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  1. Today
  2. There are a few tips that you can use for making recycling easier in your office. Situation The first tip is to survey the current waste management situation of your company. Before you add any additional recycling measures, then you want to assess the situation. This is the best way that you are going to be able to create a plan of action for executing the recycling initiatives into your company. Therefore, you are going to need to try to understand how much waste your company is going to go through during the week. This will allow you to see how much of the waste can be recycled. Simple The second tip is to make the process of recycling as simple as possible. This is one of the best ways that you are going to be able to encourage recycling inside of the workplace. Therefore, you will need to make the recycling places convenient for the employees along with being accessible. The bins are going to need to be located throughout the workplace. Consider talking to a dumpster rental company to make sure you have all the bins you will need. It is also important to label the recycling bins so that the employees are going to know exactly what they are supposed to be putting inside of the bins. When they don't know, there is a good chance that it will just go in the trash. Reminders The third tip is to make sure that you post regular reminders for the employees about the recycling. There are some people who are going to have a passion for recycling, so they are going to go out of their way to recycle items. But there are some people are going to feel indifferent about the recycling, then they are probably not going to think about recycling. These are the people who are going to need the reminders more than others. They need to be aware of that recycling is a part of the business. Competition The fourth tip is to foster some competition among the employees when it comes to the recycling inside of the workplace. Competition is one of the best ways to get your employees to do things. It is important to remember that people don't like being told what you want them to do but they are going to love to win. The competition will need to be an interactive experience for the employees. You should keep constant updates on the competition so that you can alert the employees of who is actually winning the recycling competition.
  3. 2) Targeted knock-in. Knock-in a sequence on a plant's chromosome has always been a difficult technical problem, and TALEN and CRISPR / Cas9 technologies have greatly reduced the difficulty of this technology. Knock-in relies on DSB's Homology-directed repair (HDR) repair pathway (Figure A): After Cas9 / gRNA cuts the target site, if the cell has DNA homologous to the target site sequence in the case of a donor (DNAdonor) fragment, the gene fragment located on the donor DNA is integrated into the DSB location by HDR recombination. Although CRISPR / Cas9 technology can be used in plant protoplasts to achieve Knock-in or targeted gene replacement, it is difficult to succeed in stable plants. Currently, there are two more general strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of plant knock-in. The first is to use wheat dwarf virus (WDV) as a vector for DNA donors. By increasing the number of copies of donor DNA, the efficiency of Knock-in is greatly improved. This strategy has been validated in two major crops, rice and wheat, and Knock-in has a maximum efficiency of 19.4% in rice. The second is to use Cas9 and a pair of gRNAs to “cut” a sequence from a DNA donor and then “paste” it to a target site in the plant genome. This strategy utilizes the NHEJ pathway that dominates DSB repair. In 2016, a laboratory of the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Academy of Sciences collaborated to achieve this "cut / paste" target in rice using clever target site design using CRISPR / Cas9 Knock in and replace genes. Based on CRISPR / Cas9, these new strategies make it possible for knock-in to be used efficiently in plant genetic modification. 1.2.2 Targeted gene transcription regulation In addition to the genome editing function, the high scalability of CRISPR technology ensures that this technology can be fused with multiple functional proteins to perform other genetic operations. The core of this technology is the ability of gRNAs to target specific sites on the genome, using dCas9 (Dead Cas9, Cas9 without DNA-cleaving activity) and gRNAs to transport effector proteins of different functions to specific locations on the chromosome to function (Figure C). For example, dCas9 can be fused to an activation domain (AD), and gRNA can be used to guide dCas9-AD to the promoter region to achieve transcriptional activation of target genes. In this technique, multiple gRNAs are often required to simultaneously target the promoter of the target gene in order to effectively increase the expression of the target gene. And another elaborate strategy addresses this problem: using gRNAscaffold as a platform for recruiting transcriptional regulatory components to regulate target gene expression. For example, MS2 (RNA ligand) is fused to gRNA and MS2's specific binding protein MCP is fused to the AD fragment, so that the dCas9 / gRNA-MS2 / MCP-AD complex is targeted to activate transcription on the gene promoter of interest. The ingenuity of this technology is that multiple MS2s can be integrated into the gRNA scaffold sequence so that a single gRNA can be used to recruit multiple MCP-ADs to effectively activate target gene expression. Similar to CRISPR / Cas9-based targeted gene transcription activation, using different functional proteins (transcriptional suppression, epigenetic modified protein elements) on the dCas9 / gRNA platform can achieve different transcriptional suppression or epigenetic regulation. These genome-editing-derived technologies provide richer and more convenient genetic tools for biological research. Figure. Major applications of the CRISPR / Cas9 system in plants 2.Optimization of CRISPR / Cas9 technology 2.1 Reduce CRISPR / Cas9 off-target Off-target has been a major problem for CRISPR / Cas9 technology. When the CRISPR / Cas9 genome editing technology was born, it was reported that Cas9 / gRNA had an off-target effect in animal cell lines: some DNA sites (off-target sites) that did not exactly match the gRNA guide sequence were also off-target edited by Cas9 and introduced unexpected genetic mutation (Off-target effects). The existence of off-target effects has become the biggest deficiency of CRISPR / Cas9. To solve this problem, scientists have made many positive attempts. In earlier studies, the Cas9 point mutation (D10A or H804A) was modified into a nicking enzyme (Cas9nickase, Cas9n) or dCas9 and FokI were fused into a nicking enzyme. This required the design of 1 pair of gRNAs to target 1 site. The formation of a DSB reduces the probability of missed targets by several orders of magnitude. Other studies have shown that shortening the guide sequence of gRNA to 17-18 nt can reduce the risk of off-target; or the fusion of Cas9 protein with other DNA-binding domains can also effectively reduce the off-target rate. Although these strategies greatly reduce off-target effects, they also complicate the technology and do not substantially improve the specificity of Cas9. As the structure of the Cas9 / gRNA complex is resolved, researchers have designed Cas9 variants with high cleavage activity and specificity. These "high-fidelity" versions of Cas9 have zero tolerance for base mismatches between DNA and gRNA. Yes, it can be used to achieve precise genetic manipulation, which basically solves the problem of CRISPR / Cas9 off-target. In plant CRISPR / Cas9 gene editing experiments, the off-target phenomenon was not as severe as in animals, but individual off-target editing was also found, which may be caused by the absence of highly specific gRNA in the design of target sites. The results of genome-wide sequence analysis show that in species with small genomes and low sequence repetitiveness, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, it is possible to design enough high specific gRNAs to edit 90% of genes. There are many bioinformatics tools available for off-target analysis and design of gRNAs with low off-target probability, such as CRISPR-PLANT, E-CRISP, CRISPR-P, etc. By designing highly specific gRNAs or using a new "high-fidelity" version of Cas9, it is expected to effectively eliminate the impact of CRISPR / Cas9 off-target on plant genome editing. To be continued in Part Three…
  4. Last week
  5. Making burial arrangements for a loved one is incredibly overwhelming. If a traditional burial isn’t an option, there are several other alternatives to choose from. Consider the following options. Biodegradable Burial Pods Ecologically-conscious friends and family members often hope to fulfill their loved one’s last wishes with the burial. Biodegradable burial pods give family and friends the option to honor their loved one’s life by transforming their body into the gift of life. This organic capsule is biodegradable, allowing plant life to flourish above ground. This option is recommended for anyone that has spent the majority of their life in service to the environment. As traditional burials utilize materials that aren't biodegradable, the option of using an eco-friendly pod will give your loved one the chance to promote sustainability, even in the afterlife. Flame Cremation 50% of Americans use flame cremation as opposed to traditional burial options. Many people consider cremation as an option as it is an instantaneous process that will transform their loved one into ashes that they can keep with them at all times. Cremation gives family and friends the chance to keep their ashes in keepsakes like a bullet necklace for ashes or an urn. This way, their loved one will always be close to them. Sea Burial A burial at sea is a common choice for veterans of the military but can be an option for anyone. Sea burials typically are typically performed with the scattering of cremated ashes but this option is also possible for those interested in a full-body burial. As this form of burial is regulated by the EPA, a specialized burial cloth and casket are required for full-body burials at sea. Aquamation Though cremation is another option for loved ones seeking an alternative to traditional burials, the process can seem environmentally destructive and unethical to some. With aquamation or alkaline hydrolysis, the body is gently transformed into dust and ash. In this process, the water and alkali are heated to return the body to the most natural element. After it is dissolved by water, the ash and dust can then return to the earth. The type of burial chosen for a loved one should be deeply personal to you and your family. Use these suggestions at this difficult time to choose the best way to honor the life of your loved one.
