes can be spliced by differential splicing, which can generate new editing sequences and form new differential receptors and substrates as new antibody target molecules. The differentially spliced gene variants have been reported to be: FGFR variants, EGFR variants, EpCAM variants, L1CAM variants, Claudin18 and CD44 variants, and splicing of versican VN, fibronectin F and prion protein T Variants, etc. In recent years, many tumor-associated antibody target molecules have been studied, including EpCAM, PSMA and folate-binding proteins, as well as gangliosides, αVβ3, TRAILR2, FAP and toughlin. Recently, glypican proteoglycan has also been reported as a new target molecule for the treatment of liver cancer antibodies. Reduce antibody immunogenicity Many antibody drugs are murine antibodies, which produce human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) responses in clinical treatment. Therefore, for long-term treatment, an antibody drug that requires repeated administration is likely to produce a HAMA reaction, which requires humanization to reduce its immunogenicity. Humanized antibodies include chimeric antibodies, modified antibodies, and the like, which have biological properties such as reduced HAMA response and prolonged half-life in blood. In contrast to murine antibodies, the functional effector portion of the humanized antibody drug can be engineered as needed, and the humanized constant region of the antibody prevents the production of anti-isotype antibodies during treatment. The modified antibody further reduces the proportion of the murine fraction in the antibody compared to the chimeric antibody, and significantly reduces the HAMA response. In addition, the study of fully human antibodies has also received great attention and is one of the important development directions of antibody drug research. Fully human antibodies can be obtained by phage display technology, antibody library screening technology and transgenic animal technology. The anti-tumor antibody drugs produced by this technology have obvious inhibitory effects on cancer growth. The immunogenicity of antibody drugs is one of its major toxic side effects, but there is no reliable prediction method for the frequency and timing of immunogenicity and antibody aggregation. If these problems are solved, new antibody detection techniques need to be developed. The results of studying the immunogenicity of human-derived antibodies, humanized antibodies and murine antibodies in humans indicate that: 1. More than 20% of mouse-derived antibodies induce tolerable immunogenicity, or negligible. These mouse antibodies do not need to be humanized; 2. Humanized antibodies can reduce immunogenicity, but their clinical therapeutic effects are also significantly reduced; 3. The immunogenicity of antibodies from different sources is not completely consistent with the law. A small number of humanized antibodies and fully human antibodies also produce significant immune responses; 4. Not only do we need to evaluate the utility of fully human and humanized antibodies item by item, but we also need to consider cost-effectiveness, while considering biochemical characteristics and targeted treatment indications. To date, there is no good way to completely eliminate the risk of antibodies binding to host cells. But classical research suggests that monomeric immunoglobulins are inherently tolerable if we are able to create methods to prevent antibody aggregation or immune complex formation. To be continued in Section Two…
  20. Antibody Engineering comprises in vitro selection and modification of human antibodies, including humanization of mouse antibodies for therapy, diagnosis, and research. It holds the potential for creating antibodies with multiple specificities, greater affinity for their targets, and fewer side effects. In this article, the development history and types of antibody engineering drugs are talked. Antibodies as therapeutic agents An antibody is an immunoglobulin molecule with a specific amino acid sequence induced by an antigen, synthesized and secreted by lymphocytes (plasma cells). An antibody can bind to an antigen such as a bacterium, a virus or a toxin, and neutralize and remove the harmful substance by the following three or one of the following methods: a. directly inactivates the antigen; b. the immune effector cells phagocytose and destroy it; c. it is weakened by the surface of the antigen and thus be easily damaged by complement. The study of antibodies as therapeutic agents has been going on for a century. The lateral chain theory proposed by Ehrlich laid the foundation for immunology and immunotherapy. He believes that the surface of the cell has specific receptor molecules (or side chains) that bind only to specific groups in the toxin molecule; if the cells survive with the toxin, they will produce excess side chains. Some of the side chains are released into the blood, which is an anti-toxin. This is what is now called an antibody. Ehrlich uses organic arsenic compounds to treat syphilis and introduces the term "magic bullet" in the field of chemotherapy to strengthen the strategies and goals of specific therapies. As early as 1895, it was reported that Hericourt and Richet injected cancer cells into animals to produce antiserum for the treatment of cancer patients, and the symptoms of the patients were significantly improved. In the early 20th century, many researchers repeated the above tests, but failed to obtain a definite therapeutic effect, and sometimes even produced serious side effects. Later studies have found that antisera contain a large number of different kinds of antibodies, which are directed against different antigens on the surface of cancer cells, and these antigens are also present in normal tissue cells. Therefore, the cross-reactivity of antibodies with normal tissues may lead to serious consequences. Antiserum has long been effective in neutralizing exogenous toxins such as snake venom, but has not been effective in the treatment of tumors and other diseases. Monoclonal antibody In 1975, Köhler and Milstein used B lymphocyte hybridoma technology to prepare monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Monoclonal antibodies have high specificity, uniform properties and are easy to mass produce. A variety of monoclonal antibodies can be prepared in vitro