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  1. Today
  2. There are plenty of good reasons to look at reducing your energy consumption. You might want to save money, for example, or you might want to do your part to help the environment. No matter what your needs, you can take a look at the four systems below to make an impact on your energy efficiency. Water Heater Your water heater is probably one part of your home that you don't think of as inefficient, but technology has marched on to the point that many heaters that are fifteen or twenty years old are wildly out of date. Switching over to a tankless heater will not only save you quite a bit on your energy bills, but it will also allow you to get hot water faster. Switching over to a new unit can be a great way to save money over the long run. The AC Unit Your AC unit is another home system that can be incredibly inefficient. This time, it's not just technology that's at fault - if you have a system that's the wrong size for your home, your energy bills might go through the roof. It's a good idea to have an AC installation service come out to your home and take a look at your system to see if it could be replaced with something that's a bit more efficient. Your Washer and Dryer This is another area in which technology has changed for the better. Many modern washers are much more efficient than their older counterparts, washing more thoroughly while still using less water. Modern dryers, on the other hand, use less energy while still getting your clothing dry. Upgrading to a new washer and dryer can actually save you the money over the course of a few years while still allowing you to do something to help the environment. Lighting Finally, lighting is an upgradable area that is often overlooked. At a bare minimum, you can switch out old lights for energy-efficient lighting. If you really want to go all-out, though, you can switch over to smart lights. These lights automatically turn off when you're not in the room, adjust their brightness based on personal settings, and can even be set to timers so they're only on when they are really needed. If you want the most efficient lighting, smart lights are the way to go. Reducing your energy usage may really be as simple as replacing some common systems in your home. Look at the lighting, air conditioning, washing, and even your water heater as places where you can make a change. With a little effort, you can really dial down your energy consumption.
  3. Incidence of lung cancer Lung cancer has the highest incidence of cancer in the world. According to WHO’ statistics, there are an estimated 18.1 million new cancer patients worldwide in 2018, of which lung cancer accounts for about 2.094 million, accounting for 11.6%. Lung cancer treatment drugs are also the focus of research and development of major pharmaceutical enterprises. From earlier afatinib and gefitinib to now osimertinib and PD-1/L1 inhibitors, it can be found that although these drugs have been approved for lung cancer, but the specific types of lung cancer are different. Classification of lung cancer The classification of lung cancer is a very complicated problem. To define exactly what kind of lung cancer is, it needs to be combined with the three aspects of typing, staging and molecular information to understand. Cancer typing mainly describes what lung cancer cells look like. According to the morphological characteristics of lung cancer cells under microscope, lung cancer cells can be initially divided into two types: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The growth characteristics, diffusion risk and treatment regimen of these two types of lung cancer are different, so we should first distinguish between the two types of lung cancer. The vast majority of lung cancer is NSCLC, which accounts for about 85%. NSCLC can be further divided into three types: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is the main type, accounting for about 50% of NSCLC. Staging mainly describes the diffusion degree of lung cancer cells. After lung cancer is diagnosed, doctors use a series of tests to determine the staging of lung cancer by examining whether the cancer is only locally or has spread to lymph nodes or other organs of the body. NSCLC and SCLC are slightly different in the professional staging system, but for the convenience of communication, they can be summarized into 0, I, II, III or IV. I, II, III will sometimes be divided into A and B, such as IIA, IIIB and so on. Stage 0 and I have the best prognosis and the highest cure rate, while stage IV is commonly referred to as advanced cancer, indicating that the cancer has metastasized to other tissues or organs. Molecular information is genotyping. According to the type of gene mutation, lung cancer can be divided into EGFR mutation, ALK mutation and ROS1 mutation. Different types of gene mutations are suitable for different targeted drugs. Classification of drugs for lung cancer At present, targeted drugs are mainly aimed at the types of gene mutations in NSCLC. According to the staging of lung cancer, surgical treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other traditional methods are generally used in stage I, II and III. In addition, stage IV has different treatment methods according to the type of gene mutation. Targeted therapeutic drugs and immunotherapeutic drugs are the two mainstream therapeutic drugs for lung cancer, in which targeted therapeutic drugs are divided into small molecules and macromolecules. Small molecule targeted drugs are mainly used in the treatment of NSCLC, such as mutation of EGFR and ALK, while macromolecular targeted drugs mainly refer to VEGF/VEGFR monoclonal antibodies. Immunotherapy is a good choice for patients without obvious driving gene, mainly refers to PD-1/PD-L1. Genotyping and treatment of lung cancer EGFR-TKI: EGFR mutation is a type of gene mutation with high incidence in lung cancer. In view of this mutation, erlotinib, gefitinib and afatinib have been approved one after another. In the FLAURA trial, the median progression-free survival time of osimertinib was 18.9 months, which was much higher than that of gefitinib / erlotinib group (10.2 months). However, there is no solution to the treatment after first-line drug resistance of osimertinib. ALK-TKI: ALK-TKI is mainly used to treat NSCLC with ALK positive mutation. The first, second and third generations of ALK-TKI have been approved, which are crizotinib, ceritinib and alectinib, respectively. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend alectinib as the first line of treatment for NSCLC with ALK positive mutation. Among them, crizotinib and alectinib are used in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients with ALK positive mutation. Ceritinib is used in patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC who have previously progressed after treatment with crizotinib or who are intolerant to crizotinib. VEGF/VEGFR monoclonal antibodies: bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy, EGFR-TKI and PD-L1 immune checkpoint for the treatment of NSCLC has been approved by FDA. At the same time, bevacizumab combined with ALK-TKI is also in the clinical trial stage. PD-1/L1: PD-1/L1 is mainly aimed at lung cancer without obvious driving gene. FDA has approved multiple PD-1/L1 therapies for various indications of lung cancer.
  4. Yesterday
  5. Having a home garden can be a great hobby. You can enjoy beautiful flowers and tasty vegetables throughout the year. If you’re considering trying to make your garden more green, here are four great eco-friendly tips that you can employ this year. Install a Rain Barrel One of the best ways to help be eco-friendly while saving yourself some green in the process is using rainwater to water your garden. By installing a simple rain barrel to collect the drainage from the gutters in your home, you can have freely accessible water to feed your garden. All you’ll need is a watering can and you’ll be set. If you don’t have access to rainwater from gutters, strategically place a few barrels around your yard to collect free falling rain. Use Compost Soil One of the best things you can do for your garden is to use compost soil. This natural soil is enriched with various nutrients that your average soil could be lacking. If you don’t know anybody that has a compost where you can get soil from, don’t be afraid to start your own. There are many guides on how to compost online that you can refer to in order to get started. We’re sure you’ll be super happy with your harvest when you use composted soil over regular soil. Install Bird Feeders This one may have you thinking a little bit, but let us explain. Birds are natural predators for grub worms, snails, and other insects that can be harmful to your plants. By installing bird feeders near your garden, these birds will act as a natural protector for your plants. This will help to reduce your need for insecticide. Choose Your Plant Pairings Wisely Just the process of picking out the right plants that complement each other can do wonders for reducing your need for natural growth simulators and insecticides. For example, marigolds are well-known for deterring unwanted soil-based and flying insects. They make a great pair for plant varieties that are commonly preyed by these types of insects. Hosta, also known as a plantain lily, is a nice tall plant that helps to offer shade to those plants which are shorter. Being a more eco-friendly gardener doesn’t have to be a difficult transition. By simply learning tactics like the ones above, you’ll be well on your way to making the transition. The more eco-friendly habits that you can get used to, the more helpful you’ll be to the environment around you.
  6. Last week
  7. Making eco-conscious choices can be a barrier because they often require serious lifestyle modifications, and that makes it hard to stick with the environmentally friendly choice. Effortless choices are more likely to stick and become part of your lifestyle, routine and daily life. Try these four methods for making effortless environmentally friendly choices daily. Don't Believe Labels Buzzwords related to environmentally conscious choices are used in marketing and product design to get you to buy those organic-reusable bags, bleach-free paper products and countless other products you use on a daily basis. Labels are helpful for choosing eco-conscious products, but they don't always tell the full story. For example, organic cotton is often touted as a better choice over regular cotton, but that is hardly the case. What you aren't told is that organic cotton is one of the most environmentally damaging crops, and it's an especially finicky crop to grow and harvest. Processing organic cotton also uses just as much water as conventional cotton. It's not as eco-friendly as previously thought. Reduce Consumption Everyone gets hung up on recycling, but reducing consumption of new goods is often forgotten about. It's one of the easiest ways to make eco-conscious choices for sustainable living. Instead of buying a new reusable bag, search a thrift store for some or repurpose old t-shirts. Several little choices throughout the day or week can make the biggest impact. Choose Appliance Settings Carefully Appliances, including heating and cooling systems, drain energy on a regular basis. They're necessary to have, but they don't have to be a drain on the grid. Choose settings for your ducted air conditioning carefully in hotter months, and set heat temperatures wisely when it is colder. Take this a step further by doing some research on your home appliances to figure out what is most eco-conscious, and from there, it's effortless. Buy Only What You Need Buying only what is needed is critically important when it comes to food waste, but it also applies to everything else you buy. Bulk food is only a sustainable choice when that food will be consumed before it goes bad. Where it's permitted, taking your own containers to the grocery store can make this lifestyle change effortless. Looking at your choices through the lens of what is sustainable will make it easier for you to make better decisions about how you live. No one is perfect, but daily choices add up to benefit your local environment and beyond.