  6. In recent years, in the study of preeclampsia, it has been found that blood hypercoagulability, chronic diffuse intravascular coagulation (DIC), lipid peroxidation, and vascular endothelial damage tend to form a prethrombotic state. Clinically, it is also often found that patients with preeclampsia often have hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia or antiphospholipid syndrome, and the preeclampsia belongs to a metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we need to re-examine and study the disease from the direction of metabolomics, and provide new ideas for its prediction, diagnosis and even treatment. Metabolomics is a discipline that studies biological metabolism. Different from previous genomics, proteomics, metabolomics to detect small molecule metabolite changes to understand the mechanisms of life physiology, pathology, help diagnose clinical diseases and improve prognosis, has become an emerging category in systems biology, More and more attention from scholars. At present, it is mainly used in the research of pharmacology and toxicology, and can also be used for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in clinic. This article describes its application in the preeclampsia and its research progress, in order to help obstetric medical workers have a more comprehensive understanding of it. 1 Proposing and concept of metabolomics The origin of metabolomics dates back to 1999 and was proposed by Nicholson et al. Compared to traditional transcriptomics and proteomics, it supports large sample detection with higher accuracy and economic benefits. Metabolomics service explores life from the level of metabolites. The analysis targets the pre-transcriptional, transcript and post-transcriptional levels of living organism genes and related downstream metabolites after protein modification. They are generally small molecules with a relative molecular mass of less than 1000u. It truly reflects the physiological and pathological state of various human systems and provides a powerful basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment. 2 Metabolomics classification and research methods At present, metabolomics is classified according to the subjects and differences in research purposes, and is roughly classified into four categories, specifically: (1) metabolite target analysis. (2) Metabolite profile analysis. (3) Metabolite fingerprint analysis. (4) Metabolomics analysis. Metabolomics is studied in a variety of ways, including according to its technology platform, including: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). At the same time, with the development of science and technology, on the basis of this, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), direct injection mass spectrometry (DIMS), Raman spectroscopy, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry ( CE-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and MRI (magnetic resonance). Among them, the most widely used is MRI and MS technology. 3 Metabolomics in the application of obstetric diseases With the development of metabolomics, there are more and more applications in obstetrics. Biological tissues or body fluids can be used as specimens for the extraction of metabolic information. In the field of obstetrics, serological samples, amniotic fluid, fetal cord blood, villi, and urine are included. By detecting metabolites in fetal amniotic fluid, maternal urine and other tissue samples, the metabolic changes of fetal malformation (CFM), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), premature delivery (PTD) and other diseases can be revealed, providing new predictions for disease prediction. method. In the preeclamptic metabolomics study, available tissue specimens come from a variety of sources, including not only the above, but also vaginal secretions, milk, placenta, neonatal plasma and body fluids, with significant diversity. In the field of obstetrics, metabolomics research is also the most commonly used MS and MRI technology platforms. The analysis principle is different. MS analysis is ionization separation based on the structural difference of metabolite components. The product is identified due to the difference in mass and relative abundance. MRI is based on the difference in response of the molecule to the electric field. The signal generated by the change of the direction of nuclear rotation generated by the molecule in the electric field is converted into a unique spectrum, which is matched to a specific database for identification. Compared with the two methods of analysis, MS has higher sensitivity and greater detection threshold, but it also has technical imperfections, that is, it requires metabolite derivatization to generate ions, so the sample preparation step is cumbersome and the sample is vulnerable. Destruction; while MRI avoids the problem of sample destruction. As a non-destructive technology, the sample reserve is not high, which is conducive to the rational use of resources. In summary, each has its own advantages and disadvantages, so the clinical often adopts multiple platforms for joint analysis, because it is more comprehensive and accurate than the single method. 4 Metabolomics study in preeclampsia The application of metabolomics in the field of preeclampsia is still in the early stage of exploration, focusing on the three major metabolisms of fat, protein and carbohydrates. The current research is divided into the following directions. 4.1 Serum metabolomics The use of serum metabolomics in the field of preeclampsia is not uncommon and has begun to take shape. Odibo et al detected serum acylcarnitine and amino acid levels by UPLC-MS method and found that alanine, glutamate, phenylalanine and hydroxycaproylcarnitine in serum of patients with preeclampsia Metabolites were significantly elevated, combined with these indicators and a curve to predict the incidence of pre-eclampsia, the area under the curve (AUC) can reach 0.82, the AUC of early pre-eclampsia reached 0.85. Considering that cellular inflammation and endothelial cell dysfunction are one of the important mechanisms of preeclampsia, some scholars have used LC-MS to detect the metabolic specific factors related to this mechanism, and found that the serum is taurine. The decrease in asparagine levels is closely related to pre-eclampsia. Some scholars have discovered through metabolomics research that taurine as an antioxidant and cell membrane stabilizer, which is significantly low in pre-eclamptic placental trophoblast cells, with reduced activity, leading to regulation of uterine spiral arterial remodeling disorders, and then participate in preeclampsia Onset. Bahado-Singh et al used MRI technique to detect differences in serum metabolomics between pre-eclampsia, pre-eclampsia and normal pregnant women in 11-11+6 weeks of pregnancy, and found that pregnant women with late onset preeclampsia There were significant differences in serum metabolites, with glycerol and carnitine being the most significant. Using these significantly altered indicators of metabolites and body weight, the sensitivity of preeclampsia was predicted to be 76.7% with an accuracy of 100%. The involvement of carnitine in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia may be related to its oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. In addition to carnitine, the researchers also found that glycerol, acetate, trimethylamine, succinate and other metabolites in the early and late preeclampsia serum differences, suggesting that these metabolites can distinguish between early onset and late Hair pre-eclampsia. Acilmis et al found that patients with pre-eclampsia had reduced serum choline levels, while low levels of choline increased the risk of preeclampsia, preterm and low birth weight infants. Studies have confirmed that serological metabolites are used in the prediction of pre-eclampsia, combined with a variety of metabolites can improve the pre-eclampsia detection rate to 75.9%, but can not rule out false positives, false positive rate is about 4.9%. Austdal et al used MRI to detect 10 cases of preeclampsia, normal pregnancy and non-pregnant women between 17 and 20 weeks of pregnancy, and found that serum low density and very low density lipoprotein levels were significantly higher in the preeclampsia group than in the other two groups. And high-density lipoprotein is higher than the other two groups. The results of serum lipid metabolism in preeclampsia indicate that dyslipidemia has occurred in the early stage of preeclampsia, and may play an important role in its pathogenesis. The above studies suggest that changes in lipoprotein expression in serum lipid metabolism during early pregnancy may be used to predict early preeclampsia. 4.2 Urine Metabolomics In addition to the detection of serum metabolomics, the detection of urine in body fluids is also significant in preeclampsia studies. Austdal et al also detected changes in urinary metabolomics, suggesting that there are nine significantly different metabolites in the urine of preeclampsia patients, including cresol sulfate, histidine, glycine, and asparagine. , fenugreek and horse urate levels decreased, dimethylamine and isobutane levels increased. The study also found that the levels of choline in the urine of pregnant women with preeclampsia were abnormally elevated, and the analysis may be related to oxidative stress and renal insufficiency. Further studies have found that cresol sulfuric acid can be used to assess renal function, that is, in patients with pre-eclampsia complicated with renal insufficiency, the level of cresol sulfate in urine is decreased, but it is increased in kidney tissue. It is a cause of exacerbation of pre-eclampsia renal function damage. The mechanism of analysis may be related to the oxidative stress induced by cresol sulfate, which ultimately leads to damage of renal tubular cells and reduces renal excretion. In addition, Austdal et al also found that combined with urine levels of hippuric acid/creatinine, can significantly improve the predictive level of pre-eclampsia, suggesting that pre-eclampsia urine metabolites have a higher predictive value, worthy of study . Paine et al found that the rapid increase of muscle glycophosphopeptide P (P-IPG) in the urine of patients with preeclampsia can be used as an indicator to predict preeclampsia, with a sensitivity of 88.9% and an accuracy of 62.7%. However, the number of cases is too small and needs further confirmation. Dawonauth et al sequentially detected the expression of P-IPG in the urine of pregnant women of different gestational weeks by ELISA. In the prospective study of 416 pregnant women, the final 34 cases progressed to preeclampsia, and the results showed P-IPG prediction. The sensitivity was 84.2%, the specificity was 83.6%, and it was able to predict 2 weeks before the onset. 4.3 Placental metabolomics Heazell et al intervene in placental villus tissue by different oxygen partial pressure, detect metabolite expression in culture medium and tissue lysate, simulate the regulation mechanism of hypoxia on preeclampsia, and find that differential expression Metabolites include 2-deoxyribose, triol or erythritol and palmitic acid. Dunn et al also described the pathogenesis of preeclampsia by UPLC-MS detection of placental metabonomics by in vitro hypoxic culture of preeclampsia and normal placental villus tissue. The study found that 47 metabolites are differentially expressed and preeclampsia. The incidence is closely related, such as glutamate, glutamine, tryptophan metabolism, leukotrienes or prostaglandins and other metabolic differences. 5 Advantages of metabolomics in predictive applications of preeclampsia The choice of metabolomics to explore the pre-clinical disease, especially in the early prediction and pathogenesis has become a hot research topic. Most of the subjects selected for metabolomics are serum, placental tissue, and urine. The recognition target is a small molecule metabolite, which has advantages that cannot be ignored compared with traditional research methods such as proteomics. The specific performance is: (1) The result is intuitive. As the final product of gene transcription or post-transcriptional modification, metabolites trace the origin of the results, and the metabolite-related marker factors can better reflect the overall state of the metabolic network, which is more intuitive. (2) High acceptability. Samples such as urine and serological sources are mostly non-invasive and simple, and are easily accepted by patients. It is difficult to apply clinically. (3) Simplicity of detection and analysis. The metabolomics research objective is metabolites, the species is significantly reduced relative to genomics, the detection is more convenient, and there is no need to establish a large number of databases for expressing sequence tags (EST) with low technical requirements. (4) Strong versatility. The differences in metabolites of different individuals are not large, which makes the technology more versatile and facilitates the unification of standards. 6 Prospects for the application of metabolomics in preeclampsia In summary, we have seen the advantages of metabolomics in preeclampsia studies. Previous studies have shown that metabolomics is of great importance in the prediction of preeclampsia and disease pathogenesis, and it is worthy of further study. At the same time, we must also clarify the limitations of its existence, for example, the specificity of the matching requirements. Because each age level and constitutional state have an effect on individual metabolism, it is required to match factors such as age, weight, race and gestational age. In addition, metabolomics, as an emerging research discipline, is still in the preliminary exploration stage, so we are required to overcome some of the poor reproducibility of research data and enrich its data diversity to improve rigor and stability. All in all, metabolomics is in the early stages of preeclampsia research, but we have seen its broad research prospects, which need to be further expanded in sample size and detection range, combined with the detection of many different products, using a variety of Technology platform to further enhance the role of metabolomics in predicting and diagnosing pre-eclampsia diseases.