by cell engineering, which is an epoch-making advance in antibody production. It is especially important that monoclonal antibodies have high specificity for the corresponding antigens and homogeneity of the antibody molecules, which can greatly reduce cross-reactivity with normal tissues in vivo, and bring new hope for the treatment of diseases by using antibodies, especially for treating tumors. At that time, some people called it "magic bullet", and it is expected that monoclonal antibodies can specifically attack pathogenic cells or pathogens without causing toxic side effects. In the past 20 years, monoclonal antibodies have been widely used in the diagnosis of diseases, and make much breakthroughs have despite many obstacles. To distinguish, an antibody previously prepared by immunizing an animal with an antiserum pathway is referred to as a polyclonal antibody, or a conventional antibody. Genetically engineered antibodies Since the monoclonal antibodies prepared by the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique are mostly murine, the human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) reaction can be induced in the human body, which limits the application of the monoclonal antibody as a therapeutic agent in humans. In order to overcome the heterologous reaction of murine monoclonal antibodies, in the mid-1980s, researchers explored the genetic engineering of mouse-derived monoclonal antibodies to prepare humanized antibodies. For example, they spliced the variable region of mouse Ig to the constant region of human Ig or modified the CDR region of the murine Ig to the human Ig. At the same time, considering the treatment of solid tumors with intact antibodies, the molecules are too large to penetrate the extracellular space into the deep tumor, so genetic engineering methods are used to miniaturize antibody molecules, such as single-chain antibodies (scFv), diabody, minibody, etc. The establishment and development of antibody library technology can directly clone the gene of specific antibody in the prokaryotic cell system by genetic engineering method, which greatly promotes the preparation and research and development of novel genetic engineering antibodies. Antibody engineering has become a key technology to promote the development of antibody drugs. Immunoconjugates and fusion proteins The molecular structure and function of the antibody has two sides. One is the specific binding to the antigen and is completed by the variable region. The second is the effect function triggered by binding to the antigen, which is completed by the constant region. In order to enhance the effector function of antibody drugs, especially tumor antibody drugs, and to enhance their killing effect on tumor cells, an effector molecule or a "warhead" substance is commonly used to chemically connect with an antibody to prepare an immunoconjugate. The specificity of the antibody is utilized as a targeting vector; the "target" is used to kill tumor target cells. There are three main types of substances used as "warheads", namely radionuclides, chemotherapeutics and toxins. These "warhead" substances are linked to antibodies, which constitute radioimmunoconjugates, chemical immunoconjugates and immunotoxins, respectively. A fusion protein can be produced by a genetic engineering method, and the antibody portion of the fusion protein is generally a single-chain antibody scFv; the portion corresponding to the "warhead" is generally a toxin fragment, a cytokine or a peptide drug. The monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments, genetically engineered antibodies, and immunoconjugates described above can be collectively referred to as antibody-based drugs, also known as monoclonal antibody therapeutics. Such antibody drugs are prepared by a cell engineering method or a genetic engineering method or a combination of two methods, and may also be referred to as an antibody engineering drug. Antibody drugs for clinical application The development of antibody drugs has a prominent position in the field of biotechnology drugs. The number of antibody drugs currently in preclinical and clinical research stages is among the highest in biotechnology drugs. The variety of antibody drugs in research and development is versatile, and the diseases that may be used for treatment include cancer, viruses and other infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and immune system diseases, among which cancer treatment is the first.
  21. Bridging cells (in-transbinding)—bridging cell method The most commonly used bridging cells are bridging effector T cells and tumor cells, also known as T cell-engaging bsAb (bsTCE). In addition, NK cells, stem cells, and tumor cells etc. are also used. bsTCE directly couples T cells and tumor cells to form immune synapses, activates in TCR, releases granzymes and perforin, and finally lyses tumor cells. BsTCEs bind to CD3ε in the CD3ε-TCR complex and activate T cells without antigen presentation. Although this mechanism was proven to be highly effective in the laboratory by co-culture experiments, it caused rapid uncontrolled cytokine release syndrome (CRS), including the earliest marketed CD3×EpCAM bsTCE catumaxomab, via the Fc segment binding to FCγR expressing Kupffer cells in the liver and causes uncontrolled hepatotoxicity. Targeting bsTCEs by CD3 requires complete inhibition of Fc-mediated effector function to reduce non-target toxicity and maximize therapeutic effects. Tumor target—Target expression and efficacy The activity of some bsTCE is positively correlated with the expression level of tumor targets, such as CEA, CD33, HER2. There are also some no significant correlations with expression levels, such as EPHA2, PSMA. However, there is also a minimum required tumor target expression, such as RG6106 requires at least 50 bsTCE binds to the myeloma surface FCRL5, while Roche cibisatamab requires 10,000 CEA in combination with bsTCE to be activated. Structural design Bivalent tumor targets can increase drug binding activity and enhance drug efficacy. Some tetravalent bsTCEs are under development, including Adaptir and TandAb, which have two CD3 and two TAA binding units. In addition, trivalent bsTCEs are under development, in which CD3 is monovalent and TAA is bivalent. For example, RG6026 (also known as RO7082859; Roche). Immune