  8. In the 1970s, China witnessed a growth of its economy and its expansion only continued over the course of the next few decades, accelerating as the years went by. However, China’s massive economic growth has come with a hefty price in the form of vast environmental pollution that followed its rapid expansion. In this article, we are taking a look at the air pollution as the number one problem on the country’s national scale, all the different ideas and strategies that China is employing in order to tackle the problem, as well as the progress it has made in recent years. Declaring war on air pollution Six years have passed since China had faced the much dreaded ‘airpocalypse’ when smog scores exceeded the safety limits up to 35 times in the capital city of Beijing in 2013. After Beijing acknowledged that the situation had escalated to the point of threatening the safety of its citizens and realized that its air pollution problem can no longer be masked, the air pollution crisis it was caught up in was finally recognized by China’s government, who promised to take serious action. Reaching GDP targets wasn’t the only goal the government was trying to attain, as it started placing emphasis on the quality of the growth. The industries that added to the environmental pollution were now discouraged, and so did those that relied on the intensive use of resources. In addition, the factories and plants that didn’t manage to meet the newly-imposed standards were shut down, and the new policy applied to even the largest enterprises, and those who violated these obligations faced penalties. The idea and the strategy A couple of ideas and strategies were employed as a way of dealing with the alarming environmental crisis China found itself in. Li Keqiang, China’s Premier, promised a greener future for the citizens of China, declaring war to pollution the same way he declared war to poverty. As a result of his commitment, urban areas were asked to reduce the concentration of pollutants in the air by ten percent as an attempt to improve the national air quality, while metropolitan areas such as Beijing had an even higher target. The plants had to reduce emissions, while the coal-fueled power plants were prohibited from being constructed. Urban areas saw a drop in vehicle emissions, and coal boilers for residential heating were replaced with gas heating. A number of measures against pollution were introduced as a way of achieving cleaner air, water, and soil, and that’s when the problem of pollution in China finally started to look solvable, and the seemingly dismal look at the future was replaced with the ray of hope for the citizens of China. Waging war on environmental pollution While green policies continue to be applied throughout the country, there are many fronts where China has to wage its war for greener future. While the PM2.5 pollution was managed to be brought down significantly, the ozone gas rose, and the scientists warn about its detrimental effects on human health as well as agricultural yields. The reduction of coal-fueled power continues to be high on the country’s list of priorities, and while the consumption of coal has increased by 3%, China persists in its pursuit to make a switch to gas, nuclear, and renewable power. In its attempt to reduce environmental pollution, China has also made a decision to stop importing waste from other countries and has even made efforts to employ a harsher residential recycling regime. Clearing the air For decades, China has been putting its economic growth before the preservation of the environment. However, it seems that it has made a significant amount of progress since 1995. According to a study published in the Science Advances journal, the pollution that once went hand in hand with the economic growth of the country had begun to decline, which lead to the weakening of this relationship. A number of factors played a significant role in the research, some of them being environmental conditions, living standards in the country, health care, as well as regional differences. The forty-year-long study relied on multiple sources of existing data and showed that, while significant progress has been made, there’s still room for improvement when it comes to greenhouse gas emissions. In its efforts to save the planet and change its status as the biggest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, China has taken drastic measures to improve the national air quality. Its declaration of war on pollution has already started to pay off, while its response to the environmental crisis and implementation of eco-conscious ideas and strategies have opened up the possibility of China establishing itself as a leader in environmental protection and preservation.
  9. Chromatographic analysis is one of the active branches of analytical chemistry and an important means of material separation analysis. It is increasingly used in environmental, biochemical, and fine chemical product analysis. Application of chromatography related technologies is involved in almost all fields. From classical plate chromatography to column chromatography, from gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography to capillary electrophoresis and electrochromatography, it plays an important role in scientific research and industrial production. Originof chromatographic technology The ancient Romans used a piece of cloth or a piece of paper to analyze dyes and pigments. More than 100 years ago, German chemists improved the method to make it more reproducible and quantitative, which later became today's paper chromatography technology. In 1901, Russian botanists used calcium carbonate as an adsorbent to separate plant pigments. Then in 1903, a new method for separating plant pigments by adsorption principle was proposed. In 1906, this method was officially named as chromatography, but it was not taken seriously due to the slow and inefficient separation. Until 1931, German scientists used a similar method to separate more than 60 kinds of pigments such as carotene, and chromatographic methods were then widely used. Development and application of gas chromatography technology Since the first creation of practical gas-liquid chromatography in the world in 1952, gas chromatographs, as a representative of modern analytical instruments, have developed into an industry with considerable production scale and formed a discipline with considerable knowledge of detection technology. Gas chromatography is widely used in environmental samples for pollutant analysis, drug quality testing, natural product composition analysis, pesticide residue determination in food and industrial products, quality control and other fields due to its high separation efficiency, fast analysis speed and good selectivity. With the advent of new gas chromatography instruments, detectors, and data analysis methods, the application fields of gas chromatography will become more and more extensive. The combination of gas chromatography and other technologies has also developed very rapidly in recent years. It is mainly used in combination with mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, etc., combined with chemical reactions, and computer. Gas chromatography is an effective tool for separating complex mixtures, but it is not possible to qualitatively identify unknowns; mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetics are effective tools for identifying unknown structures, but require that the samples analyzed be as simple as possible, not complex mixtures. The combination of chromatography and these techniques is therefore a recognized and effective tool for dissecting the structure of unknowns in complex mixtures. In recent years, the development of the two technologies is directly combined, eliminating the need to collect condensation in the middle, so that the analysis time is shortened and the sample consumption is reduced. Organic mass spectrometers, magnetic mass spectrometry, quadrupole mass spectrometry, ion trap mass spectrometry, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (T0F), and Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) are currently available on the market to be combined with gas chromatography. With the continuous updating of interface technology, the interface devices are smaller and simpler, and the shape is lighter. The function of GC-MS is more powerful. The resolution of GC-TOFMS can reach about 50M. The combination of GC-MS plays an important role in many areas of analytical testing and scientific research, especially as a necessary tool in the routine testing of many organic compounds. It is widely used in environmental protection, health, food, agriculture, petroleum, chemical and other industries. Development and application of liquid chromatography At the beginning of liquid chromatography, a large diameter glass column is used to transport the mobile phase with a liquid level difference at room temperature and pressure, called classical liquid chromatography. Liquid chromatography is a type of separation and analysis technique characterized by a liquid as a mobile phase. The stationary phase can take many forms, such as paper, sheets, and packed beds. The mobile phase of classical liquid chromatography relies on gravity to flow slowly through the column, so the particle size of the stationary phase cannot be too small. The separated samples are collected after classification and analyzed, so that the classical liquid chromatography not only has low separation efficiency, slow analysis speed, but also complicated operation. It was not until the 1960s that a stationary phase with a particle size of less than 10 μm was developed, and a high-pressure infusion pump and an automatically recorded detector were used to overcome the shortcomings of classical liquid chromatography and to develop into liquid chromatography. Liquid chromatography (LC) is a widely used field in various chromatographic modes. About 80% of the compounds in the world are analyzed by different modes of HPLC (such as normal phase HPLC, reverse phase HPLC, ion exchange chromatography and ion chromatography, volume exclusion chromatography, affinity chromatography, etc.) , including high molecular compounds, ionic compounds, heat labile compounds and biologically active compounds. Liquid chromatography is developed from gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, and its structure and operation process are perfect. New research and development of liquid chromatography and its combined technologies have been widely used in chemical production, pharmaceutical industry, food industry, biochemical, medical clinical testing and environmental monitoring. Compared with the chromatography method, many other detection methods are ultimately not as stable, reliable and eliminated as liquid chromatography after long-term repeated verification, their feasibility, accuracy, precision and efficiency. It can be seen that liquid chromatography is not only of extraordinary significance to the present, but also has considerable development prospects in the near future. Development and application of supercritical fluid chromatography Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a chromatographic method in which a supercritical fluid is used as a mobile phase. Supercritical fluids are substances that are neither gases nor liquids. Their physical properties are between gas and liquid. Supercritical fluid chromatography is a new chromatographic technique developed in the 1980s. It has advantages not found in the gas phase and liquid phase, and it can separate and analyze some objects that cannot be solved by gas and liquid chromatography. The application is very extensive and the development is very rapid. According to industry estimates, about 25% of all separations have involved difficult-to-handle substances, and supercritical fluid chromatography can achieve satisfactory results. Supercritical fluids have physical properties that are extremely advantageous for separation, which are just between the gas and the liquid. The diffusion coefficient and viscosity of the supercritical fluid are close to that of gas chromatography, so the mass transfer resistance of the solute is small, and rapid separation can be obtained. On the other hand, its density is similar to that of liquid chromatography, which facilitates the separation and analysis of substances with high thermal instability relative to molecular mass at lower temperatures. In addition, the physical and chemical properties of supercritical fluids, such as diffusion, viscosity, and solvent forces, are functions of density. Therefore, as long as the density of the fluid is changed, the properties of the fluid can be changed, and it is not necessary to pass the gas-liquid equilibrium curve from a similar gas to a similar liquid. Supercritical fluid chromatography is widely used in environmental protection, medicine, food and agriculture. Development and application of capillary electrochromatography Capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is a new separation technique developed on the basis of capillary electrophoresis and microcolumn liquid chromatography. Due to technical limitations, until the 1990s, the research of capillary electrochromatography was rapidly developed. At present, capillary electrochromatography is the leader tool in drug analysis, focusing on the separation of drug-related impurities and the separation of chiral drugs. The analysis targets mainly neutral drugs and polycyclic aromatic compounds. With the continuous improvement and improvement of capillary electrochromatography technology, it will be applied in the analysis of biotechnology, environmental protection, agricultural chemistry, fine chemical products, food industry and other fields. According to the current development trend of capillary electrochromatography technology, CEC as a developing separation technology will have wider application prospects in the foreseeable future. Since the establishment of chromatography, whether it is the development and improvement of basic theory of chromatography, new separation mode, new stationary phase equipment, chromatography or capillary electrophoresis instruments, it has been rapidly developed in its practical application. In terms of column type, classical columns are currently commonly used. The capillary column is very suitable for trace analysis and has fast analysis speed and low sample consumption, which is one of the future development directions of the column type. It is foreseeable that future chromatographic technologies will be developed in conjunction with other technologies, to high precision, high sensitivity and miniaturization. About Creative Proteomics Established in 2004, Creative Proteomics has gradually developed into an integrated company that provides proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, and bioinformatics analysis services to researchers in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, agriculture and nutrition industries, as well as academic and government organizations. With a continuing focus on quality, we are proud of satisfying the needs of our clients both at home and abroad covering more than 50 countries and districts.