  7. Earlier
  8. After numerous events have proven to be a result of climate change, people keep underestimating the effects we have on the environment. It’s important to raise awareness toward the possible dangers, a reason why environmental documentaries are considered to be a great manner to teach people from all walks of life how important a change in our lifestyle could be. We encourage space exploration and new technological developments, but what’s troublesome is how we ignore our environmental problems hopping to colonize other planets. There are yet so many things unexplored on Earth, so many issues waiting to be solved such as pollution, hunger and deforestation and these are just a small part form the issues we’ve encountered so far. Our world is facing serious environmental and natural resource challenges which means that over the next 40 years, demands for food will increase 70%, demands for freshwater will rise to 50% while those for energy will double. These must be solved immediately while at the same time we need to deal with deforestation, depletion of rivers and climate change. An Inconvenient Truth 2006 One of the most influential documentaries, An Inconvenient Truth has inspired a global movement towards what we call new climate crisis. After eleven years, this breath-taking movie motivated millions of people to start asking important questions like, “What can we do?” or “What can I do?” Everyone at some point should start wondering about possible solutions on how to develop the modern climate movement. Fortunately, climate science had discovered a new way to improve and save the climate through renewable energy such as wind or solar which is way cheaper than the usual fuel-based energy. An Inconvenient Truth was known to be a great hit, getting to win two Oscars and two Academy Awards. Directed by Davis Guggenheim, An Inconvenient Truth has succeeded to raise awareness of climate change. Chasing Ice 2012 Chasing Ice has surprised stunning images that breathe life into an ice world. This amazing documentary should not miss from your watch list. For those curious about how climate changes affect the world of ice, they can rely on this documentary. Chasing Ice offers you stunning insides on the biggest glaciers that contribute to the global sea-level rise. Moreover, this documentary is a story of one single man’s mission who struggle to gather indisputable evidence that our planet is changing. After a couple of months, a team of devoted photographers realized the bravest expedition called The Extreme Ice Survey. With a highly efficient team, James Balog has arranged extraordinary time-lapse cameras to capture the world’s biggest glaciers. Before the Flood 2016 This documentary has been described as a straightforward and elegant way to present climate changes. Featuring the Oscar-winning star Leonardo DiCaprio, Barack Obama and many others, this documentary presents extraordinary suggestions on how to save and reduce climate change. Before the Flood, acclaims the Paris Agreement as being an essential boost to bring humanity to an understanding on a single issue and encourages the new technological developments as the best way to stop climate change issues. Wasted! The Story of Food Waste 2016 Produced by Anthony Bourdain, this alluring documentary introduces effective solutions for the 21 world food problems. It explores the food waste problem within a broken food system. They encourage the use of everything and how nothing should be wasted. This is just another unseen problem of mankind which is yet not taken seriously. Constantly, in the United States, 40% of the food ends up on the garbage which means that more than 365 kilograms of food is wasted while the starvation problem keeps rising. This documentary will offer you valuable solutions on how to change or life-style and limit or end-up food wasting. Our Planet 2019 One of the most recent documentaries on Netflix narrated by David Attenborough expose issues of conservation, capturing the heartbreaking images of the hopeless species that due to climate changes have lost their home. This documentary has been harshly criticized while it offers serious reasons for how humans impact the environment. Rather than focusing on traditional documentaries that expose only the wonders of nature, Our Planet offers you only the painful truth which is exactly what the human species needs to wake up. More Than Honey 2012 Lastly, More Than Honey examines the decline of bee colonies and the possible motives of their disappearance. Bees are an important part of our agricultural industries, a reason why people cannot survive without them. Where there are no bees, there is no life. Huge bee colonies keep declining and human impact on the environment is the only reason why. As Einstein has claimed, “If bees disappeared man would have only four years to live”. More than Honey is a Swiss documentary directed by Markus Imhoof and captures the honeybee colonies from China, Swiss, California and Austria. Make sure you won’t miss this Oscar-winning documentary if you’re interested in the faith of our bee colonies. These are only a couple of documentaries a climate ranger should watch at least one in his life. Regardless of everyone’s social status and age, watching these documentaries might offer critical insights into the looming threats we’ve surrounded ourselves with. The saddest thing about this issue is that not everyone is yet aware. We’ve exhausted the planet’s resources and overrun the planet carrying capacity which extremely alarming for all the species existing on earth. The problem would be what type of resources we need in order to flourish and encourage the next generations. A reason why people should rely on innovations in the science area and technology. These are the only good tools humankind might use to save itself. Leaving in rapid technological development time it would be a total shame not to make use of it, and even the most influential people encourage the use of it. This as anything can be solved through education, and documentaries are a great way to raise awareness and educate people.
  9. Sheet metal process

    Sheet metal process is common used in some large-scale mechanical equipment (such as processing machinery, network cabinet, switch, etc.) and office facilities (such as file cabinet, computer desk, etc.). It will not be used in small-scale products with high requirements for appearance and size. Sheet metal manufacturing process refers to a series of integrated cold working combination processes for thin sheet metal (usually less than 6 mm). Specific technology can be divided into: shearing, punching, bending, welding, riveting, splicing, stamping, etc. The most prominent feature of sheet metal products is the uniform thickness a single part. Selection of materials The commonly used materials are cold rolled sheet (SPCC), hot rolled sheet (SHCC), galvanized sheet (SECC, SGCC), copper (CU) brass, copper, beryllium copper, aluminium sheet (6061, 6063, hard aluminium, etc.), aluminum profiles and stainless steel (mirror, wire drawing surface, fog surface). According to the function of the product, the selection of materials is different, generally consider from its use and cost. For example: 1. Cold rolled sheet SPCC is mainly used for electroplating and paint-baking. It is low cost and easy to form. The material thickness is less than 3.2mm. 2. Hot rolled sheet SHCC, material T≥3.0mm, is also used for electroplated, paint parts, low cost, but difficult to form, mainly flat parts. 3. Galvanized sheet SECC, SGCC. SECC electrolytic plate is divided into N material and P material. N material mainly does not do surface treatment, which has high cost. P material is used for spraying parts. 4. Copper: mainly used for conductive products. The surface treatment is nickel plating, chromium plating, or no treatment, high cost. 5. Aluminum plate; commonly used the products with surface chromate (J11-A) and oxidation (conductive oxidation, chemical oxidation), high cost, silver plating, nickel plating. 6. Aluminum profiles; materials with complex cross-section structure, which are widely used in various kinds of cartons. The surface treatment is the same as that of aluminium plate. 7. Stainless steel; mainly used for products with no surface treatment, high cost. Production process: 1. Shearing/Punching The shearing/punching process is mainly used for blanking. Blanking also has the purpose of partial forming, while the purpose of shearing is simply to cut the large material into smaller ones. 2. Bending process Because the thickness of sheet metal parts is relatively small, and the ductility of metal materials also allows the implementation of bending process, so bending process is one of the most frequently used processes in sheet metal process. As the name implies, "bending" is to use external forces to force sheet metal to bend at a given angle and radius. 3. Stamping Forming This process usually requires a stamping die. Stamping is the use of external forces and the ductility of the metal sheet itself, forcing the material to be shaped according to the cavity shape of the pre-opened stamping die. After stamping, it is usually necessary to further remove burr edges and waste materials. 4. Connection Technology In the assembly process of Sheet metal parts, welding, riveting and splicing are often used. Through these connections, sheet metal parts can form a whole. 5. Surface treatment technology The surface of sheet metal materials is often corroded or stained by oxidation or other reasons. In order to meet the appearance quality requirements of final products, it is often need to do surface treatment for sheet metal parts. Common surface treatment processes of sheet metal include rust removal, paint spraying, sand blasting, oxidation, plating, etc. Calculating method of sheet metal quotation: The manufacturing price of sheet metal is calculated according to the operation time. Laser cutting: 8RMB/Min, each hole is calculated according to 1RMB. CNC pricing: 5RMB/Min. CNC Bending Pricing: 1 RMB per side, double the large side. Cold welding calculation: 300 RMB per day, 50 KG per day as the benchmark. If you are looking for Metal Machining in China , please visit our website: and contact us.