checkpoint Clinically administration of monoclonal antibody against CTLA-4, PD1/PD-L1 immunological checkpoints have been quite successful. More than 10 corresponding bispecific antibodies have entered the early clinical stage worldwide, involving PD1/PD-L, CTLA4, lymphocyte activation Gene 3 (LAG3) or T cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 3 (TIM3; also known as HAVCR2) Previously, two checkpoint antibodies were combined to improve efficacy. For example, treatment of melanoma patients with ipilimumab (anti-CTLA4) + nivolumab (anti-PD1) improves survival compared with ipilimumab alone. However, clinical immune-related side effects have also multiplied. In order to improve the safety of the combined targeting of PD-1 and CTLA 4, an Fc-silencing bsAb, a high affinity inhibition of PD-1, and a low affinity binding inhibition of CTLA 4 were designed to inhibit the PD-1 pathway. This design is beneficial for inhibiting PD-1-CTLA 4 double positive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, and at the same time reducing the binding of CTLA 4 expressing peripheral T cells, thereby providing better safety. Currently, the safety and early efficacy of the four PD-1×CTLA4 bsAbs are being evaluated in early clinical trials. The concept of blocking two immunological checkpoint inhibitors is also clinically used for other target combinations, such as PD-1 x LAG 3, PD-1 x TIM3, and PD-L1 x CTLA 4. Bridging receptors (in-cisbinding)—bridge acceptor inhibitory activity Targeting inhibition of tumor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as EGFR and HER 2 is a successful anticancer approach, but the development of drug resistance is one of the major limiting factors for such treatment. Drug resistance typically involves up-regulation of other RTKs that bypass specific receptor inhibition to activate parallel signaling pathways. For example, in the tyrosine protein kinase MET pathway, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors are resistant to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. JNJ-61186372 (Janssen Pharmaceuticals) is an EGFR x MET bsA that blocks EGFR and MET signaling by inhibiting ligand-induced activation and receptor degradation by cFAE. JNJ-61186372 has antibody-dependent cytotoxic activity (ADCC) which is produced by Fc containing low fucose. The glycotypic analysis in the quality control of such bispecific antibodies should be noted. Bridging receptors (in-cisbinding)—bridge acceptor agonist receptor activity In contrast to blocking pathogenic signals with inhibitory antibodies, some therapeutic concepts require receptor signals to be activated by agonistic antibodies. Specific bsAbs are also particularly suitable for activating multi-component receptor complexes because they require simultaneous binding of the receptor and the co-receptor to activate. Activation of the fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF 21) pathway has been reported to improve obesity and diabetes. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of recombinant FGF21 are poor, and chronic treatment has a risk of adverse reactions. Thus, the agonist bFKB8488A (Roche) was designed to activate this metabolic pathway by selectively targeting the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1C (FGFR1C)-β-Klotho (KLB) receptor complex. KLB is selectively expressed in liver, fat, and pancreatic tissues, while FGFR1C is widely distributed in liver, fat, and pancreatic tissues. Thus, co-targeting of these receptors may limit signal activation to only tissues that co-express KLB and FGFR1C and limit the adverse consequences of extensive FGFR activation, such as induction of cell proliferation. Preliminary results from an ongoing human first trial showed an improvement in cardiac metabolism in obese patients with insulin resistance. Cofactor mimetics Sampi and his colleagues began producing a bsAb to replace FVIII as a potential treatment for hemophilia A to prevent bleeding from FVIII dysfunction. The role of bsAb is to mimic the activated form of FVIII, FVIIIa, which binds FX and FIXa to enhance the catalytic activity of FIXa. In a wide range of screening efforts, a dual-characteristic antibody called AE 910 or emicizumab was finally selected and finally approved by the FDA for routine prevention to reduce bleeding in patients with hemophilia A using FVIII inhibitors. Further approval in October 2018 also included the use of emicizumab for prevention in patients without FVIII inhibitors. Emicizumab was first approved in Europe in March 2018. Piggyback approaches The first target-specific transport of a second specific target using the bsAb is referred to as a "piggyback transport" or "hijacking" method for accessing a restricted cell chamber. Raso and colleagues described the first case of the use of hijacking concept-specific transport proteins, which linked bispecific receptors to ricin A, mediating toxin internalization and toxicity. A recent example is the hijacking of the transferrin transport pathway to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the immune-immunized brain region. The researchers targeted the transferrin receptor (Tfr) by using a binding arm of the bsAb, and the second binding arm carries β-secretase 1 (BACE 1), which transports BACE1 into the brain, and TfR×BACE 1 bsAb can reduce amyloid (Aβ, Aβ) peptide levels in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. Psl×pcrvbsAb MEDI3902 is a full-length IgG 1 antibody inserted between Fabs and fc to form a symmetrical 2+2 format. This antibody enhances P. aeruginosa killing effect by neutrophils using a similar piggyback mechanism. Reference Oberst, .mAbs 6, 1571–1584 (2014). Laszlo, GS et al. Blood 123, 554–561 (2014). Lopez-Albaitero, A. et al. . Oncoimmunology 6, e1267891 (2017) Wolchok, J. D. et al. N.Engl. J. Med. 377, 1345–1356 (2017). Dovedi, S. J. et al. Cancer Res. 78,2776(2018). Hedvat, M. et al.Presented at the 2018 Society for ImmunotherapyofCancer (SITC) (2018). Xu, J. et al. . Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 297,E1105–E1114(2009).Wu, A. L. et al.Sci. Transl Med. 3, 113ra126 Xu, J. et al. . Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 297, E1105–E1114 (2009). Wu, A. L. et al. Sci. Transl Med. 3, 113ra126 Sampei, Z. et al. PLOS ONE 8, e57479 (2013)