  10. Having solar panels installed at your home is a great first step towards being more energy-efficient. It can really help to cut down on your energy costs as well. Here are four of our best tips to help ensure you get the most out of your home solar panels things year. Keep Them Clean This can sound like a very simple feat. However, keeping up with regular maintenance can sometimes be tricky. When it comes to your solar panels, they need to remain clean to work effectively. When debris gets stuck on top of the solar panels, it can prevent them from in-taking the UV light. This will make your panels less effective at manufacturing solar energy. Cut Down Shading Branches For your solar panels to work at their optimal state, you need to have them in the direct sunlight. When your trees mature, the branches will grow further out, and they can create shading over the panels. You should take a look at your shrubbery every few weeks and trim any branches that are shading your panels. This will help to assure they stay effective throughout the day. Ensure They Stay Cool Your solar panels have semiconductors inside of them that transfer the UV rays into usable solar energy. As the semiconductors heat up, they become less efficient at their job. Therefore, it’s important to consider ways to keep your solar panels cool throughout the day. The most effective is to have at least a seven-inch cushion between your roof and the panels. This allows for proper circulation that cools down the panels throughout the daytime. Ensure Your Batteries Are Efficient You can do everything possible to make your solar panels as efficient as can be. However, you must consider where the energy is going. Your system doesn’t use all the solar energy as it’s created by your solar panels. Rather, your system stores unused energy in batteries. If your batteries are outdated or ineffective, it can really wreak havoc on the amount of solar energy that your system maintains for your use. You should be updating your batteries and ensuring they’re just as optimal as your system to get the most out of it. Installing solar panels is a great first step towards being greener. Getting your system to run effectively should be one of your top concerns. The more effective your system is, the less you’ll have to spend on energy costs each month.
  11. Learning to take care of the environment outside is something that should be passed down to your children. There’s no one right way to institute this knowledge. Each family will be a bit different in how they show their love for the environment. If you’re not sure where to start, here are four eco-friendly activities that you can do with the family. Composting There are many guides out there on how to make compost bins at home. You can make this project as small as a Rubbermaid container or as large as a trash container in your backyard. You and your family can decide on what size compost pile works best for you. Balanced compost piles should have browns, such as wood chips and dead leaves, greens, such as fruit and vegetable scraps and lawn clippings, and water. Aside from that, how you compost is completely up to you and your family. Your family will have fun building your compost area and taking care of it regularly. Opt for Reusable Items The convenience of throw-away items tends to get the attention of many families. However, by opting for reusable items that require a little bit of cleaning from time to time, you and your family can do your part to save the environment. The best part about this strategy is that it’s one that you can continue to employ well into the future. Make it a regular activity to find ways to replace throw-away items with reusable ones. Some popular examples are lunch bags, water bottles, and shopping bags. Replace Incandescent Bulbs One really cool way to visually show your children how little things can make a difference is changing out the incandescent bulbs in your home. When you replace these with CFL lights, they use significantly less energy. Allow your kids to read the labeling to see how much each CFL bulb is saving in energy costs compared to your old incandescent bulbs. Teach the Off When Not in Use Policy Conserving energy and reducing your family’s carbon footprint is as easy as just remembering to turn off items when you’re not using them. This is an important habit to teach your children to help them conserve energy in the future. Start with items like lights and televisions. When they get into the habit of turning those off whenever they’re not using them or when they leave the room, you can move on to bigger things. Next teach them to turn off and unplug appliances and other items once the most-used ones become a habit. Not only will this decrease your family’s carbon footprint, it will safe you on your power bill. Your kid might not appreciate that now, but if they get the habit down, they’ll appreciate it when they’re older and paying the bill. Teaching your children the importance of being eco-friendly is a priceless trait. While there are many ways to do so, you may find that some tactics work better for your family than others. The above are just four activities you can try out with your family.
  12. Chemokines are small protein families that play a central role in inflammation. During the inflammatory process, chemokines are locally produced at the site of noxious stimuli and act as central agents to recruit immune cells expressing their cognate receptors, 7 transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). CCL20, an alternatively named liver and activation-regulated chemokine, is a soluble chemokine expressed by epithelial cells. Epithelial keratinocytes and synovial-lining cells are known to produce large amounts of CCL20 during homeostatic as well as inflammatory and pathological conditions such as cancer, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The homologous receptor for CCL20 is CC chemokine receptor 6; CCL20 antibody is the only chemokine known to interact with CCR6. In response to CCL20 signaling, immune cells with CCR6, such as immature dendritic cells, effector/memory T-cells, and B cells, migrate and infiltrate surrounding tissues, thereby activating the inflammatory cascade. Because ccl20 cancer expression is significantly enhanced in inflammation induced by inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, CCL20-CCR6 interaction is thought to be pathologically inflammatory. The process plays a role. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. The first sign of RA is often synovitis, which appears as a swollen, painful joint. Although specific factors that initiate synovitis are not known, synovial lining epithelial cells and synovial fibroblasts are considered to be major inducers of the inflammatory response. Synovial fluid from RA patients is effective chemistries - attracting human monocytes and pro-inflammatory T helper 17 cells, which then induce and worsen the RA inflammatory process. Because reactive synoviocytes produce large amounts of CCL20, and CCR6 is the major receptor for Th17 cells, the CCL20-CCR6 interaction is thought to play during the inflammatory process. play a key role in. The CCL20-CCR6 interaction can also play an important role in certain types of dermatitis. Psoriasis, for example, a harmful psoriasis event that begins in the skin is followed by infiltration of Th17 cells. Because CCR6 is expressed on the surface of Thl7 cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and tissue damage effector T cells, CCL20 can represent the major chemoattractant of these cell types in psoriasis. Further evidence for the importance of the CCL20-CCR6 interaction can be found in the study of the psoriasis mouse model induced by interleukin 23. In this model, injection of IL-23 resulted in inflammation of interleukin 22 (IL-22)-dependent psoriasis. However, Ccre+ mice did not present psoriasis-like symptoms when injected with IL-23, indicating that CCR6 requires the development of psoriasis. Human keratinocytes produce large amounts of CCL20, particularly under the influence of the cytokine interleukin-17, IL-22 and TNF-α derived from Th17. While CCL20 and CCR6 are rarely detected in normal skin, both present increased expression levels in atopic dermatitis and pustular psoriasis. Strong induction of CCL20 and accumulation of CCR6+ cells can be observed in microscopic immunohistochemical analysis of human dermatitis lesions. These observations provide additional evidence for the role of CCL20 and CCR6 in the inflammatory process of dermatitis. MAb biologics currently available for the treatment of immune disorders can be roughly divided into three groups: immunostimulatory cytokine inhibitors, immune cell depletion, and A subsidiary molecular blocker. These biological products may be useful for treating inflammatory diseases; however, due to the gradual decrease in the rate of non-response or response to these treatments, for patients with new mechanisms of action to cater for, for example, CCL20/CCR6-mediated disorders There is an urgent need for alternative biological products for medical needs. The antibodies of the subject invention represent the alternative biological product.
  13. Earlier
  14. As more and more people continue to move to cities, the need for more effective management of resources continues to rise. It is projected that approximately six out of ten people will be populating urban areas by the year 2030, and this calls for major changes in the way that cities function. An increase in the number of city dwellers means an increase in the use of natural resources, and for countries with more developed economies, this means taking a smarter, more sustainable approach to meeting the basic needs of the urban citizens. Here are some of the examples of smart city solutions that are slowly, but surely, shaping the future. Improved traffic flow When it comes to dense urban areas, one of the priorities is finding ways to improve traffic flow. Major cities such as New York make use of electric buses as a means of reducing traffic. Sensors are installed in both buses and at traffic lights, and the way this works is when the bus nears the traffic lights, they either extend the green light so that the bus passes or in case of red light, it changes to green so as to prioritize buses and reduce the time spent commuting. In Oslo, we’re seeing attempts at reducing the carbon footprint of cars. The way they’re cutting down the emissions is they’re banning the circulation of passenger cars as well as reconstructing transportation network. Traffic management for improved air quality Another big issue that urban areas are facing is the low quality of air, especially in densely populated areas. Not only is air pollution having a detrimental effect on the environment, but it’s also responsible for a number of health problems city dwellers are experiencing. One of the ways cities are trying to improve air quality is through efficient traffic management. Copenhagen is one of the cities that are conducting an experiment that has the goal of acquiring data about traffic and air quality at the intersections, and the results they yield should improve traffic management. By closely monitoring the intersections experts are able to establish a connection between air pollution and the regulation of traffic, thus providing a better understanding of health benefits that data-driven traffic management would bring. Public lighting solutions Speaking of the high frequency of people and vehicles in urban areas, public lighting is another aspect of city design that requires a modern approach. Because they operate non-stop, public spaces need to be well-lit at all times, which calls for durable, energy-efficient public lighting solutions that require little to no maintenance. From streets and intersections to metro, airport, and railway stations, a quality LED street lights manufacturer could be the answer to the increased need for optimal visibility and low energy consumption, two important aspects of sustainable public lighting solutions. Once integrated, these installations will enhance the flow of passengers and vehicles while ensuring a smarter, eco-friendlier approach to illuminating public spaces. Smart healthcare system As technology progresses, we’re seeing its effect on a wide range of systems, and healthcare is no exception. This is especially true for Asia, where the healthcare system is witnessing a revolution. HOSPI is one of the innovations in the Changi General Hospital located in Singapore. This transport robot is able to autonomously navigate through the hospital, carrying medications, documents, and specimens, operating throughout four buildings this hospital consists of. Robots are also transforming the healthcare industry of Japan, where robotic nursing care is replacing the need for human nurses, thus saving hospitals’ time and money. Better control of electricity consumption As the electricity expenditure continues to grow, many countries are trying to gain better control over the electrical energy that is being distributed. While this notion is still just a goal for countries in the European Union, Britain has already managed to achieve real-time electricity consumption control. Numerous homes across England, Scotland, and Wales are currently making use of smart meters, and the citizens are given an insight into the light and gas consumption in their household, and the plan is to install these devices in all the homes on the island by the year 2020. While the number of urban citizens continues to rise at a rapid pace, cities are facing an array of challenges brought by urbanization and a significant inflow of people. Improving the quality of life of city dwellers is one of the guiding principles of smart cities, with sustainability as their top priority. These five smart city solutions offer a green, eco-friendly approach to the environment, and are a prime example of what we can expect to see in urban cities of tomorrow.