  10. As society becomes more environmentally aware, everyone should do their part to become more Eco-friendly. There are plenty of small steps that can make a big difference. Any type of business can help to protect the environment by following steps like these. Conserve Utilities No matter a company’s size, it is a good idea to turn off unused utilities to reduce usage and cut costs. Empty offices and unscheduled conference rooms do not need lights or air conditioning. Energy-efficient lighting for security purposes can be utilized when the building is empty at night. Equipment that must be left on for occasional access like a printer or copier can be set to the “sleep” mode or a similar setting to limit usage. Recycle When Possible Set up one or more recycle bins. One can be for used paper that should be shredded first for confidentiality purposes. Another bin can collect bottles, cans, or other company waste that can be picked up by the local recycling company or sold as scrap for money to be added to the operating budget. Departments could run contests to see who can collect the most recyclables within a certain period, with the winners receiving a pizza lunch or other perk. Adopt Eco-Friendly Policies Develop an environment-oriented policy that can be added to employee handbooks. It should describe the ways in which everyone can make the business more environmentally responsible. The aforementioned energy usage reduction and recycling bins can be the first steps of the policy. Buying Eco-safe chemicals or products is another important step. Reusing or repurposing older equipment or furniture can help to prevent excessive waste. Dispose of Eco-Hazards Responsibly Companies that work with bio-hazards or any kind of Eco-hazards should find out how to use and dispose of them legally. It would be helpful to contact an environmental law practice for information about local environment protection laws and how to avoid violations. An attorney or an environmental specialist could make a presentation to company employees to explain how to dispose of toxic waste or products that could negatively impact the environment through airborne, ground water, or soil contamination. Becoming aware of Eco-issues is the first step. Taking action to implement Eco-friendly practices and products is the second step. Training employees to be environmentally conscious can lead to a safer and healthier workplace and surrounding community. Make your business more environmentally aware and legally compliant.
  11. The injection molding process of plastic parts mainly includes four stages, which is filling, holding pressure, cooling and demoulding. These four stages directly determine the molding quality of products, and the four stages are a complete continuous process. 1. Filling stage High speed filling When filling at a high speed, the shear rate is high, and the viscosity of the plastic will decrease due to shear thinning, which will reduce overall flow resistance. The local viscous heating effect will also thin the curing layer thickness. Therefore, in the flow control stage, the filling behavior often depends on the volume to be filled. That is to say, in the flow control stage, due to high-speed filling, the shear thinning effect of melt is often very large, while the cooling effect of thin wall is not obvious, so the effect of rate prevails. Low speed filling When low speed filling controlled by heat conduction, the shear rate is low, the local viscosity is high, and the flow resistance is large. Due to the slow rate of hot plastic replenishment, the flow is slow, so that the heat conduction effect is more obvious, the heat is quickly taken away by the cold wall. With a small amount of viscous heating, the curing layer is thicker, these further increase the flow resistance at the thinner part of the wall. 2. Pressure holding stage In the stage of pressure holding, due to the high pressure, the plastic exhibits partial compressibility. In the area with high pressure, the plastic is relatively dense and with high density. In the area with low pressure, the plastic is loose and with low density, so the density distribution changes with position and time. In the process of pressure holding, the plastic flow rate is very low, and no longer plays a leading role; Pressure is the main factor affecting the holding process. During the holding process, the plastic has filled the mold cavity, and the gradually curing melt acts as a medium to transfer pressure. The pressure in the mold cavity is transferred to the surface of the mold wall by the help of plastics, and there is a tendency to open the mold. Therefore, an appropriate clamping force is required for the clamping. Under normal circumstance, the rising mold force will slightly open the mold, which is helpful for the mold exhaust. But if the mold force is too large, it is easy to cause the flash, overflow, or even open the mold. Therefore, in the choice of injection molding machine, we should choose the one with enough clamping force to effectively carry out pressure holding. 3. Cooling stage Cooling system design is very important in injection mold. This is because the molding of plastic products only cooling and curing to a certain rigidity, it can avoid deformation after demolding due to external force. Because the cooling time accounts for about 70% ~ 80% of the whole molding cycle, a well-designed cooling system can greatly shorten the molding time, improve injection molding productivity and reduce costs. Improper cooling system will prolong the molding time and increase the cost. Uneven cooling will cause warping and deformation of plastic products. The factors affecting the cooling rate of products: Plastic product design Mold material and cooling method Cooling water pipe configuration Coolant flow Property of the coolant Plastic selection Processing parameter setting 4. Demoulding stage Demoulding is the last step in an injection molding cycle. Although products have been cold molding,but demoulding still has a very important impact on the quality of products. Improper demoulding may lead to uneven force in demoulding and deformation of the product during ejection. There are two main ways of demoulding: ejector rod demoulding and stripper demoulding. In order to ensure the quality of the products, we should choose the proper demoulding method according to the structural characteristics of the products. For the ejector rod demoulding, the ejector rod should be set as uniform as possible, and the location should be selected in the place where with the maximum demolding resistance and maximum strength and stiffness of the plastic parts, to avoid plastic deformation. For stripper demoulding, it is generally used for deep cavity thin-wall containers and transparent products without the trace of push rod. This kind of mechanism is characterized by large and even demoulding force, smooth movement and no obvious traces left behind. If you are looking for a product or a moulder, please visit our website: and contact us.
  12. What is steel forging?

    What is forging? Upset forging: A method of forming and processing plastic parts, including workpieces, tools, or blanks, by applying external force to metal blanks (excluding plates) to cause plastic deformation, change size, shape, and improve performance. Types and characteristics of steel forging When the temperature exceeds 300-400 ℃ (blue brittle zone of steel) and reaches 700-800 ℃, the deformation resistance will decrease sharply and the deformation energy will be greatly improved. According to the forging performed in different temperature regions, according to the different forging quality and forging process requirements, it can be divided into three forming temperature regions: cold forging, warm forging, and hot forging. Originally, there was no strict limit on the division of this temperature region. Generally speaking, forging in a temperature region with recrystallization is called hot forging, and forging without heating at room temperature is called cold forging. When low temperature forging, the dimensional change of the forging is small. Forging below 700 ℃, the formation of oxide scale is small, and the surface is not decarburized. Therefore, as long as the deformation energy is within the range of forming energy, cold forging can easily obtain good dimensional accuracy and surface finish. As long as the temperature and lubrication and cooling are controlled, warm forging below 700 ℃ can also obtain good accuracy. During hot forging, large forgings with complex shapes can be forged because the deformation energy and resistance are small. To obtain forgings with high dimensional accuracy, hot forging can be used in the temperature range of 900-1000 ° C. In addition, pay attention to improving the working environment of hot forging. Forging die life (2 to 5,000 for hot forging, 10,000 for warm forging, 2 to 50,000 for cold forging) is shorter than forging in other temperature ranges, but it has a large degree of freedom and low cost . When the blank is deformed and work hardened during cold forging, the forging die is subjected to high loads. Therefore, it is necessary to use a high-strength forging die and a hard lubricating film treatment method to prevent wear and adhesion. In addition, in order to prevent cracking of the blank, intermediate annealing is performed when necessary to ensure the required deformation ability. In order to maintain a good lubricating state, the blank can be phosphated. When continuous processing is performed with rods and wire rods, the section cannot be lubricated at present, and the possibility of using a phosphating method is being studied. Forging can be divided into free forging, upsetting, extrusion, die forging, closed die forging, and closed upsetting according to the movement of the billet. Closed die forging and closed upset forging do not have flash, so the utilization rate of the material is high. It is possible to finish the complex forgings in one operation or several operations. Because there is no flash, the load bearing area of the forging is reduced, and the required load is also reduced. However, it should be noted that the billet cannot be completely restricted. For this reason, it is necessary to strictly control the volume of the billet, control the relative position of the forging die and measure the forging, and strive to reduce the wear of the forging die. According to the movement mode of the forging die, forging can be divided into swing rolling, swing swing forging, roll forging, cross wedge rolling, ring rolling and diagonal rolling. Swing, swivel and ring forging can also be precision forged. In order to improve the utilization rate of materials, roll forging and cross rolling can be used as the previous process of slender materials. Rotary forging, which is the same as free forging, is also locally formed. Its advantage is that compared with the size of the forging, the forging force can also be formed in a small case. In this forging method, including free forging, the material expands from the vicinity of the die surface to the free surface during processing. Therefore, it is difficult to ensure accuracy. Therefore, the computer can control the movement direction of the forging die and the spin forging process. The forging force is used to obtain products with complex shapes and high accuracy. For example, the production of various types and large-sized steam turbine blades and other forgings. 的 The mold movement and degree of freedom of the forging equipment are inconsistent. According to the characteristics of the bottom dead center deformation limitation, the forging equipment can be divided into the following four forms: • Limited forging force form: Hydraulic press that directly drives the slider. • Quasi-stroke limitation mode: Hydraulic press with hydraulically driven crank and linkage mechanism. • Stroke limitation: mechanical press with crank, connecting rod and wedge mechanism driving the slider. • Energy-limiting method: Screw and friction presses using screw mechanism. In order to obtain high accuracy, care should be taken to prevent overload at the bottom dead point, and to control the speed and mold position. Because these will have an impact on forging tolerances, shape accuracy and forging die life. In addition, in order to maintain accuracy, attention should also be paid to adjusting the slider guide gap, ensuring stiffness, adjusting the bottom dead point, and using auxiliary transmissions. At the same time, the required forging force, process, material utilization, yield, dimensional tolerance, and lubrication and cooling methods are different. These factors are also factors that affect the level of automation. What are the characteristics of upset forgings compared to castings Rhenium metal can improve its microstructure and mechanical properties after forging. Due to the deformation and recrystallization of the metal after hot working deformation of the forged method, the original coarse dendrites and columnar grains become equiaxed recrystallized structures with finer grains and uniform sizes, which causes the original segregation, The compaction and welding of looseness, pores, and slag inclusions make the structure more compact, which improves the plastic and mechanical properties of the metal. In general, the mechanical properties of castings are lower than those of forgings of the same material. In addition, the forging process can ensure the continuity of the metal fiber structure, If you are looking for metal products , please visit our website: and contact us.