  22. Anti-drug conjugate (ADC) is an antibody that binds to cytotoxic drugs and targets cytotoxic drugs to tumors through the targeting of antibodies, thereby reducing the non-specific systemic toxicity of drugs commonly found in chemotherapy. The study of antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) can date back to 1980s. A successful antibody drug conjugate drug includes four main parts: a suitable target (tumor antigen), a highly specific antibody, an ideal linker, and a highly cytotoxic drug. Firgure. The model of ADC action The basis for target selection Nowadays, ADC drugs are mainly used for anti-tumor. When selecting a target, the ideal target antigen should be overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells, but no expression or very low expression in normal tissues. Moreover, when the antibody and the target are aggregated in the ADC drug, it can be effectively internalized, and the drug is released into the cell to kill the target cell. Antibody specificity, affinity, and pharmacokinetics The high affinity of the antibody and the target antigen is the core of the effective targeting of the ADC. It is generally believed that the affinity index KD 10 nM is a basic requirement for the antibody. On the basis of this, antibodies that are low in immunogenicity, long in half-life, and stable in blood are screened. Selection and intracellular drug release The ideal linker can maintain stability in the blood and effectively release the drug in the target cells. The commonly used Linkers can be divided into two categories: cleavable linkers and non-cleavable linkers. The current study found that seven B cell receptors (CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD79b, and CD180) have effective effects by cleavable linkers. In contrast, when non-cleavable linkers are used, only CD22 and CD79b antigens can bind to the antibody, effectively transport ADC to lysosomes, and release the drug to kill target cells. Therefore, when choosing which linker to be uses, the nature of the target should be considered. Selection of cytotoxic drugs Since the antibody enters the body and can effectively enter the tumor site by about 0.003–0.08% of the total amount, it is necessary to have a highly effective and highly sensitive killing effect on the target cells (free drug IC50: 10-1 1–10-9M). ). There are two main types of commonly used drugs at present - microtubule inhibitors and DNA-damaging agents. ADC development trend Site-specific conjugation At present, the most advanced ADC drugs are using traditional no-specific conjugation. The biggest disadvantage is that the product obtained is a mixture of different drug molecules per antibody. Site-specific conjugated drugs, and more importantly, uniform data (eg, PK) for clinical evaluation is difficult to obtain. In oder to solve these shortcomings, site specific conjugation technology has become a hot spot for major companies. Using site specific conjugation techniques, the same number of drug molecules can be carried on each antibody to obtain a uniform ADC drug. It is conducive to pharmacodynamic research and evaluation. And in the clinical can get more stable and effective results. Among them, A mbrx's Unatural Amino acid (pAcPhe) technology has more applications and promotion prospects. Multivalent ADC drugs The development of antibody drugs and vaccines has progressed from monovalent drugs to multivalent drugs. ADC might also follow this development process, that is, to link several small molecules that are synergistic with each other in the same antibody to improve the drug's efficacy. This requires a more sophisticated conjugation technology, to integrate two or more technologies. But now, the site-specific technology, excessively pursuits the coupling of a specific molecules at a specific site and neglects the diversity of coupling. Practical and traditional techniques for multivalent coupling of drugs require simultaneous coupling of multiple drugs on one antibody. In this case, the singularity of the antibody itself to modify the linking group will result in a mixed product, and there is no guarantee that each antibody carries a different drug at the same time. This problem can be solved by Site-specific techniques. When performing Site-specific modification, a variety of different coupling groups can be designed, which can use a group to carry out drug couples for the linker with the corresponding group. Monoclonal antibodies and their conjugates are macromolecular substances. Large drug molecules are difficult to penetrate deep into the solid tumor through the capillary endothelium and through the extracellular space of the tumor. The use of antibody fragments, such as Fab, to prepare conjugates with lower molecular weight, may increase the permeability to the extracellular space and increase the amount of drug reaching deep tumor cells. "Small size or moderate miniaturization is an important way to develop ADC drugs." Reference Beck, Alain, et al. "Strategies and challenges for the next generation of antibody–drug conjugates." Nature reviews Drug discovery 16.5 (2017): 315. Okeley NM, et al. (2010) Intracellular activation of SGN-35, a potent anti-CD30 antibody-drug conjugate. Clin Cancer Res 16:888–897. Wu AM, Senter PD (2005) Arming antibodies: Prospects and challenges for immunoconjugates. Nat Biotechnol 23:1137–1146. Nagayama, Aiko, et al. "Antibody–Drug Conjugates for the Treatment of Solid Tumors: Clinical Experience and Latest Developments." Targeted oncology 12.6 (2017): 719-739. Polakis P (2005) Arming antibodies for cancer therapy. Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:382–387. Dan, Nirnoy, et al. "Antibody-drug conjugates for cancer therapy: chemistry to clinical implications." Pharmaceuticals 11.2 (2018): 32. Lambert JM (2005) Drug-conjugated monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of cancer. Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:543–549. Sau, Samaresh, et al. "Advances in antibody–drug conjugates: a new era of targeted cancer therapy." Drug discovery today (2017). Vater CA, Goldmacher VS (2010) Antibody-cytotoxic compound conjugates for oncology. Macromolecular Anticancer Therapeutics, Part 4:331–369. Zhou, Qun. "Site-specific antibody conjugation for ADC and beyond." Biomedicines 5.4 (2017): 64. Kovtun YV, Goldmacher VS (2007) Cell killing by antibody-drug conjugates. Cancer Lett 255:232–240.