  15. Background and overview Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is considered as the "gold standard" for methylation sequencing. The principle is that it is treated with Bisulfite, and the C base which is not methylated in the genome is converted into U, and after PCR amplification, it becomes T, which is distinguished from the C base which has methylation modification, and is combined with high throughput sequencing technology, which can be used to determine whether a CpG/CHG/CHH site is methylated, namely to be used to map a single-base resolution genome-wide DNA methylation map. The application Mapping of epigenetic features of tumor microenvironment using whole genome bisulfite sequencing: Research Background The development and progression of solid tumors involves dynamic interactions between tumor epithelial cells and their microenvironment. Currently, most epigenetic studies on tumors focus on epithelial tumor cells. There are few studies on the molecular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment that maintains the tumor phenotype. Tumor-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are a major group of tumor microenvironments. CAF can promote the migration and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. The epigenetic signature of CAF is unclear. Research content In this paper, WGBS technology was used to detect methylation of tumor-associated fibroblast CAF and non-malignant prostate fibroblast NPF, and the differential methylation region DMR between the two was screened and DMR annotation was performed. The results show that DMR enrichment in CAF occurs in the gene regulatory region, and the combined analysis with RNAseq demonstrates that these DMRs regulate the transcription of genes. In addition, the DMR gene annotation results in CAF show that DMR is enriched for tumor-associated signaling pathways. These DMRs screened in CAF can be used to diagnose prostate cancer. Research results Non-malignant prostate fibroblast NPF was isolated from 4 cases of prostate cancer isolated from CAF and 4 adjacent tissues. Whole genome methylation sequencing (WGBS) was performed, and the average sequencing depth of each sample was > 7x. The results show that NPF and CAF have similar methylation profiles. A comparison of NPF and CAF showed that there were 7,534 DMRs (differential methylation regions) between the two groups, with CAF having more hypomethylated regions (5038). It is found that the DMR identified in CAF is enriched in the regulatory region of the gene. The main features include: most of it is outside the CpG island region; the hypomethylated DMR is more located in the promoter region and closer to the transcription initiationSite (TSS); DMR is enriched in the enhancement sub-region. Gene annotation of DMR, 30% of DMR is enriched for tumor-associated signaling pathways. To further investigate the role of DMR in the regulatory region, RNAseqwas used to detect gene expression levels. The results showed that 445 MDRs were significantly associated with 220 DEGs (differentially expressed genes), of which 162 DMR were associated with up-regulation of DEG. And this correlation can be verified by BSP and RT-PCR. Compare methylation data in prostate cancer epithelial cells and prostate cancer tissues in the TCGA database, of which 50 hypermethylated DMRs and 15 hypomethylated DMRs can be considered tumor-specific DMRs for prostate cancer Diagnosis (AUC > 0.8). Further reading: Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing (WGBS) Data Analysis Pipeline and Principles and Workflow of Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing Reference Pidsley R, Lawrence MG, Zotenko E, et al. Enduring epigenetic landmarks define the cancer microvironment. Genome Res 2018; 28(5): 625-638. (IF: 10.101)
  16. Cytokines are proteins or small molecular peptides that transmit information between cells and have immune-regulating and effecting functions, including hemopoiesis, cell growth and repair of damaged tissues. Cytokines can be divided into Il34, interferon, tumor necrosis factor super family, colony stimulating factor, chemokine, growth factor, IRF1, etc. Many cytokines play roles in the body through paracrine, autocrine or endocrine, and have multiple physiological characteristics such as pleiotropy, overlap, antagonism and synergy, forming a very complex cytokine regulatory network that participates in a variety of important physiological functions of the human body. The realization of cytokine function mainly plays a biological role by binding to the corresponding cytokine receptors on the cell surface. The combination of cytokines and their receptors initiates complex intramolecular interactions that ultimately lead to changes in cell gene transcription. Participate in immune response and immune regulation, regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, stimulate hematopoietic function, stimulate cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, induce or inhibit cytotoxic effects, and finally induce apoptosis. As the main cytokine, Il34 is a cellular substance produced by various cells and plays a role in white blood cells. Interleukin originally refers to the cytokines produced by white blood cells and playing a regulatory role in white blood cells, but now it refers to a group of cytokines with basically clear molecular structure and biological functions and an important regulatory role that are uniformly named. It belongs to the same category of cytokines as hemocyte growth factor. They coordinate and interact with each other to complete hematopoietic and immune regulation functions. Interleukins play an important role in the transmission of information, activation and regulation of immune cells, activation, proliferation and differentiation of T and B cells, and inflammatory response. A substance similar to the function of cytokines is kinin release-related peptidase, which is the main rate-limiting enzyme in the kinin system. Serine protease, which is found in most tissues and body fluids, is also a kind of endopeptide enzyme, of which KLK3 is the most important component. Different from the above-mentioned cytokines, the kinin release-related peptidase specifically clews the substrate peptide at the carbon terminal, which can lyse the kinin and release the active kinin, which plays a regulatory role in the cardiovascular system and renal function. KLK is divided into two major groups: plasma KLK and tissue KLK, which are converted from prekallikin and KLK precursors, respectively. They differ greatly in molecular weight, substrate, immunological properties, gene structure, and kinin types released. Plasma KLK, also known as Fletcher factor, is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is specifically expressed in hepatocytes. In addition, IRS1 is an important anti-nutrient factor in soybean and some other plant feeds, which is closely related to KSR1. Trypsin inhibitors are widely found in beans, cereals, oil crops and other plants. Ras kinase inhibitors are distributed in all parts of these crops, but mainly exist in the seeds of crops. In seeds, ras kinase inhibitors are mainly distributed in protein-rich tissues or organs, located in protein bodies, vacuoles or in cell fluids. The activity of ras kinase inhibitor iron was different in different crop seeds. Ras kinase inhibitor activity is usually highest in soybean. It protects the yolk and egg embryo by preventing protein breakdown and preventing bacteria from reproducing in the egg. Cytokine research has very important theoretical and practical significance, it helps to clarify immune regulation mechanism of the molecular level, contribute to disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment, especially the use of genetic engineering technology in the production of recombinant cytokines have been used in the treatment of tumor, infection, inflammation, hematopoietic dysfunction, etc, and received good curative effect, has very broad application prospects. Generally speaking, cytokines are a large group of substances with certain tissue distribution specificity, which usually depends on the tissue distribution or cell expression specificity of their corresponding receptors. By binding to receptors, downstream signaling pathways, such as the stat pathway, are initiated, and eventually active transcription factors are formed to enable the expression of proteins that enhance phagocytosis, promote differentiation, and regulate immunity. Of course, in addition to IRF1, many factors derived from lymphocytes or macrophages are also involved in the expression and regulation of immune responses related to cell function. Lymphocyte cytokines are derived from lymphocytes, and the biological activities of various factors are different, such as macrophage activation and T cell reproduction. However, according to the current research level, the physical and chemical properties of the factors themselves are not clear. In addition, during the study of the immune response, many bioactive molecules were found in the supernatant of mitogen stimulated cell culture, and the researchers named them after the activity measured by themselves. Nearly 100 kinds of factors were reported over a decade. Later, by means of molecular biology, it was found that many factors named after biological activities were actually the same substance with pleiotropic effects.
  17. There has been a lot of discussion about the climate in recent years, and there is no doubt that doing everything you can to conserve the resources of the planet is the right move. Is it worth it to make the exterior of your home eco-friendly? Yes, it is. It will not only save you a lot of money but will also allow you to contribute towards making this world a better place. Moreover, you can take the opportunity to apply architectural designs that enhance the beauty of your home. The following four tips will help you make your home environmentally friendly. Go for Green Materials There is no better way to make the exterior of your home environmental friendly than by using green materials. What are green materials? These are materials that are, for the most part, renewable. Examples of these are recycled and reclaimed wood. Normally, they are cheap, not toxic, and can be used to conserve energy. You can use these materials to create a deck for your home. There is no better way to spend an evening than feeling the soft breeze of the summer as you admire the wonders of nature in your backyard made from materials that are in harmony with the planet. Upgrade Your Energy System Few things are as eco-friendly as a solar power system. The addition of solar panels to your home will not only allow you to energize every bit of it with a renewable source of energy but also save you a ton of cash on your electricity bill. Of course, while the cost of solar panels have dropped over the years, they can still be a bit pricey. If they are out of your price range, you can opt for energy-efficient lights such as LEDs that emit less heat and reduce the consumption of electricity in your home. Create Natural Soil Why spend money on mulch when you can make your own. Select a small area in your backyard to make a compost pile from food scraps and dead leaves. Turn it often, mix, and after a few months, the components will become a nutrient-rich dark soil mixture. This can be used to grow any vegetation that you want to have in your garden, which will add extra oxygen to the planet. Implement a New Water System Keeping a luscious garden can be more expensive than you think. Instead of using a sprinkler or water hose, you can reclaim the water with a drainage system that takes rainwater from the roof and deliver it to your lawn or backyard. This allows you to enjoy abundant vegetation without an exorbitant water bill. You may also use septic tanks that prevent contaminants in the wastewater from leaking to groundwater. There are endless ways to make your home eco-friendly. Using green materials, upgrading your power, making natural soil, and implementing a new water system are a few approaches you can use to save your hard-earned cash, conserve the planet, and remodel your home. Apply at least one of the strategies discussed and show everybody you know the benefits of going green.