  13. There are several appliances used at homes that demand electricity to work properly. Some of these appliances consume a great amount of power to work. As a result of this, your monthly power bills tend to climb up steadily. The best way to save your hard-earned money on power bills is to opt for solar power. It is true that installing a solar power system at home may be a rather costly affair. However, it is also true that it requires very little maintenance, which is one of the biggest advantages of the system. Since there are no moving parts, there is every chance of solar installations to degrade with time according to the website, Tips to Solar Panel Care The general thumb rule is that the solar panels tend to lose 1% of their effectiveness with every passing year. However, this figure has decreased in recent times. This is mainly due to the fact that solar panels are nowadays made up of monocrystalline silicon that ensures 92% of their efficiency even after 20 years. However, here are some tips to help you take proper care of your solar panels. Regular Inspection of Your Solar Panels Is Necessary: Most of the time you will see that solar panels are placed at higher locations where they cannot be damaged easily. Nonetheless, it is a good idea to check your solar panels from time to time to ensure that you do not lose any power due to tree material accumulation or pollen buildup on the panels. It is important for you to remember that the same type of dirt that you find on your windows can find its way to the solar panels on your roof. Thus, it is important to clean the panels on a regular basis.: Shade and Sun Monitoring: In order to maintain optimum effectiveness, it is necessary for your solar panels to be in the sun for as long as possible. During their installation, solar panels need to be placed in a location that gets maximum sun exposure. It is true that trees grow over the years and this can cause changes to the patterns of the sun and shade. There may also be new constructions that can affect the time your solar panels get the sunlight. Thus, it is always a good idea to check the position of the panels on a periodical basis to ensure that they get proper sunlight.: Clean the Panels: It is needless to say that rain will effectively clean your panels. This is especially possible when the panels are installed at a steeper angle. Pollen and dust can get washed off easily with every rainfall. However, if the pollen and dust accumulation is heavier than normal, it will be a good thing to wash them off yourself with plain water. You can also use a hose to spray water on the panels and clean off the dust and pollen accumulation. You need to ensure that the panels do not get scratched, since this may reduce the sunlight that reaches the solar cells. Author: I’m Jaylin: SEO Expert of Leelija Web Solutions. And full time blogger. Favorite things include my camera, travelling, caring my fitness, food and my fashion. Email id: You can follow me on
  14. Some kinds of antibodies are frequently seen in the biology world, such as recombinant mouse anti-CMV antibody (DDG9 and CCH2) , a mouse monoclonal antibody that is capable of binding to CMV and recombinant mouse anti-CMV 65 kDa LA antibody (5E250), a mouse monoclonal antibody that is capable of binding to CMV 65 kDa LA. So, what is CMV? Figure 1. Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a DNA virus of herpesvirus group which also known as cell inclusion body virus for causing the enlargement of the infected cells which will develop a huge nuclear inclusion body. Cytomegalovirus is widely distributed in animals, which can cause infection in various systems, including genitourinary system, central nervous system and liver diseases, from mild asymptomatic infection to severe defects or death. Biological character CMV has the typical herpesvirus morphology, and its DNA structure is similar to herpes simplex virus (HSV), but 5% larger than HSV. Human CMV (HCMV) can only infect human and proliferate in human fibrocytes. The virus proliferates slowly in cell culture, and the replication cycle is long. It takes 30-40 days for the first isolation and culture to develop cytopathy. It is characterized by cell enlargement and rounding, nuclear enlargement, and a round of "halo" of large eosinophils around the nucleus. Type According to the order of its infection, it can be divided into: (1) Primary infection: the host first infects CMV, but lacks any specific antibody to CMV before the infection (infants 6 months ago can have IgG antibody passively obtained from the mother); and (2) Recurrent infection, because the latent virus in the host is reactivated and replicated to proliferate; or to reinfect with different exogenous strains or larger doses of the same virus. CMV infection occurs when CMV invades the host and replicates or lurks in the host. According to the time when the host acquires the infection, it can be divided into: (1) Congenital infection: it refers to the child born by the mother with CMV infection, and it is confirmed that CMV infection is caused by intrauterine infection within 14 days (including 14 days) after birth;(2) Perinatal infection: for the children of CMV infected mothers, no CMV infection was found within 14 days of birth, and those confirmed to be infected within 3-12 weeks after birth were mainly infected through the birth canal or breast milk. The above two types are primary infection. (3) Postnatal infection or acquired infection: it refers to the infection confirmed after 12 weeks of birth (no evidence of CMV infection within 12 weeks of birth), which can be primary infection or reinfection. According to the presence or absence of symptoms, it can be divided into: (1) Symptomatic infection: It refers to the presence of symptoms and signs related to CMV infection. In symptomatic infection, there are virus activities in children's bodies, which are in the stage of virus producing infection.(2) Asymptomatic infection: there are two conditions of virus replicationin vivo: if it is enough to cause target organ or tissue damage, and the clinical manifestations have signs and organ function changes, it is called subclinical infection; if it does not cause target organ damage, there is no corresponding sign and function change, it is asymptomatic Epizootic infection. Seeding way CMV infection is very widespread in the population, and the infection is usually occult, which causes no clinical symptoms on the infected people, but under certain conditions, it can invade multiple organs and systems leading to serious diseases. The virus can invade lung, liver, kidney, salivary gland, other glands of mammary gland, as well as multinucleated leukocytes and lymphocytes, and can be discharged from saliva, milk sweat blood, urine, semen, and uterine secretion for a long time or intermittently, usually by oral, reproductive, placental, blood transfusion or organ transplantation and other multi-channel transmission. (1) Congenital infection CMV infection in pregnant women can invade the fetus through placenta and cause congenital infection, and a few cases show premature delivery, abortion, stillbirth or postnatal death. Jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia may occur in children. Living children often suffer from permanent mental retardation, neuromuscular dyskinesia, deafness and chorioretinitis. (2) Perinatal infection When CMV is discharged from the urinary tract and cervix of the parturient, the infants can be infected through the birth canal. Most of them are of subclinical bed infections with mild or no clinical symptoms. Some of them suffer from slight respiratory disorders or liver function damage. (3) Infection in children and adults Sucking, kissing, sexual contact, blood transfusion and other infections, usually subclinical, can also lead to heterophilic antibody negative mononucleosis. Due to pregnancy, immunosuppressive therapy, organ transplantation, tumor and other factors, the virus is activated in monocytes and lymphocytes, causing mononucleosis, hepatitis, interstitial pneumonia, retinitis, encephalitis and so on. (4) Cell transformation and possible carcinogenic effect The CMV inactivated by UV can be transformed into mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In some tumors, such as cervical cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, CMV DNA detection rate is high, and CMV antibody titer is also higher than that of normal people, with virus particles being found in the cell lines established by the above tumors, suggesting that CMV, like herpesvirus, has the potential to cause cancer. Preventive health care (1) Physical training is necessary. In order to reduce the serious harm of cytomegalovirus to the fetus, we should improve the immune function and disease resistance of the body, especially in women of childbearing age. (2) Pregnant women or patients with chronic consumptive diseases and low immunity should be protected to keep them away from infection. (3) Pay attention to environmental health and food hygiene. (4) Those with positive cytomegalovirus in milk should not be breastfed. (5) Immune treatment is still under research and exploration. After CMV’s causing intracellular infection, the inactivated vaccine has no significant preventive effect. If CMV infection is found in the early stage of pregnancy and/ or there is CMV antigen in amniotic fluid cells, the pregnancy should be stopped. Live attenuated vaccine can make the vaccinated person produce antibody and activate cell immunity to CMV, reducing the occurrence of symptomatic CMV infection. CMV high titer immunoglobulin can protect symptomatic CMV infection in CMV negative bone marrow transplant recipients, but it cannot prevent reinfection. Wash hands carefully after contacting with urine or saliva to prevent CMV infection. To prevent CMV infection caused by fresh blood transfusion, the following methods can be used: (1) using frozen blood or washed blood; (2) storing blood for more than 48 hours before transfusion; (3) using irradiated blood; (4) using blood filter to remove giant cells in the blood.