  23. While your energy usage should go down once the weather starts to cool off, your energy bills might still be much higher than necessary. With a few simple home upgrades and some basic maintenance, you should be able to improve the efficiency of your home while reducing your carbon footprint. Insufficient Insulation Many homeowners never even think about their insulation until their electric bills skyrocket. Most insulation should last for at least 15 years, but yours might become damaged before that time. If your insulation is matted or torn, then it needs to be replaced with new batts or blow-in cellulose. Before you invest in new insulation, you must determine the correct R-value for your climate. Using the proper insulation will greatly increase your family’s comfort while minimizing your electric bills. A Faulty HVAC System Older HVAC systems tend to be very inefficient, and there may come a point when you need to consider professional HVAC services. An experienced contractor will be able to improve the efficiency of the system and check it for any signs of damage. As a general rule, you should try to schedule a service call with an HVAC contractor at least twice a year. Regular maintenance will increase the lifespan of your HVAC system and help you avoid a catastrophic breakdown. Old or Damaged Wiring In addition to being extremely dangerous, damaged wiring can also be a major energy drain. When a wire is damaged, much of the electricity will be turned into heat, and that is highly inefficient. A few of the most common signs of a damaged electrical system include flickering lights, frayed wires, discolored outlets, and a buzzing sound in the walls. Those types of issues should only be taken care of by an experienced electrician who is fully licensed and insured. Inefficient Windows When the weather cools down, you want to be sure that your home can trap in warm air. If you have an older house, then you should think about upgrading the windows. Modern windows often have multiple layers of glass and plastic, and that makes them highly efficient. You will also need to make sure that you use heavy curtains that block out cold drafts. Another step that you can take to improve the efficiency of your home is to reverse all of your ceiling fans during the fall and winter months. When a fan is turning clockwise, it will draw the cool air in the room up and disperse the warm air that is collecting near the ceiling.
  24. What is metabolomics? We know that metabolism is the general term for various chemical reactions in living organisms. It is one of the most important life activities of animals and plants. Individuals adapt to changes in internal and external environment through various metabolic adjustments, which is one of the basic characteristics of life activities. A "metabolome" is a collection of all metabolites in a biological sample. There are many kinds of metabolites (may be more than one million species) with various structures, and there are large differences in distribution and concentration in different tissues and body fluids. The main types include lipids, amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and so on. Metabolomics is an independent discipline, systematically studying metabolomes that provides unique biochemical fingerprints of all cellular processes. It can be used to identify metabolic biomarkers elucidating underlying disease mechanisms or predicting environmental changes or external interventions reaction. What is lipidomics? Lipolipomics is an independent discipline that systematically studies lipid groups. As a method for large-scale qualitative and quantitative study of lipid compounds and understanding their functions and changes under different physiological and pathological conditions, it can accurately and comprehensively provide a full-fat information spectrum of biological samples under different physiological conditions. As can be seen from the above definition, "lipolipomics" is actually a branch of "metabolomics." However, because lipid metabolism is the most major category of animal and plant metabolism (about 70% of metabolites in plasma is lipid), it is the hot spot of animal and plant metabolism research. Lipid metabolism is involved in energy transportation and intercellular information communication and network regulation in the process of growth and development. As a major component of cell membranes and lipid droplets, various structural lipids play an important role in a wide range of biological processes, such as signal transduction, transport, and biomacromolecule sorting with different biochemical properties. With the rapid development of lipidomics in recent years, scientists have gradually divided the lipid group research from mebabolism to “lipidomics”. Currently, when we refer to “metabolomics”, the lipid group analysis is no longer included. Clinical application of lipidomics studies Comprehensive analysis of lipids, i.e. lipidomics is a prerequisite for understanding the subtle dynamic changes and pathogenesis of lipids during cell changes. Lipid metabolism disorders and reproductive development defects are closely related to a variety of major diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver, obesity, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. The changes of lipid composition can directly reflect the physiological and pathological state of the organism. Therefore, it is of great significance to analyze the changes of lipid spectrometry during the growth and development of tissues and organs and to analyze the mechanism of related metabolic regulation network. With an integrated set of separation, characterization, identification and quantification system, featured with excellent robustness & reproducibility, high and ultra-sensitivity, Creative Proteomics provides reliable, rapid and cost-effective targeted lipidomics, untargeted lipidomics, Exosome Lipidomics and MALDI Imaging Lipidomics Service. Advantages of Creative Proteomics Services The compounds we test are widely covered, ranging from small water-soluble molecules to large lipids. We can analyze any biological materials, including but not limited to biofluids and tissues from animals, cell cultures and humans. A comprehensive platform contains advanced instruments, including MS, GC-MS, LC-MS, NMR, and so on. A complete analysis report is offered, including method interpretation, data, and result files.