  18. For you, pets might be a valued part of your family, so you want to make sure they’re treated right. For example, the RSPCA noted that 19% of dog owners take man’s best friend with them on holiday, so it’s important to plan their journey ahead of time. In Sydney, there are various rules that explore the transportation and safety of pets on public transport. These refer purely to regular pets, as all guidance/assistance animals are accepted on public transport, provided you have an Assistance Animal Permit from the Transport Concessions Office. No pets are allowed on Sydney Metro/Train or coach services, or at any of their stations. They are, however, available on bus, ferry and light rail services. For all services, you need to gain permission from either the driver or the crew. If allowed, the pet must be restrained in a suitable box or container, not be placed on any seats, and must be kept clean and calm. The driver has final say on the admittance of the animal. Other states such as Victoria and South Australia are slightly more lenient with train travel, provided the animal is fitted with a muzzle or contained. Traveling by car can be an entirely different story, as everyone’s car houses pets in different ways. There are still some important rules to cover, however, to ensure that your pets enjoy the trip as much as you do. Before you leave you should keep the number for your vet and pet insurance handy, so they can be contacted in the event of an emergency. The animal should also be taken to the vet before the trip, so they can receive the necessary immunisations and treatments. Dogs are legally required to be restrained with a dog seat belt or harness, while cats should be placed in a cat carrier. Air-con should be kept on to ensure your pet is kept cool and comfortable, or at least allow for adequate ventilation if this is not possible. It’s a good idea to prepare some treats, toys and bottles of water for your pet while on your trip, in addition to having your leash handy if they need to go for a walk. Having a pooper-scooper and/or plastic bag ready to pick up any droppings is also recommended. Plan ahead to allow for regular breaks and rest stops – at least every two hours or so - so that both you and your pet can get out and stretch. Make sure they are fitted with updated ID tags or are microchipped, so you can be contacted if they are lost. Perhaps you can plan a stop ahead of time and allow your pet to let out some excitement. If you’re going through the city, find a fun area with Parkhound and you can rent out a one-time space for you to stretch your legs and have some fun with your pet. If you intend on taking your furry friend with you on a plane – for a domestic flight, for example – check with the airline to ensure what their policies for animals are. Some may allow you to keep the animal in the cabin, while others may only allow you to store your pet in the cargo in a carry case. As with all transportation, it’s important that you weigh up the pros and cons of any forms of travel so that you can keep your pets healthy and happy. Some pets may not take well to the movements and sounds of cars, trains and planes, so make sure to research what may be the best ways to transport your pet to your next destination.
  19. The planet needs our help, but we also need to manage to stay warm during the colder winter months. Staying green while staying warm this winter may be easier than you think. Here a few tips to help you get started. Bring Mother Nature Indoors A great to help combat multiple issues during the winter months is by having some indoor plants to keep you company. Not only can plants make living spaces more inviting and pleasant to the eye, but they also have the ability to trap moisture and heat inside your home. You can also find plants that work to keep you cool during the summer months, as well as warmer in the winter months. Use Energy Efficient Appliances The best way to reduce your carbon footprint is by reducing the amount of energy your home is wasting. This can include things such as keeping the heater a few degrees cooler than normal and making sure doors stay shut, but it is more important to ensure you are using the most energy-efficient appliances and heaters. The Energy Star logo is a good way to make sure you are selecting the products that have been tested and proven to be energy efficient. Replace Your Windows A lot of our home’s heat is wasted through our windows. Even when we keep them shut, there is still a lot of air that is seeping through. A great way to maximize your energy efficiency is by replacing your windows with something that is more energy-efficient, such as double glazed windows. These windows put multiple panes of glass into one window with spacers in between. This offers more durability and reduces your heating costs throughout the winter. Buy In-Season Fruits and Vegetables While most of this list is centered on keeping us warm, it is important to remember that our actions can have a greater effect on the world as a whole. When we buy produce that is not in-season, that food must be shipped from other parts of the country or world. This increase in transportation burns more fuels and releases more harmful chemicals into the air. Delicious winter produce to try includes pears, beets, blackberries, and carrots. It is going to take all of us working together to help heal our planet. You can do your part more easily by following these handy tips when the weather starts to turn colder.
  20. As a supplier in producing leading protein products and providing efficient protein services, Creative BioMart has been always striving great efforts to satisfy its clients’ needs and fulfil its goal to set up a standard for protein production as well as to accelerate the development of biochemical science and technologies. Creative BioMart combines innovative technologies, cost-effective products and services with simple procurement and fast-speed delivery, achieving a comprehensive laboratory solution with great values to scientists and researchers. Why are you suggested to choose Protein Labeling service provided by Creative BioMart? To be subjective and specific, here are the advantages of the company’s protein labeling service that you could not ignore and could benefit your research development: Custom Service Upon Your Needs Creative BioMart provides custom protein labeling and conjugation service in accordance with personalized needs and requirements. The company claims to supply a variety of labels, protocols and conjugates on the basis of high quality, simple, time-saving yet efficient approaches, including but not limited: · Enzyme/Antibody conjugation · Fluorescent Labeling in Vitro · Fluorescent Tagged Protein in Vivo · Protein Biotinylation · Stable Isotope Labeling To take Stable Isotope Labeling as an example, Creative BioMart has contracted over 500 protein production projects with an overall success rate of 90 %. The purity of those isotopic labeled proteins is beyond 95% and the isotope enrichment c.a. is 98%. Professional Analysis and Full Report of Variables Affecting Labeling and Conjugation Behaviors Creative BioMart pays great importance to generate a full report along with the product delivery. It provides a thorough analysis to some critical variables affecting the labeling and conjugation behaviors. · In vivo labeling behavior · Immunogenicity and In vitro stability of the linker group · Types of labeling or conjugation reaction: specific site vs. random coupling · Labeling/Conjugate stoichiometry · Sites of labeling/conjugation: to reduce steric hindrance and minimize negative impact on folding and activity Creative BioMart also provides structural analysis of the labeled proteins. The company’s NMR laboratory provides an accurate structural analysis on the labeled proteins. Normally the analysis will be done after the appropriate labeled proteins have been produced and purified on scale. Since 2005, Creative BioMart has provided thousands of high quality proteins featured in recombinant proteins, native proteins and GMP proteins to support researchers and scientists in biochemical and pharmaceutical industry. With years’ development, the company has updated a wide range of protein techniques to guarantee the product and service quality, including protein expression, protein purification, protein labeling, etc. To learn more about the company and its protein labeling service, visit https://www.creativebiomart.net/Protein-Labeling.htm or send your inquiry to contact@creative-biomart.com.
  21. For businesses that routinely find themselves working with chemicals or hazardous goods, it’s essential to do everything possible to minimise their risk. Of course, there’s an incredible risk when working with explosives, corrosive acids and poisons, though with the correct precautions and procedures, these risks dissipate almost entirely. If you’re having trouble educating your workforce or just looking for a few steps on how to minimise chemical risks, we have four essential steps for you below. There’s always a multi-step process when it comes to minimising risk, but it’s not too hard to remember, and we’ve taken a look into these below. Fortunately, a few somewhat simple changes can work wonders for the safety of your business, so making these won’t be very difficult at all. Let’s make your workplace as safe as can be, take a look at our tips below. 1. Identify and Understand This is the essential first step to reducing the risk of harm in the workplace. Nor yourself or an employee can effectively deal with a chemical, poison or explosive without first knowing what it is, what its risks are, and how to store it safely. With that in mind, it’s crucial to take a look at the Safety Data Sheet that has come with the substance and work out just what it is. If it should be stored in a compliant way, then invest in a Storemasta cabinet, and you’ll be checking off an essential requirement: safe storage. Once you’ve identified what a chemical is, and how it should be handled, you can then move on to assessing how best to deal with it. 2. Assessing Risk and Potential Harm As we now know the substance and its basic requirements for storage, we can then move on to understanding the risks it poses to the workplace. You’ll need to know whether the chemical is going to cause vapours to spread through the warehouse or workplace, or if it can catch fire under certain conditions, for example. We suggest undertaking a risk assessment of that specific hazardous good and learning about the potential risks it poses. In doing so, you’ll have an in-depth look at what the substance is capable of, and how to keep it from doing any harm. In the end, after assessments and some brief research, you should know exactly what the substance’s risk is, and how to mitigate it. 3. Work to Control Risk The first two steps in our list will have shown you just what a chemical is, how it should be handled, and what harm it can cause. With these points in mind, you should then develop a plan and educate staff on how to control risk when working with that specific chemical. A few tips we suggest are: - Adapting workplace tasks that could result in injury - Investing in personal protection equipment or PPE - Change workplace paths to keep staff away from an unsafe area. Without a doubt, prevention is the best medicine when it comes to reducing the risk of a hazardous chemical harming someone. It’s also a good idea to implement the following tips to reduce risk further: - Invest in correct ventilation for chemicals. - Install a Storemasta cabinet for storage. - Automate or enhance tasks that require chemical use. Adding these few tips is essential to relatively neutralising risk, regardless of how dangerous or hazardous a substance may be. 4. Maintain Safety The final step to minimising hazardous good's risk is to implement a few changes in the workplace that revolve around the hazards themselves. These could include permanently changing workplace tasks, implementing mandatory workplace safety meetings and developing a workplace-wide safety protocol. If you plan on maintaining the safety of your workplace, there's little chance that the hazards will again crop up, keeping everyone safe in the long term. It may also be a good idea to have a professional WHS risk assessment worker come to your workplace on a routine basis throughout the year to run a few tests and take a look at how things are going. These people will be able to spotlight potential risks and let you know what to do to reduce the chance of an injury.