  15. In order to prevent or reduce the occurrence of bending pipel defects and obtain satisfactory bending pipe quality, corresponding actions should be taken in the process of bending pipe. First of all, in the scope allowed by the product design structure, the bent pipe fittings should be designed with a large bending radius as much as possible. At the same time, when selecting equipment, the pipe bending machine with side boosting and tail pushing mechanism should be the first choice. Under normal circumstances, for the several common defects mentioned above, measures should be taken in a targeted manner. The specific methods can be as follows: For pipe fittings with severe flatten outside the arc, the compacting die (wheel) can be designed to have an anti-deformation groove in the form of a coreless bend to reduce or eliminate the degree of flatten when the pipe is bent. For cored bends, when the diameter of the mandrel is too small or with serious abrasion, the appropriate mandrel should be replaced. The unilateral clearance between the mandrel and the inner wall of the pipe should be no more than 0.5mm, and pre-install the mandrel appropriately. In addition, when installing the mold, it is necessary to ensure that the tube groove axes of the pieces are on the same level. The thinning of the outer side of the arc when the small radius bends is determined by the characteristics of the bending process. It is unavoidable, but measures should be taken to overcome the situation of excessive thinning. The commonly used effective method is to use the side with a booster or tail. There is a pusher or a combination of both, so that the auxiliary push or push mechanism pushes the pipe forward, counteracts part of the resistance when the pipe is bent, improves the stress distribution on the pipe section, and makes neutral The layer is moved outward to achieve the purpose of reducing the amount of thinning of the tube wall outside the tube. The boost and push speeds are determined based on the actual conditions of the bends to match the bend speed. At the same time, it should be checked whether the advance amount of mandrel installation is appropriate, and the necessary adjustments should be made at the time of discomfort. When bending outside the arc of the pipe, the reason should be carefully analyzed. Firstly, the pipe should have a good heat treatment condition. The weld of the seamed steel pipe should not be in the direction of the force of F1 and F2, that is, do not face the clamp. Tightening and bending the wheel mold; after removing the factors of the pipe, check whether the pressure of the pressing die is too large and adjust the pressure to be appropriate. For the newly used mandrel, check whether the diameter is too large. If the diameter is too large, it is necessary to carry out the necessary grinding, and ensure that the mandrel and the inner wall of the pipe are well lubricated to reduce the bending resistance and the friction between the inner wall of the pipe and the mandrel. And take appropriate measures to avoid machine shake, etc. For the inner side of the arc, the corresponding measures should be taken according to the wrinkle position. If the front cut point is wrinkled, the position of the mandrel should be adjusted forward so that the advancement of the mandrel is appropriate to achieve reasonable support of the pipe when the pipe is bent; after the cut point is wrinkled, anti-wrinkle block should be added, and the anti-wrinkle block should be installed in the correct position. It can be well attached to the bending die, and the pressure of the pressing die (wheel) should be adjusted to make the pressure proper; the inside of the arc is all wrinkles. In addition to adjusting the compression mold (wheel) to make the pressure appropriate, check the diameter of the mandrel and the pitch between the joints of the ball joint. If the diameter is too small or the wear is serious, the mandrel should be replaced. Welding deformation After the workpiece is welded, it will generally be deformed. If the amount of deformation exceeds the allowable value, it will affect the use. A few examples of weld distortion are shown in Figure 2-19. The main reason for this is that the weldment is unevenly heated and cooled locally. Because of the welding, the weldment is only heated to a high temperature in a local area, the closer to the weld, the higher the temperature and the greater the expansion. However, the metal in the heating zone is prevented from being freely expanded by the metal having a low ambient temperature, and cannot be freely contracted due to the pinning of the surrounding metal during cooling. As a result, the partially heated metal has a tensile stress, while the other portions of the metal have a compressive stress balanced therewith. When these stresses exceed the yield limit of the metal, weld deformation will occur; when the strength limit of the metal is exceeded, cracks will occur. External defects of welds Weld reinforcement too high As shown in Figure 2-20, this phenomenon occurs when the angle of the weld bevel is too small or the welding current is too small. The dangerous plane of the weldment weld has transitioned from the M-M plane to the N-N plane of the fusion zone. Due to the stress concentration, the fatigue life of the pressure vessel is required to increase the weld seam. Weld undercut The depression formed along the edge of the weld on the workpiece is called the undercut, as shown in Figure 2-22. It not only reduces the working section of the joint, but also causes severe stress concentration at the undercut. Welded beading The molten metal flows to the unmelted workpiece at the edge of the bath and accumulates to form a solder joint that is not fused to the workpiece, see Figure 2-23. The weld has no effect on the static load strength, but it will cause stress concentration and reduce the dynamic load strength. Burn through Burn through means that part of the molten metal leaks from the reverse side of the weld and even burns through the hole, which reduces the strength of the joint. The above five defects exist in the appearance of the weld, which can be found by the naked eye and can be repaired in time. If the operation is skilled, it can generally be avoided. Internal defects of welds Incomplete penetration Incomplete penetration is a defect that is not partially fused between the workpiece and the weld metal or weld layer. Incomplete penetration reduces the working section of the weld, causing severe stress concentration and greatly reducing joint strength, which often becomes the source of weld cracking. Slag The slag is welded with non-metal slag, which is called slag. The slag inclusion reduces the working section of the weld, resulting in stress concentration, which reduces weld strength and impact toughness. Porosity At the high temperature, the stomatal weld metal absorbs too much gas (such as H2) or gas generated by the metallurgical reaction inside the bath (such as CO), which cannot be discharged when the bath is cooled and solidified, but forms inside or on the surface of the weld. The hole is the stomata. The presence of pores reduces the effective working section of the weld and reduces the mechanical strength of the joint. If there are penetrating or continuous pores, it will seriously affect the sealability of the weldment. Cracks During or after welding, local cracking of the metal that occurs in the area of the welded joint is called cracking. Cracks may be generated on the weld and may also create heat affected zones on both sides of the weld. Sometimes it occurs on metal surfaces, sometimes inside metal. Generally, according to the mechanism of crack generation, it can be divided into two types: hot crack and cold crack. Hot cracks Hot cracks are generated during the crystallization from liquid to solid in the weld metal and are mostly produced in the weld metal. The main reason for this is the presence of low-melting substances (such as FeS, melting point of 1193 ° C) in the weld, which weakens the relationship between the grains, and when subjected to large weld stress, it is easy to cause cracks between the grains. When there are many impurities such as S and Cu in the weldment and the welding rod, hot cracks are likely to occur.    Thermal cracks are characterized by a distribution along the grain boundaries. When the crack penetrates the surface and communicates with the outside, there is a clear tendency to hydrogenate. Cold cracks Cold cracks are generated during post-weld cooling and are mostly produced on the fusion line between the base metal or the base metal and the weld. The main reason for this is that the quenched structure is formed in the heat-affected zone or the weld, and the internal crack of the grain is caused by the high stress. When welding the easily hardened steel with high carbon content or more alloying elements, the most It is prone to cold cracks. Excessive hydrogen is melted into the weld and can also cause cold cracks. Crack is one of the most dangerous defects. In addition to reducing the load-bearing cross-section, it also causes severe stress concentration. In use, the crack will gradually expand and eventually cause damage to the member. Therefore, such defects are generally not allowed in the welded structure, and once found, it is necessary to shovel the re-welding. Welding inspection Performing the necessary inspection of the welded joint is an important measure to ensure the quality of the weld. Therefore, after the workpiece is welded, the weld should be inspected according to the technical requirements of the product. Any defects that do not meet the technical requirements must be repaired in time. Inspection of welding quality includes three aspects: visual inspection, non-destructive testing and mechanical performance testing. These three are complementary to each other, and non-destructive testing is the main one. A ppearance inspection Visual inspection is generally based on visual observation, sometimes with a magnifying glass of 5-20 times. Through visual inspection, weld surface defects such as undercuts, welds, surface cracks, pores, slag inclusions, and weld penetration can be found. The dimensions of the weld can also be measured using a weld detector or template. Nondestructive test Inspection defects such as slag inclusions, pores, cracks, etc. hidden inside the weld. At present, the most common use is X-ray inspection, as well as ultrasonic flaw detection and magnetic flaw detection. The X-ray inspection uses X-rays to take pictures of the weld, and judges whether there are defects, the number and type of defects in the interior based on the image of the film. According to the technical requirements of the product, the weld is qualified. The ultrasonic beam is emitted by the probe and transmitted to the metal. When the ultrasonic beam is transmitted to the metal-air interface, it is refracted and passed through the weld. If there is a defect in the weld, the ultrasonic beam is reflected to the probe and accepted, and a reflected wave appears on the screen. Based on the comparison and discrimination of these reflected waves with normal waves, the size and position of the defects can be determined. Ultrasonic flaw detection is much simpler than X-ray photography and is therefore widely used. However, ultrasonic flaw detection often can only be judged based on operational experience, and can not leave inspection basis. For internal defects that are not deep from the surface of the weld and extremely small cracks on the surface, magnetic flaw detection can also be used. Hydraulic test and air pressure test For pressurized containers requiring sealing, a hydrostatic test and/or a pneumatic test shall be carried out to check the sealability and pressure bearing capacity of the weld. The method is to inject 1.25-1.5 times working water or a working pressure gas (mostly air) into the container for a certain period of time, then observe the pressure drop in the container and observe whether there is leakage outside. According to these, it can be assessed whether the weld is qualified. Mechanical test of welded test panels Non-destructive testing can reveal the inherent defects of the weld, but it does not indicate the mechanical properties of the metal in the heat affected zone of the weld. Therefore, the welded joints are sometimes subjected to tensile, impact, bending and other tests. These tests were performed by the test panels. The test panels used are preferably welded together with the longitudinal joints of the cylinder to ensure consistent construction conditions. The test panels were then tested for mechanical properties. In actual production, only welded joints of new steel grades are generally tested in this respect. If you are looking for metal products , please visit our website: and contact us.