  25. Lipids are the general term for fats, cholesterol, phospholipids, lipoproteins and glycolipids. It is one of the important nutrients needed by the human body. It provides the energy needed by the body and the essential fatty acids needed by the body. Lipid is one of the three nutrients that can produce energy, together with proteins and carbohydrates, and plays an important role in providing energy for the human body. It is the constituent of human cell tissue, among which phospholipids and cholesterol are the main components of all biofilms. The human body needs to absorb a certain amount of lipid substances every day, but excessive intake can lead to the occurrence and development of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis and other diseases. It is a compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents, including fats and lipids. Fat accounts for about 15% of total human body weight, with a minimum of 13% and a maximum of 50%. Animal oils provide mainly saturated fatty acids while vegetable oils mainly unsaturated fatty acids. The main functions of lipids are: 1. Main components of cell membrane and biofilm, fixing body tissues and organs, and fat is the isolation layer of organs and joints, filling and avoiding friction. 2. Supply and store energy. Fat intake should be 20% to 25% of total energy. One gram of fat provides 37.6 kilojoules of heat. You also need 70 to 80 grams of fat per day. 3. Promote digestion and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.4. Maintain body temperature. Here we will introduce some important lipids below: 1. Phospholipids Phospholipids are lipids containing phosphoric acid, which are composed of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Glycerophospholipids are formed by condensation of phosphoric acid and glycerol, while sphingolipids are formed by condensation of sphingosine-1-phosphate and phosphoric acid. Phospholipids mainly act as emulsifiers, meaning that a molecule of phospholipids has both a hydrophilic part bound to water and a hydrophobic part bound to oil. So, it's an intermediate medium of water and oil that doesn't blend together, and makes it work very well. Most of the phospholipids in foods are in the form of soft phospholipids. As a plant extract, phospholipids are often found in egg yolks, animal livers and legumes. Egg yolk, soybean, fish head, sesame, mushroom, yam and black fungus also contain a certain number of phospholipids. 2. Sphingolipids Sphingolipids consist of a molecule of long-chain fatty acid, a molecule of sphingosine or its derivatives and a molecule of polar head alcohol. Sphingosine is the parent compound of many long chain amino alcohols in sphingolipids and is abundant in mammals. The polar head group of sphingolipids binds to the hydroxy group of sphingosines, while the fatty acid part forms amide bonds with the amino group. Therefore, sphingolipids, with a polar head group and two non-polar tails (long hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids and sphingolipids), are polar lipids, the second largest group of membrane lipids after phospholipids. Sphingolipids can be divided into sphingolipids, sphingolipids and gangliosides. 3. Steroids Steroids are a broad class of cyclopentane derivatives of total hydrogenation phenanthrene widely distributed in the biological world. Steroid compounds contain no bound fatty acids and are no saponifiable lipids; These compounds are isoprene like substances, which are generated by triterpene cyclization and chemical modification. Steroids include sterols (such as cholesterol, lanosterol, glusterol, soy sterol, ergosterol), bile acids and bile alcohols, steroid hormones (such as adrenocorticosteroids, androgen, estrogen), insect ecdysis hormones, cardiac glycosides, saponin ligands and bufotoxin. In addition, there are synthetic steroids such as anti-inflammatory agents (hydro prednisone, dexamethasone), steroids that promote protein synthesis and oral contraceptives. Anabolic steroids are similar to synthetic male hormones. They are a kind of synthetic chemical derivatives similar to human testosterone in structure and activity. On October 27, 2017, the world health organization's international agency for research on cancer released a preliminary list of carcinogens for reference, androgen (anabolic) steroids in the 2A list of carcinogens.