  22. In the long-term natural selection and evolution, the organization and properties of organism constituent materials have been continuously optimized and improved, so that simple mineral and organic materials are used to meet complex mechanical and functional requirements. The principle is to make best adaptation to the living environment. Nature is a mentor of mankind. The superior properties of natural biomaterials can provide useful insights into the optimal design of man-made materials, especially the development of high-performance biomimetic materials. Among them, functional gradient design is one of the basic performance optimization strategies that are commonly used in biomaterials. Revealing the gradient design criteria in nature and the corresponding performance optimization mechanism are of great significance for guiding the design and promotion of high performance biomimetic gradient materials. Recently in a study, Zhang Zhefeng, Department of Materials Fatigue and Fracture Research, Shenyang Institute of Materials Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, collaborated with Robert O. Ritchie, professor at the University of California at Berkeley, and Marc A. Meyers, professor at the University of California, San Diego, revealed that the gradient structure orientation features are widely existed in biological tissues and materials. They also proposed a new idea of bionic design to improve the contact damage resistance of materials. The mechanical properties of gradient changes are obtained by controlling the orientation of microstructures to achieve local stiffness. The optimal distribution and matching of strength and toughness improve the overall mechanical properties, as shown in Figure 1. Through mechanical analysis and numerical simulation, they established the quantitative relationship between structural orientation and various mechanical properties, clarified the mechanism of material damage resistance improvement, and pointed out the design method of corresponding biomimetic gradient structure. Figure 1. On this basis, they further summarized the basic functional gradient material design forms and principles commonly found in nature, and took typical biological materials as examples, according to composition and composition, organizational structure (including the arrangement of structural units, spatial distribution, scale and orientation), interface and different types of gradients in the multi-level structure scale combination and matching ideas to concretely describe and analyze the gradient in biomaterials, summed up the role and corresponding mechanism of gradient design in material performance optimization. At the same time, they summarized the recent progress in the design and application of biomimetic gradient materials, especially the application of new material preparation technologies, such as 3D printing in the field of biomimetic gradient materials, and pointed out the future scientific issues and challenges that need to be addressed in natural and biomimetic gradient materials studies. The research was funded by the Institute of Metals, the introduction of outstanding scholars, and the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative project of the US Air Force Scientific Research Office. Related results were recently published in Acta Biomaterialia 44 (2016) 31-40 and Progress in Materials Science (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2017.04.013). About natural materials Biomaterials can be classified into two main groups: synthetic and natural biomaterials. The latter exhibit several advantages over the former, such as biocompatibility, inherent biodegradability, remodeling and critical biological functions. Therefore, natural biomaterials are usually applied in the repair or replacement of damaged human tissues and organs. They have the ability to adequately support cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. For example, natural polymers have been used to make natural hydrogels as extracellular matrix that mimic the biological milieu to bridge the gap between conventional cell cultures and complex native in vivo environments. Cellulose, a polysaccharide mainly found in plants can promote bone regeneration. Another example is the silk fiber produced by spiders, its biodegradability is ideal for applications like surgical suture and drug delivery. In Matexcel, our selection of naturally biomaterials and their derivatives includes DNA and protein-based biomaterials (collagen, gelatin, fibrin, silk, elastin) and polysaccharide-based biomaterials (cellulose, chitin/chitosan, glucose, alginate, hyaluronic acid).
  23. Park cleanups are a helpful way to heal the environment and to beautify the community. When planning a successful park cleanup, organizers should consider all the necessary details in order to make the event a success. Hosts of local park cleanups should keep the following information in mind: Use Eco Trash Bags When cleaning the park up, it's important to avoid contributing further to polluting the environment with plastic trash bags. As regular trash bags take over 1,000 years to decompose in a landfill, participants in park cleanups should avoid using these bags at all. When cleaning up the park, hosts should provide participants with eco-friendly alternatives like compostable trash bags, These bags are made of organic materials that won’t cause any additional harm to the environment over time. Rent an Industrial-Sized Dumpster With over 100 million pounds of garbage found in the nation’s parks every year, hosts of park cleanups need a suitable way to dispose of this garbage. With a dumpster rental of an industrial-sized container, volunteers are able to effectively collect and dispose of trash. Once the cleanup is complete, the dumpster will be picked up and the park will be trash-free. Highlight Sections with Safe Access From the trash left by park visitors to debris from trees and plants, navigating a park cleanup can be dangerous if the necessary precautions aren’t taken. It is up to the cleanup’s host to identify the safest sections of the park for volunteers to clean. This way, participants can work in teams to clean the park as efficiently as possible. Speak with Proper City Authorities While it is possible to perform a park cleanup with a few people during an informal event, this isn’t the ideal way to plan a park cleanup. For cleanup to have the most impact, interested parties should get in contact with the city government. When planning a community event like a park cleanup, it’s best for the organizers to speak with the proper city authorities beforehand. As parks are the responsibility of the government, events like cleanups should always be ordained by the authorities in charge. Once the go-ahead is given by the city, it's time to publicize the event and search for volunteers. Cleanups help to bring the community together as dedicated residents work to keep their local parks beautiful. With these four tips, your next park clean up will be a success.
  24. A promising new approach to treating some types of cancer is to program the patient’s own T cells so that they can destroy the cancer cells. This approach, called CAR-T cell therapy, is currently available against certain types of leukemia, but so far it does not treat solid tumors such as lung or breast tumors well. Now, in a new study, researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed a new approach to improve this therapy, making it a weapon against almost any type of cancer. Specifically, they developed a vaccine that significantly enhanced the anti-tumor T cell population and allowed these T cells to aggressively invade solid tumors. The results of the study were published in the July 12, 2019 issue of Science, titled “Enhanced CAR-T cell activity against solid tumors by vaccine boosting through the chimeric receptor.” In a study of mice, these researchers found that they were able to completely eliminate 60% of the solid tumors in mice that received CAR-T cell therapy but also received booster vaccination. In treating solid tumors, these genetically modified T cells alone have little effect. Darrell Irvine, author of the paper and deputy director of the Koch Institute for Comprehensive Cancer Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said, “By adding a vaccine, CAR-T cell therapy, which had no effect on survival, resulted in complete remission in more than half of the mice treated with the vaccine.” In addition, the first author of the paper was Leyuan Ma, a postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Targeting tumors So far, the FDA has approved two types of CAR-T cell therapy, and both of them are used to treat leukemia. In both therapies, T cells extracted from the patient’s blood are programmed to target proteins or antigens found on the surface of B cells. (“CAR” in CAR-T cell therapy is an abbreviation for chimeric antigen receptor.) Scientists believe that one reason such therapies do not work well for solid tumors is that tumors often create an immunosuppressive environment that loses function before T cells reach their targets. To solve this problem, given that lymph nodes have a large population of immune cells, Irvine and his team decided to try to provide a vaccine that enters lymph nodes in order to stimulate CAR-T cells there. “Our guess is that if these T cells can be boosted through the CAR receptor in the lymph nodes, they will receive the correct set of priming signals to make them more functional, so that they can resist shutdown and still function when they enter the tumor,” said Irvine. To develop such a vaccine, the Irvine team used techniques they had discovered several years earlier. They found that by linking the vaccine together with fat molecules called lipid tails, they were able to deliver this vaccine more effectively into the lymph nodes. This lipid tail binds to a protein found in the blood called albumin, which allows the vaccine to hitchhike directly to the lymph nodes. In addition to this lipid tail, this vaccine contains an antigen that stimulates CAR-T cells once they reach the lymph nodes. This antigen can be the same tumor antigen targeted by these T cells or an arbitrary molecule of choice for these researchers. For the latter case, CAR-T cells must be re-engineered so that they can be activated by both this tumor antigen and this arbitrary molecule. When tested in mice, these researchers found that either type of vaccine significantly boosted T cell responses. When mice were given approximately 50,000 CAR-T cells but were not vaccinated, CAR-T cells were barely detectable in their bloodstream. In contrast, when the booster vaccine was given the day after the T cell infusion and again one week later, CAR-T cells proliferated until they constituted 65% of the total T cell population in these mice after two weeks of treatment. This dramatic enhancement of the CAR-T cell population results in complete clearance of glioblastoma, mammary adenoma, and melanoma in many mice. In the absence of vaccination, CAR-T cells had no effect on tumors, whereas after vaccination, CAR-T cells cleared tumors in 60% of mice. Long-term memory Irvine said the technique is also expected to prevent tumor recurrence. Approximately 75 days after the initial treatment, these researchers injected these mice with the same tumor cells as the cells that formed the original tumor, and they were subsequently cleared by the immune system. Then about 50 days later, they injected slightly different tumor cells that did not express the antigen targeted by naïve CAR-T cells, and these mice were also able to eliminate these tumor cells. This suggests that once these CAR-T cells begin to destroy the tumor, the immune system is able to detect other tumor antigens and generate a “memory” T cell population that also targets these tumor antigens. “If we select mice that appear to be cured and rechallenge them with tumor cells, then they will completely eliminate these tumor cells. This is another exciting aspect of such a strategy. One needs to let T cells attack many different antigens to succeed, because if CAR-T cells recognize only one antigen, then the tumor only needs to let this antigen mutate to escape the immune attack. If this therapy induces new T cell priming, then this escape mechanism will become more difficult.” Irvine added. Although most of this study was performed in mice, these researchers found that human cells coated with CAR antigens also stimulate human CAR-T cells, suggesting that this same approach may also work in human patients. This technology has been licensed to a company called Elicio Therapeutics, which is seeking to test it using CAR-T cell therapies already in development. Irvine said, “There is really no barrier to doing this quickly in patients, because if we take CAR-T cells and equip them with an arbitrary peptide ligand, then we don’t have to change these CAR-T cells. I hope that within the next one to two years, this method can be tested on patients anyway.” About the author Starting from a small supplier of proteins and enzymes for academic institutes and biotech companies, Creative BioMart has always been focusing on developing high quality protein products including recombinant protein, GMP proteins, native proteins, assay kit, etc. and efficient protein service. Over the past decade, our products and services are proved to have served our customers well and our brand has become one of the most trustworthy in the market.