  16. Yeast two-hybrid was proposed by Fields and Song in 1989, which was based on studies of the properties of eukaryotic transcription factors, particularly the yeast transcription factor GAL4. Yeast two-hybrid is the two domains of the transcription factor required for gene transcription, which are close to each other under the attraction of two interacting proteins, and induce gene expression. The most important applications of the yeast two-hybrid system are rapid, direct analysis of interactions between known proteins, and the isolation of new ligands and known genes for their interaction with known proteins. The yeast two-hybrid system detects the interaction between proteins with the following advantages: The action signal is given by the effect of reconstituting the transcription factor in the cell after expression of the fusion gene, eliminating the cumbersome steps of purifying the protein. Detection is carried out in living cells and can represent the true state of the cells to a certain extent. The result of the assay can be the cumulative effect of the gene expression product, thus detecting weak or transient interactions between proteins. The yeast two-hybrid system can construct cDNA libraries from different tissues, organs, cell types and differentiation period materials, and can analyze various subcellular parts and functional proteins such as cytoplasm, nucleus and membrane-bound protein. The yeast two-hybrid system is an efficient and rapid method for analyzing protein-protein interactions, but there are still some problems to be solved. One of the problems often encountered in the application of the yeast two-hybrid system is that there are more false positives. The so-called false positive is that the reporter gene is activated in the absence of interaction between the two proteins to be studied. The main reason is that the BD fusion bait protein has a single activation effect, or the activation of this fusion protein is activated by a foreign protein. In addition, if the AD fusion target protein has specific binding of DNA, the expression of the reporter gene can also be activated separately. Therefore, a rigorous control trial is required to rule out false positives. The decoy and the target protein should be separately identified for the activation of the reporter gene. At present, the yeast double-hybrid system uses multiple reporter genes, and the upstream regulatory regions of each reporter gene are different, which can reduce a large number of false positives. In addition, the reporter gene is usually integrated into the chromosome, which can stabilize the gene expression level and eliminate false positives caused by fluctuations in gene expression levels due to changes in plasmid copy number. Transformation efficiency is one of the keys to the success of yeast two-hybrid library screening. Especially when screening low-abundance cDNA libraries, the transformation efficiency must be improved. Co-transformation or sequential conversion can be used for conversion, which saves time and effort. More importantly, co-transformation can attenuate or eliminate this toxicity if the transformation alone produces toxicity to the yeast cells. A more effective method is to transfer the bait protein carrier and the target protein carrier into different ligated haploid yeasts respectively, and the bait protein and the target protein are brought into the same two by the hybridization of the two conjugated haploid cells and Ploid cells. In recent years, many researchers have improved and developed the two-hybrid system. For example, false positive display assays and dual screening systems are employed to reduce the occurrence of "false positives"; development of mammalian two-hybrid systems to better study protein-protein interactions. Among them, the dual screening system uses two different reporter genes (usually lacZ and HIS3) to have the following advantages: using different promoters to express reporter genes located on two chromosomes of yeast can significantly reduce false positives. The screening ability is enhanced by nutrient screening, and is especially suitable for screening in the case of a large library capacity with less protein being selected. The yeast two-hybrid system is carried out in eukaryotic model organism yeast. The study of protein interactions in living cells can be detected sensitively by the expression products of reporter genes. A large number of research literatures show that yeast two-hybrid technology is widely used in discovering new functions of new proteins and proteins, studying antigen and antibody interactions, screening drug sites and drug interactions with proteins, and establishing genomic protein linkage maps. With the deep and continuous optimization of yeast two-hybrid technology, yeast two-hybrid technology combined with other technologies will be more conducive to a more complete and accurate judgment of experimental results.
  17. You have the opportunity to help the environment by upgrading your home and going green. Doing this will also make you feel like a better person and maybe save you money. Consider doing the right thing by conserving the environment and improving your home. Insulate the House Insulating your home doesn't have to be costly since there are plenty of options out there today. Besides this, reduce your carbon footprint and save up to 30% of energy per year. Weatherstripping doors and using eco-friendly caulk for air leaks in window panes, basements and attics are just a couple of simple solutions for greener living. Save money on energy bills by keeping air in. Recycle Often You can teach your family why recycling matters by placing bins in designated areas for a more sustainable home. In addition to this, your kids will learn the value of living by ethical standards. Learn more about which items can be recycled and how to do this by visiting educational websites like Recyclebank. You can also get crafty and repurpose clothing planting pots and more to keep them from filling up landfills. Finding creative solutions to problems can be a fun way to pass the time with family. Add Native Plants Native plants can add natural beauty and value to your home. These also attract butterflies, birds, bees and others. You'll be giving animals nesting areas, shelter, food and a safe place to escape predators. Do your part in saving the earth by making positive contributions to the ecosystem and animal welfare. You might want to consider septic treatment systems that save you money and time, and are more economical to maintain. In fact, you can feel proud of yourself for investing in a genuinely beautiful home and environmental conservation. Natural Paint and Wallpaper Conventional wallpaper and ordinary paint contain synthetic materials and harmful chemicals. Keep your family healthy by choosing products made from natural ingredients. You can even purchase wallpaper made of seagrass. Consider painting the walls with certified eco-friendly or recycled paint for your safety and as a wise sustainability choice. The Global Paint for Charity will use any leftover paint donations you may want to give away for global housing rehabilitation projects. By protecting the earth's natural resources, you'll be protecting yourself, your family and your future. Besides this, feel less guilty for utilizing energy and other valuable resources excessively. Sleep with peace of mind and enjoy your home the right way.
  18. Sheet metal process is common used in some large-scale mechanical equipment (such as processing machinery, network cabinet, switch, etc.) and office facilities (such as file cabinet, computer desk, etc.). It will not be used in small-scale products with high requirements for appearance and size. Sheet metal manufacturing process refers to a series of integrated cold working combination processes for thin sheet metal (usually less than 6 mm). Specific technology can be divided into: shearing, punching, bending, welding, riveting, splicing, stamping, etc. The most prominent feature of sheet metal products is the uniform thickness a single part. Selection of materials The commonly used materials are cold rolled sheet (SPCC), hot rolled sheet (SHCC), galvanized sheet (SECC, SGCC), copper (CU) brass, copper, beryllium copper, aluminium sheet (6061, 6063, hard aluminium, etc.), aluminum profiles and stainless steel (mirror, wire drawing surface, fog surface). According to the function of the product, the selection of materials is different, generally consider from its use and cost. For example: 1. Cold rolled sheet SPCC is mainly used for electroplating and paint-baking. It is low cost and easy to form. The material thickness is less than 3.2mm. 2. Hot rolled sheet SHCC, material T≥3.0mm, is also used for electroplated, paint parts, low cost, but difficult to form, mainly flat parts. 3. Galvanized sheet SECC, SGCC. SECC electrolytic plate is divided into N material and P material. N material mainly does not do surface treatment, which has high cost. P material is used for spraying parts. 4. Copper: mainly used for conductive products. The surface treatment is nickel plating, chromium plating, or no treatment, high cost. 5. Aluminum plate; commonly used the products with surface chromate (J11-A) and oxidation (conductive oxidation, chemical oxidation), high cost, silver plating, nickel plating. 6. Aluminum profiles; materials with complex cross-section structure, which are widely used in various kinds of cartons. The surface treatment is the same as that of aluminium plate. 7. Stainless steel; mainly used for products with no surface treatment, high cost. Production process: 1. Shearing/Punching The shearing/punching process is mainly used for blanking. Blanking also has the purpose of partial forming, while the purpose of shearing is simply to cut the large material into smaller ones. 2. Bending process Because the thickness of sheet metal parts is relatively small, and the ductility of metal materials also allows the implementation of bending process, so bending process is one of the most frequently used processes in sheet metal process. As the name implies, "bending" is to use external forces to force sheet metal to bend at a given angle and radius. 3. Stamping Forming This process usually requires a stamping die. Stamping is the use of external forces and the ductility of the metal sheet itself, forcing the material to be shaped according to the cavity shape of the pre-opened stamping die. After stamping, it is usually necessary to further remove burr edges and waste materials. 4. Connection Technology In the assembly process of Sheet metal parts, welding, riveting and splicing are often used. Through these connections, sheet metal parts can form a whole. 5. Surface treatment technology The surface of sheet metal materials is often corroded or stained by oxidation or other reasons. In order to meet the appearance quality requirements of final products, it is often need to do surface treatment for sheet metal parts. Common surface treatment processes of sheet metal include rust removal, paint spraying, sand blasting, oxidation, plating, etc. Calculating method of sheet metal quotation: The manufacturing price of sheet metal is calculated according to the operation time. Laser cutting: 8RMB/Min, each hole is calculated according to 1RMB. CNC pricing: 5RMB/Min. CNC Bending Pricing: 1 RMB per side, double the large side. Cold welding calculation: 300 RMB per day, 50 KG per day as the benchmark. If you are looking for Metal Machining in China , please visit our website: and contact us.