  26. Gene therapy: a genetically manipulated disease program Gene therapy refers to the introduction of normal genes into human cells to correct or supplement diseases caused by genetic defects or abnormalities. It is a fundamental therapeutic strategy. The introduced gene may be a homologous gene corresponding to the defective gene, expressing a specific function in vivo, or may be a therapeutic gene unrelated to the defective gene. In organisms, genetic information is transmitted step by step along the direction of "DNA-RNA-protein" (Central Dogma). Protein is a manifestation of genetic information, so the disease occurs mostly as a protein-level anomaly. At present, most of the drugs target proteins, such as small molecule targeted drugs for treating tumors and macromolecular monoclonal drugs, which are used to treat diseases by changing the function of proteins. However, Gene therapy starts from the upstream of the protein—DNA. It regulates DNA transmission to change the transmission of genetic information, thereby changing the properties of the protein and achieving disease treatment from the source. In addition, there are a small number of drugs, such as the small nucleic acid drug Patisiran, which target RNA. In a broad sense, these drugs are also in the category of gene therapy. In this article, we mainly talk about DNA-level. According to the central dogma of gene expression, each physiological process can be understood as the result of specific intensity expression of a particular gene in a specific time and space. If this balance is broken, it will induce disease. From this perspective, almost all diseases can be explained at the DNA level, which is the theoretical basis of gene therapy. According to the different types of gene mutations, the genetic abnormalities leading to disease can be roughly divided into two categories: (1). Gene mutations lead to protein dysfunction by gene-directed synthesis. T manifests as protein with no function, weakened function or over-function, or even produced harmful protein; (2). Abnormal gene expression, which is expressed by the expression of the gene that should not be expressed, the expression of the gene to be expressed, and the intensity of the gene expression being too high or too low. Therefore, in theory, gene therapy can cure most diseases. However, the occurrence of diseases often involves multiple genes, and the interaction between the corresponding proteins forms a huge regulatory network. It is difficult to achieve treatment for only one or several genes. In addition, scientists' research on human gene function and disease pathogenesis is still very limited, and there are a large number of undiscovered new genes and signal networks. Too many uncertainties in genes and diseases have greatly limited the application of gene therapy. Therefore, gene therapy is currently only applicable to a few diseases with very clear pathogenic mechanisms or treatment options, such as single-gene genetic diseases and tumors. Compared with conventional drugs/treatments, gene therapy can solve the disease from the source, so there are obvious advantages in some diseases that are currently untreated or poorly curable prognosis, such as hemophilia. In terms of safety, gene therapy still belongs to emerging technologies. There are still many blind spots in the understanding of genes and diseases, and it is usually difficult to reverse after genetic changes, and the potential risks are large. Most of the traditional drug treatments have gone through decades. Even after hundreds of years of development and use, the risks are relatively controllable. Therefore, we believe that conventional drugs are still the first choice for disease treatment in the future. Gene therapy is more like a supplement to conventional treatment options. The process of gene therapy According to different modes of administration, gene therapy can be divided into two categories: "in vivo" treatment and "in vitro" treatment. The "in vivo" gene therapy operation process is relatively simple, and can be roughly divided into three steps: (1) using a genetic engineering method to insert a normal gene into the DNA of a viral vector; (2) in vitro packaging of the recombinant viral DNA to produce fully engineered virus with infectious ability; (3) directly injecting the recombinant virus into the patient, the virus infects the diseased cells and brings the normal gene to the target cells to achieve treatment of the disease. The "in vitro" gene therapy can be divided into six steps: (1) inserting the normal gene into the DNA of the viral vector; (2) packaging the recombinant viral DNA in vitro to produce a fully engineered virus with infectious ability; (3) obtaining patient's somatic cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells, and undergo in vitro culture and amplification; (4) infecting the patient cells with the recombinant virus, and introducing the normal gene into the target cells; (5) in vitro, the recombinant cells carrying the normal gene The culture is expanded; (6) the recombinant cells carrying the normal gene are returned to the patient to realize the treatment of the disease.
  27. 8. PNAS: Scientists developed the first adult induced specific stem cells On April 4th, a research team from the University of New South Wales (UNSW) published an article in the journal PNAS, which was the first to develop a revolutionary stem cell repair technology. This technology can successfully re-inducing fat and bone cells into pluripotent stem cells, and is expected to be used in the treatment of human injuries, including spinal injuries and fractures. This technique is similar to the regeneration of Salamander limbs. Its most prominent achievement is the transformation of adult cells into induced immense stem cells (iMS cells), and iMS cells have the function of self-renewal and differentiation into many types of cells. The iMS cells can treat the human body damage caused by disease, aging or trauma, and will revolutionize the current state of regenerative medicine treatment of body damage. The first induced specific adult stem cell (iMS): capable of self-renewal repair, differentiation into multiple types of cells. According to the stage of development, stem cells can be divided into embryonic stem cells (ES cells, which have the ability to differentiate into intact individuals) and adult stem cells (somatic stem cells). Adult stem cells have the function of differentiating into specific cells and are not capable of differentiating into various cell types. The breakthrough in this latest technology published by PNAS is that induced specific stem cells can differentiate into many types of cells. 9. PNAS: adult adipocytes can differentiate into pluripotent stem cells, or can be used for tissue damage repair For the first time, Australian scientists have reprogrammed adult bones or fat cells to obtain stem cells that can differentiate into any tissue, thereby repairing damaged tissues and organs. Inspired by the phenomenon that lizards can regenerate limbs, researchers developed techniques that can return adult cells to the state of stem cells and gain the potential for division and multi-directional differentiation - pluripotent stem cells. This means that this part of the cell can repair damage to any part of the body: including the spinal cord, joints and muscles. The significance of this study is that there have been no previous reports of successful differentiation of adult stem cells into multiple types of tissues. "This technology is a revolutionary advancement in stem cell therapy, and there has never been evidence that adult stem cells can differentiate directly into tissues." John Pimanda, Principal Investigator from the University of New South Wales, said. 10. Nature: A major breakthrough! Human haploid embryonic stem cells was produced by the first time! Doi:10.1038/nature17408 In a study, researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the University of Columbia Medical Center, and the New York Stem Cell Foundation Institute succeeded in producing a new type of embryonic stem cell that carries only a single copy of the human genome, rather than two copies of the human genome normally found in stem cells. The relevant research results were published online in the Nature Journal on March 16, 2016, and the title of the paper is "Derivation and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells". The haploid embryonic stem cells described in this study are the first known human daughter cells capable of producing a single copy of the genome of a parental cell by cell division. Human cells are considered to be diploid because they inherit two sets of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, 23 of which are from the mother and 23 from the father. The only exceptions are germ cells (eggs and sperm), which are haploid cells and contain a set of chromosomes, 23 chromosomes. These haploid cells cannot produce more eggs and sperm by dividing. Efforts to use human egg cells to produce embryonic stem cells have previously led to the production of diploid stem cells. In this study, the researchers promoted the division of unfertilized human eggs. They then labeled the DNA with a fluorescent dye to isolate these haploid embryonic stem cells, which were scattered among more diploid cells. With years of experience in providing high-quality products and services in the field of biopharmaceuticals for customers all over the world, scientists in Creative Biolabs will be more focused on developing first class product and technology to meet the need of stem cell therapy development. In cell therapy, iPS cell technology has opened huge possibilities for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. There are still significant challenges in gene and cell therapy, before these new approaches can enter main stream medicine. Significant safety issues have been reported in some trials and the need for better vectors, delivery techniques and treatment genes are widely recognized.