  25. Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) combine specificities of two antibodies and simultaneously address different antigens or epitopes. BsAbs with “two-target” functionality can interfere with multiple surface receptors or ligands associated. 1. Development history of three generations of bispecific antibodies The advent of hybridoma technology in the 1970s reminded people whether the same antibody could be used to target two different targets, namely Bispecific Antibody (bsAb). Most of the earliest bispecific antibodies are developed by chemical coupling methods. Although the method is much simple, the resulting products are complex and heterogeneous and difficult to use in industrial production. Until the 1980s, scFv-based recombinant bispecific antibodies appeared and gradually became the focus of research with the popularization of recombinant DNA technology. Amgen/Micromet’s BiTE (Bispecific T cell Engager) is the archetype of the first generation of bispecific antibodies, characterized by a simple structure and two scFvs connection. But it also has obvious disadvantages such as short half-life and low expression. A pump for continuous administration is clinically necessary due to the short half-life with only two hours. Fortunately, the clinical dose of BiTE is less than one tenth of the amount of common antibodies, which virtually solves the problem of mass production. The first recombinant bispecific antibody Blinatumomab (CD3-CD19 BiTE) was finally approved by the FDA in December 2014 for marketing in the United States after various difficulties. Genentech’s Paul Carter team invented the knob-into-holes bispecific antibody in the 1990s as the second-generation bispecific antibodies, with a structure and stability similar to that of natural IgG. Roche/Chugai’s Emicizumab (factor IX and factor X bsAb) using the knob-into-hole technology was approved by the FDA in November 2017 as the second bispecific antibody marketed in the United States. There are currently about 120 bispecific antibodies in different clinical development stages around the world, including third generation bispecific antibodies. If taking T cell-targeted therapy as an example, Roche’s CEA-TCB (CD3-CEA bispecific antibody) is a typical representative of third-generation bispecific antibodies, which utilizes the knob-into-hole technology of second-generation bispecific antibodies, and Roche engineers invented CrossMab technology shortly after the acquisition of Genentech and successfully solved the bottleneck of knob-into-hole in common light chain. In addition, CEA-TCB achieves bivalent binding of tumor antigens and monovalent binding of CD3, enabling the bispecific antibody to produce avidity effects when combined with tumor antigens while reducing CD3 antibody binding toxicity. At present, CEA-TCB has completed Phase 1 clinical trials and achieved satisfactory results. 2. The challenges for bispecific antibodies development Since 1986, the first antibody drug, Muromonab (OKT3), has been approved for marketing, the FDA has approved the listing of 73 antibody drugs by the end of 2017, and there are only two bispecific antibodies listed above. The development of bispecific antibodies lags significantly behind therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, which mainly results from the following reasons: Early bispecific antibody has a difficult expression and poor stability, as well as a complicated production process; The early development cost of bispecific antibodies is significantly higher than that of monoclonal antibodies; Bispecific antibody project involves target biology, structural biology, antibody engineering, and screening strategies. In 2017, the market capacity of antibody drugs broke through the $100 billion mark for the first time. Antibody drugs have become one of the fastest growing areas in the pharmaceutical industry. Bispecific antibodies at the forefront of antibody drug development have long been the development direction of major pharmaceutical companies around the world. It is believed that bispecific antibody will have a considerable market share in the field of solid tumor treatment. Compared with CAR-T, bispecific antibody drugs have the advantages of dose controllable and flexible drug administration period. At the same time, bispecific antibody drugs can also target other immune cells, such as NK, Macrophage, etc. Author Bio Creative Biolabs was established in 2004 by scientists who are dedicated to conquering of cancer. Over the past 10 years, Creative Biolabs has grown into a recognized world leader in antibody (rAb) discovery, engineering, production, and analysis. Standing on the shoulder of a giant, the bispecific antibody (BsAb) team has a collective of experienced scientists committed to providing high-quality services to customers all over the world. Now, with the cutting-edge platforms and methods (quadroma development, chemical conjugation, and genetic engineering), a comprehensive list of bispecific antibody products is available to customers in academia and industry fields.
  26. Brief Introduction to Short Tandem Repeats Microsatellite DNA, also known as short tandem repeats (STR) or simple repeat sequences (SRS or SSR), is widely found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, consisting of a unit of two to thirteen nucleotides repeated hundreds of times in a row on the DNA strand which is about 5% of the eukaryotic genome, the basic unit (core sequence) is 1-6bp. The most common of these is (CA) n and (TG) n, and the human genome has about 5 × 104 ~ 1 × 105 (CA) n repeats which take 10% of the genome. Each microsatellite DNA has the same core sequence structure, the number of repeating units is about 10 to 60 times, and its length is generally not more than 300bp, mostly located in the non-coding region of the gene, intron or untranslated region. which may be present in the Alu sequence or Satellite sequence, but in the coding sequence and exon also can find the presence of microsatellite DNA. The high polymorphism of microsatellite DNA is mainly due to the difference in the number of tandem numbers. There is a big difference in the distribution for microsatellite DNA in different races and populations due to the number of repeat units and repetition, which constituted STR genetic polymorphism. And the number of repetitions between different individuals at a homologous STR site is also different so that STR loci analysis can identify individuals that are similar to fingerprint recognition. It is possible to create a personal gene file by identifying a specific sequence of genomes at particular loci. Currently, there are more than 10,000 STR loci are available. STR analysis has become an important analytical method for individual identification and paternity testing in the field of forensic science. It can be applied to judicial case investigation, that is, genetic fingerprint analysis. The Causes of STR The replication slip caused by mismatches between DNA strands during the mitotic process is considered to be the most common cause of the occurrence of STR, and in general, there will be an average of one-thousandths of microsatellite DNA will undergo replication slippage. The study showed that the rate of tandem duplication at repeat sequences was higher than the probability of point mutations occurring elsewhere in the genome. Most of the replication slides only cause a change in the repeat unit, and the probability of replication slip is different due to the size of the different copy units and different species. STR Detection Method STR analysis is one of the most useful methods in molecular biology which is used to compare specific loci on DNA from two or more samples. There are two common methods for STR detection: capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gel electrophoresis, which can be used to determine the specific amount of microbes Satellite sequence and draw the STR map. Typically, each allele is shared by about 5-20% of people. And the advantages of STR analysis will be reflected in the simultaneous identification of multiple STR loci. Each individual can be identified accurately by the resulting STR map. In theory, if there were 16 STR loci being used in combination, the recognition rate will be 0.999999999998. The Importance of STR Analysis It is still common for cell lines to be misidentified and cross-contamination, although scientists use a variety of traditional methods to identify cells, there are still dozens of cross-contamination happened. And even some researchers found that cell lines were misidentified or cross-contamination while cell identification reports for the higher score study articles publication, resulting in erroneous conclusions. All of which will lead to the waste of research funding and time, and resulting in a large number of invalid or erroneous data that will mislead other researchers. Based on the statistics data, around 20% of the cell lines were misidentified and cross-contamination in the labs so that it is a serious concern for researchers to provide accurate cell line identification and prevent cell lines from cross-contamination. Currently, several STR loci have been developed to analyze cross-contamination and cell types at the same time, that can detect up to 0.1 ng of DNA (about 15 Diploid genomes) with high sensitivity for the trace pollution. All the mentioned above is the complete guide for the Short Tandem Repeat and its importance!
  27. Not only does caring for the environment help the planet, learning how to reduce your emissions and utilize energy more efficiently will help defray costs and wear on your trucks. A big rig has more demands on it than a standard truck. Some of the same techniques that work on smaller trucks still apply when you’re trying to make your rigs more energy efficient, though. The nature of trucking means that massive amounts of fuel and paper are used, but this doesn’t mean that you can’t do anything to cut back. Here are some of the methods that you can employ in order to improve your fleet’s energy efficiency while they’re on the road. Save the Trees Even though the ELD mandate deadline hasn’t arrived yet, it’s still time to start having your drivers track their hours on the road on their phones instead of on paper. You can massively reduce the paper waste created by truckers by simply switching to electronic documentation. Also, you can encourage your drivers to carry a bag in their trucks to throw away paper and plastic products. These can be dropped off at gas stations and truck stops with recycling areas. Drivers should also be encouraged to bring reusable containers for your food. You’d be surprised at the amount of trash from snacks and waste products your fleet can go through in a year. You will also be eligible for tax breaks and discounts for recycling products, so it will be putting money back into your pocket as well. Pay Attention to Mileage Fuel prices and maintenance costs continue to climb in the industry, so finding ways to increase your fuel mileage is paramount. Selecting the right octane of fuel in order to maximize your engine’s efficiency is the first place to start. It can also help to look into the best and worst truck engines. This is what your big rigs are going to need to keep it going for all of those miles. Plan your routes in advance to maximize fuel efficiency, and have your drivers practice consistent acceleration. Braking and accelerating suddenly wastes more gas than maintaining a steady speed. And of course, keep careful tracks of fuel usage and expenses. What you find can help you determine where you can pinch to cut excess fuel usage. Conserve electricity All of the accessories and electricity used on engine startup can work to drain a truck’s battery. The problem with causing this level of stress to a truck battery is that it can wear down faster over time. This is definitely not good for the environment over the long run, or for your efficiency. Choose a battery that can last for as long as possible. Select a commercial battery supplier that sells top-rated brands so that you can find the right battery to keep your truck running. Try to reduce idling time and turn your trucks off when they don’t need to be running. If your routes are not too far, you can even consider integrating electric vehicles into your fleet, or another form of fuel-efficient rig. Perform Maintenance Keeping up with maintenance will also help to improve your fleet’s efficiency. Replacing air filters and changing the oil on a regular schedule ensures that your engines can operate at an optimal level. Regular tune-ups will need to be performed so that wear and tear doesn’t start to break down your engine’s ability to function properly over time. Make sure your drivers check the engines after each trip so that you can stay on top of any issues before they can develop into a problem. Using some common-sense approaches will work to improve your fleet’s energy efficiency. Use these tips to help you navigate the green trucking world.