  28. 8. PNAS: Scientists developed the first adult induced specific stem cells On April 4th, a research team from the University of New South Wales (UNSW) published an article in the journal PNAS, which was the first to develop a revolutionary stem cell repair technology. This technology can successfully re-inducing fat and bone cells into pluripotent stem cells, and is expected to be used in the treatment of human injuries, including spinal injuries and fractures. This technique is similar to the regeneration of Salamander limbs. Its most prominent achievement is the transformation of adult cells into induced immense stem cells (iMS cells), and iMS cells have the function of self-renewal and differentiation into many types of cells. The iMS cells can treat the human body damage caused by disease, aging or trauma, and will revolutionize the current state of regenerative medicine treatment of body damage. The first induced specific adult stem cell (iMS): capable of self-renewal repair, differentiation into multiple types of cells. According to the stage of development, stem cells can be divided into embryonic stem cells (ES cells, which have the ability to differentiate into intact individuals) and adult stem cells (somatic stem cells). Adult stem cells have the function of differentiating into specific cells and are not capable of differentiating into various cell types. The breakthrough in this latest technology published by PNAS is that induced specific stem cells can differentiate into many types of cells. 9. PNAS: adult adipocytes can differentiate into pluripotent stem cells, or can be used for tissue damage repair For the first time, Australian scientists have reprogrammed adult bones or fat cells to obtain stem cells that can differentiate into any tissue, thereby repairing damaged tissues and organs. Inspired by the phenomenon that lizards can regenerate limbs, researchers developed techniques that can return adult cells to the state of stem cells and gain the potential for division and multi-directional differentiation - pluripotent stem cells. This means that this part of the cell can repair damage to any part of the body: including the spinal cord, joints and muscles. The significance of this study is that there have been no previous reports of successful differentiation of adult stem cells into multiple types of tissues. "This technology is a revolutionary advancement in stem cell therapy, and there has never been evidence that adult stem cells can differentiate directly into tissues." John Pimanda, Principal Investigator from the University of New South Wales, said. 10. Nature: A major breakthrough! Human haploid embryonic stem cells was produced by the first time! Doi:10.1038/nature17408 In a study, researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the University of Columbia Medical Center, and the New York Stem Cell Foundation Institute succeeded in producing a new type of embryonic stem cell that carries only a single copy of the human genome, rather than two copies of the human genome normally found in stem cells. The relevant research results were published online in the Nature Journal on March 16, 2016, and the title of the paper is "Derivation and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells". The haploid embryonic stem cells described in this study are the first known human daughter cells capable of producing a single copy of the genome of a parental cell by cell division. Human cells are considered to be diploid because they inherit two sets of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, 23 of which are from the mother and 23 from the father. The only exceptions are germ cells (eggs and sperm), which are haploid cells and contain a set of chromosomes, 23 chromosomes. These haploid cells cannot produce more eggs and sperm by dividing. Efforts to use human egg cells to produce embryonic stem cells have previously led to the production of diploid stem cells. In this study, the researchers promoted the division of unfertilized human eggs. They then labeled the DNA with a fluorescent dye to isolate these haploid embryonic stem cells, which were scattered among more diploid cells. With years of experience in providing high-quality products and services in the field of biopharmaceuticals for customers all over the world, scientists in Creative Biolabs will be more focused on developing first class product and technology to meet the need of stem cell therapy development. In cell therapy, iPS cell technology has opened huge possibilities for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. There are still significant challenges in gene and cell therapy, before these new approaches can enter main stream medicine. Significant safety issues have been reported in some trials and the need for better vectors, delivery techniques and treatment genes are widely recognized.
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