  28. Firstly, let us see two antibodies: 4G2 antibody This product is a mouse monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes E protein from DENV-2. The E protein-binding antibody 4G2 is an epitope-specific antibody that can be used in ELISA. A11 antibody Recombinant Human Antibody (EDE2 A11) is capable of binding to DENV E proteins, expressed in HEK 293 cells as the combination of a heavy chain (HC) containing VH from anti-DENV E proteins mAb and CH1-3 region of human IgG1 and a light chain (LC) encoding VL from anti-DENV E proteins mAb and CL of human kappa light chain. So, what is DENV? Figure1. Dengue virus Dengue virus (DENV) belongs to a serotype subgroup of flaviviridae. Its morphological structure is similar to that of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but its size is small, about 17-25 nm. It can be divided into four serotypes according to antigenicity, 1, 2, 3 and 4 serotypes. There are antigenic differences among different viral strains in the same type. Viral characteristics and physicochemical properties DENV has a capsule and is a single positive strand RNA virus without segments. The viral genome is about 11 KB long. It encodes three structural proteins (C-prM-E) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1-NS2A-NS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5). Among them, E protein is the main structural protein of the virus, which determines the histophilicity of the virus and mediates the binding of the virus to cell receptors. At the same time, it is also an important component of influencing virulence, causing protective immune response and immunopathological damage. The virus is sensitive to heat and can be inactivated at 56 ℃ for 30 minutes. Lipid solvents such as chloroform, acetone, lipase or sodium deoxycholate can inactivate the virus by destroying its envelope. Viruses are sensitive to gastric acid, bile and protease, and to ultraviolet and gamma rays. Antigenicity and serotype According to the antigenicity of virus E protein, it can be divided into four serotypes: DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4. The antigenicity of these viruses was cross-linked, but not with other antigens of flaviviridae. Antigenic determinants of viral envelope protein E can induce protective neutralizing antibodies and hemagglutination inhibitory antibodies, and may be involved in the occurrence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). NS1 and NS3 are both immunoreactive and immunogenic, which can induce protective immunity against dengue virus homology in mice. Clinical symptoms Dengue virus often causes asymptomatic recessive infection. The main clinical manifestations of the patients are dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The main clinical manifestations of DF include protruding fever, severe headache (mostly frontal pain), post-ocular pain (aggravation of eyeball movement), general pain and joint pain, nausea and vomiting, lymphadenopathy, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. DF not only causes heart, liver, lung, kidney, brain and other system damage, but also leads to myocardial damage. The clinical manifestations of DHF/DSS are more serious. In addition to the above DF symptoms, severe and persistent abdominal pain, nasal, oral and gingival bleeding, skin bleeding and ecchymosis, black stool, extreme thirst, pale skin and mucosa, chills, restlessness or sleepiness, hematocrit > 35% and other manifestations can occur. Serious cases can cause death. DENV infection can also cause encephalitis. Pathogenesis The pathogenesis of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever has not been fully elucidated so far. It is generally believed that the complex interaction between virus and host causes severe risk factors, including patient's age, virus serotype and genotype, and host's genetic background. Recent studies have shown that there are several hypotheses about the pathogenesis: viral affinity, viral toxicology, host susceptibility, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), cross-reactive T cell response and cytokine storm. This paper briefly introduces ADE and cytokine storm. Scholars believe that there are group-specific determinants and type-specific determinants on the surface of DENV. The antibodies produced by the former have a strong enhancement effect on DENV infection, called enhanced antibodies, while the antibodies produced by the latter are called neutralizing antibodies. When the body is re-infected with different types of DENV, serum neutralizing antibodies cannot completely neutralize the virus. Enhanced antibodies can bind with the virus to form immune complexes. These immune complexes promote the replication of the virus in these cells through Fc receptors on the membrane of monocytes or macrophages, resulting in ADE effect, leading to clinical outcomes in patients. Symptoms worsen, blood concentration and shock occur, resulting in DHF/DSS. However, DHF/DSS can also occur in many patients with primary infection, indicating that there are other pathogenic factors. Cytokines are small molecular weight soluble proteins or polypeptides secreted by immune cells and other types of cells. They have the functions of transmitting information between cells, regulating immune response, and participating in inflammatory damage and other pathological processes. However, excessive inflammation can cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome and make the body in a state of hypermetabolism and hyperdynamic circulation. Over-release of inflammatory cytokines may lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. The control of inflammation is essential in the treatment of many diseases. It was found that the levels of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased in severe patients with dengue fever. There is a significant correlation between TNF-alpha and thrombocytopenia. Studies have shown that the transition from Th1-type response to Th2-type response is an important mechanism of DHF/DSS. Cytokines in severe patients are mostly Th2-type cytokines. After virus infection, excessive release of cytokines and inflammatory factors increases vascular permeability, leading to hemorrhage and shock. Diagnosis The diagnosis of dengue virus is mainly a combination of clinical symptoms and laboratory diagnosis. Laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus includes virus isolation, antigen and antibody detection, gene detection and so on. Virus isolation Virus isolation is the golden standard for the diagnosis of viral diseases. The duration of dengue viremia is relatively short. Samples should be collected within 4 to 5 days of the onset of fever. Virus isolation and culture can be carried out by living mosquitoes, cells or animals. Antigen detection NS1 protein is the main marker antigen of dengue virus infection. NS1 protein appears earlier than IgM antibody and can be used for early diagnosis. At present, several commercial kits have been used to detect the NS1 antigen of dengue virus. Serological detection The serological method is more convenient because the humoral immune response of patients infected with dengue virus lasts for at least several weeks after the onset of the disease and the sample can be collected for a relatively long time. Detection of IgM, IgG capture ELISA, IgM, IgG indirect ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition test are the most commonly used serological methods for diagnosis of dengue virus infection. Gene diagnosis In recent years, the molecular biology diagnostic methods of dengue virus have been enhanced. Nucleic acid amplification has become the most important method for rapid diagnosis of dengue virus. Various RT-PCR methods try to detect the RNA of dengue virus. The nucleic acid amplification technique can be used to identify the serotype of dengue virus as well as to detect the virus. Owing to its high throughput and parallel processing, gene chip technology can detect and analyze pathogens comprehensively. Its simple and fast operation, low cost and small size provide wide application prospects in the fields of molecular biology, disease diagnosis and treatment. Scientists used PCR to amplify the nearly full-length dengue virus 2 gene, digested the amplified products by enzyme-digestion-PCR, and constructed the dengue virus 2 DNA library to obtain microarray probes. The probe was fabricated into a DNA chip for detection of type 2 dengue virus by dot analyzer. The results showed that the hybridization of the sample with type 2 dengue virus gene chip was highly sensitive and specific. Dengue fever, as an important vector-borne infectious disease, has been increasing year by year, seriously endangering human health. Although some achievements have been made in the related research, there are still many problems to be solved urgently. There is still no consensus on the pathogenesis of dengue fever, especially in severe cases. There is no effective prevention and treatment measures. Future work should start with the mechanism of virus and host, obtain effective treatment of dengue fever as soon as possible, and todevelop a protective multivalent vaccine.
  29. Who protects us day and night, all our life without days off and holidays? Of course our Guardian angel. But if we want more, it’s enough just to ask our “chefs” about it. Let’s talk about how to properly communicate with them. Who will you be like that? All angels, like people, are different, therefore, in order to find an approach to them, you need to find out who exactly takes care of you. For this some time you need to watch … yourself. Dresses and decorations. Do you adore all sorts of trinkets — bracelets, large beads and hoop earrings, although you don’t wear jewelry yourself? It is possible that your second angel is not indifferent to them — a beautiful woman with golden hair, blue eyes and melodious laughter. From her you have a passion for light flowing fabrics of bright colors and Indian sari. Again, you don’t wear anything like that, but you always enjoy admiring such things. Of course, your angels may well be not so exotic, all of the above is just a vivid example that allows you to understand what you need to pay attention to in this case. In addition, it is only a small part of those signs by which you can recognize your guardian angels. But if you understand the principle by which this can be done, their “identification” will no longer be difficult for you. Of course, you can also refer to the sites that provide Free Angel Reading More and more people around the world are beginning to notice such an interesting phenomenon as repeating sequences of numbers — the so-called “angel numbers” (angelic numerology). Thousands of people talk about the “same time” on clocks, timers, billboards, mobile phones and other places surrounding modern man. 3333 has its own characteristics and the value of the number is interpreted as an angel’s help. The appearance of this combination suggests that the person is in difficulty, but next to him is the divine power, which is ready to support. Your guardian angel is near, and he will certainly help. The secret meaning of the number 255 is the growth of the soul and the choice of the direction of its development. Spirituality is your priority. You are constantly in touch with the higher mind that leads you. At some point, you begin to understand that the higher intelligence is you yourself, but who has reached the opportunity to telepathically tune your lower selves to rise to a new level of development. By the way, if you find this article useful, you might like the Protective Zodiac Jewelry they have. Check it
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