  19. Actin: Actin is an important cytoskeletal protein of cells, a major protein component in striated muscle fibers, and a major component of muscle filaments and cytoskeletal microfilaments. Actin has a contractile function and is widely distributed. It plays an important role in life activities such as cell secretion, phagocytosis, migration, cytoplasmic circulation and cytoplasmic division. Β-actin (β-Actin) consists of 375 aa and has a molecular weight of about 42 Kd. Its antibodies are mainly used to label smooth muscle and tumors from which it originates. The expression level of β-actin protein in cells is usually not changed, so it is widely used as a reference for consistent sampling in Western countries, and is often used for immunostaining to observe the microfilament structure of cells. Actin structure The cytoskeleton is a three-dimensional network structure interwoven with protein fibers. It fills the entire cytoplasmic space and has a structural relationship with the outer membrane and the inner nuclear membrane to maintain cell-specific shapes and cells. Microtubule: It is the main scaffold in the cell and guides the direction of intracellular material transport; Microfilament: maintains cell morphological characteristics, enables cells to move and contract; is a spiral fiber of 5-8 nm in diameter composed of actin, which is ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. Intermediate fiber: It is the cytoskeleton component that plays a major supporting role, giving the cells tension and shear resistance. Actin is a medium-sized protein consisting of 375-377 amino acid residues and encoded by a large, highly conserved gene. It has a widespread distribution in the biological world. In addition to muscle tissue, it is also found in almost all eukaryotic cells, such as human brain tissue, platelets and various plant cells, which are also found in many fungi. The primary structure changes of actin in different species are very small. For example, the amino acid sequence of actin in rabbit, bovine and chicken skeletal muscles is only 3-5 amino acids and rabbit rib muscles are different. Both bovine skeletal muscle and myocardium are different. The difference in actin is only the 298th and 375th. These actin genes apparently evolved from the same ancestral gene. The microfilaments can be assembled. When ATP is bonded to the monomer, there is a high mutual affinity, and the monomer tends to polymerize into a polymer, which is assembly. When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, the monomer affinity decreases and the polymer tends to depolymerize, ie, disassemble. The assembly speed of the two ends of the microfilament is not the same, and the positive electrode and the negative electrode are 5-10 times faster. When the ATP concentration reaches a certain critical value, it can be observed that the positive electrode is assembled and the negative electrode is assembled at the same time, and it is called "treading". Actin function 1 microfilament is involved in the formation of cytoskeleton; 2 constitutes cell cortex; 3 microfilament is involved in cell movement; 4 microfilament is involved in cell division; 5 microfilament is involved in muscle contraction; 6 is involved in intracellular material transport; 7 microfilament is involved in intracellular signal transduction guide. Actin and its β-actin antibody actin is one of the six known isomers of actin, a cytoskeletal protein consisting of 375 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 42 kDa. Widely distributed in the cytoplasm, the expression is very abundant. Actin, a protein encoded by a housekeeping gene, is highly conserved among different species. Therefore, it is often used as an internal reference in most tissues and cells, ie, internal reference. Actin antibody Actin antibodies recognize only β-actin in WB or immunostaining and cannot be used to detect β-actin in the muscle or skeletal muscle of adult animals. The protein level of β-actin antibody usually does not change, so it is widely used in WB when the loading amount is consistently referenced. It is also often used for immunostaining to observe the microfilament structure of cells. When used as a reference for Western, the main difference between the Actin antibody and the ubulin antibody is that the molecular weights of the proteins recognized by the two are different, so that a suitable reference can be selected on the same gel on the same membrane, as well as the target protein and the reference protein. In the literature "Effects of trehalose on the mRNA transcription level and protein expression of β-actin in low temperature storage skin", it was found that the novel cryoprotectant (CPA) trehalose expressed β-actin expression and mRNA transcription level of skin skeleton protein. The effect of regulation is to understand whether the addition of trehalose to a conventional cryoprotectant is superior to that of a conventional cryoprotectant. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot were used to observe the expression of β-actin protein. RT-PCR was used to study the β-actin gene level of skin after preservation by different cryoprotectants. Fresh adult skin is divided into 4 groups, which are respectively trehalose-dimethyl sulfoxide (TD), dimethyl sulfoxide-propylene glycol (DP), dimethyl sulfoxide-de-sera keratinocyte culture solution (DK), DMEM. As a cryoprotectant, the liquid nitrogen was stored at -196 °C for 7 days and 14 days, and the fresh skin was used as the control group. The results showed that the expression of β-actin protein and gene transcription in the T-D group were similar to those in the fresh group, and the D-P effect was second. The other two groups were significantly lower than the fresh group. It is concluded that the addition of trehalose to traditional cryoprotectants is superior to traditional cryoprotectants in the protection of β-actin expression in low temperature storage skin. Many years of research have confirmed that after treatment with traditional cryoprotectants, skin tissue still inevitably has low temperature damage, resulting in a decrease in cell viability. In order to further study the new protective agent for cryopreservation of the skin, the vitality of the skin after preservation is improved. The effect of trehalose on mRNA transcription and protein expression of β-actin in hypothermia was observed. Immunohistochemistry results: β-actin in fresh skin was brown after DAB staining, and the color was evenly distributed. The protein staining was light yellow at 1 week in the DMEM group, and partially negative at 2 weeks, and the cytoplasm was stained blue. Compared with the fresh skin group, although the protein coloration of the T-D group was gradually reduced after two weeks of storage, the morphology of the nucleus was almost normal, the structure was clear, and the color was uniform. The traditional skin cryopreservation agent mainly increases the viscosity of the whole cell and the concentration of intracellular solute by infiltrating into the cell, reduces the freezing point of the extracellular fluid and the cell contents, and delays the formation speed of the ice crystal. Trehalose is a non-permeable cryoprotective drug discovered and applied in recent years. Toner et al found that the morphological structure of fetal skin tissue stored by using trehalose-dimethyl sulfoxide as a protective agent is stable and effectively improves the vitality of skin storage. This study showed that the skin tissue was treated with trehalose-dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfoxide-propylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide-KSKF, DMEM, and the expression of β-actin in fresh skin tissue. The highest, the expression of β-actin in the skin after cryopreservation after immersion in trehalose-dimethyl sulfoxide was similar to that of the fresh group, followed by dimethyl sulfoxide-propylene glycol, and the other groups were significantly weakened. From the related literature reports and experimental results, we analyzed that trehalose showed good protective effect in this group of skin cryopreservation experiments, which may be related to its anti-oxygen free radical action and its excellent vitrification characteristics. After treatment with trehalose, the glass transition temperature increases or approaches -30°C, which is significantly higher than the glass transition temperature of conventional osmotic protective agents. During the freezing process, trehalose tightly encloses the protein structure to form a sugar glass body, which is an amorphous solid state. The formation of such an amorphous structure results in a decrease in molecular motion in the matrix, a decrease in the diffusion coefficient, a slowing in the rate of chemical reaction, and a low relaxation rate in various processes. Especially when the temperature is much lower than the glass transition temperature, the performance is more obvious. The relaxation process of displacement diffusion restriction, such as protein denaturation, is inhibited, and the mobility is lowered, and the structure of protein molecules is tighter, thus resisting the influence of low temperature environment. Comparison of β-actin protein content and gene expression in different types of CPA treatment showed that different CPA interventions had different protective effects on skin tissue, and trehalose combined with dimethyl sulfoxide was superior to other cryoprotectants. The mechanism of protection of trehalose on skin tissue at the genetic level needs further exploration, which provides a more effective scientific basis for trehalose as a skin cryoprotectant.
  20. Pre-welding treatment: 1. Joint design: The unilateral clearance of the joint should be controlled between 0.08 and 0.2 mm, and the length of the weld is generally not more than 30 mm. 2. Surface treatment: Use alkali or metal cleaning fluid to clean the oil stain and other contaminants on the welded joint, and then use a scraper (or coarse sandpaper, copper brush, wire brush) to scrape the insulation layer from the welded joint surface. Note: It can't be polished, because the solder is welded by capillary action, which is not conducive to welding after polishing.  3. Pre-preparation: prepare aluminum welding rods and powders first, then mix aluminium welding powders with distilled water, reserved, start to weld aluminium pipes and aluminium pipes, first polish aluminium pipes and welding rods, then insert a stainless steel pipe into aluminium pipes, now start welding ignition with neutral flame, acetylene more oxygen less spot roasting aluminium pipes, and then use welding rods. The distance between the welding nozzle is about 15 millimeters and the angle of 45 degrees. When the welding piece melts, the welding rod keeps pace with the welding piece at any time. At this time, the welding rod and the welding piece melt into one. At this time, the welding rod and the welding torch are removed after welding. Welding copper and aluminium pipes is said to be a difficult technical problem, requiring professional equipment and so on. In fact, as long as some key problems are mastered during welding, manual welding can be done well. 1. When heating, the copper pipe must be heated Because the melting point of copper tube is much higher than that of aluminium tube, you can heat it as hard as you can, and you don't have to be afraid of the melting of copper tube. Of course, you should pay attention to the flame temperature. As for the temperature of the flame, see next note. 2. Selection of flame type. If you add oxygen with liquefied gas, you can choose the heating flame as the oxidation flame, that is, the brightness of the middle flame core is about 1-1.5 cm, and the length of the flame ejection is about 7-10 times the length of the flame core. At this time, the proportion of oxygen is larger, and the flame emits more uniform sound. 3. Heating position Heating the copper tube, and continuously moving the torch along the tube axis, moving the flame back and forth, using the position of slightly reddish flame edge as the main heating area, which is about 2 to 3 centimeters away from the flame head. 4. Heating degree In the process of heating the copper tube, the edge of the flame will be deformed, which will affect the aluminum tube and heat it. At this time, the position of the aluminum tube being heated is generally the edge of the aluminum tube. The brightness of the tube body is higher than that before heating. When the edge of the aluminum tube is chapped, it is the best time to add solder. 5. Adding solder. When the chapped edge of the aluminium tube appears and the melting phenomenon has not yet occurred, the copper-aluminium welding wire is firmly placed in the center of the flame and is strongly close to the joint of the copper tube and the aluminium tube. 6. Welding of solder. When the solder is put in, the solder melts in about 1 to 2 seconds. If the temperature and oxidation degree are well controlled, the solder will flow along the gap and fill the gap naturally. If the flame can rotate around the copper pipe and continuously add solder, the solder will fill the gap continuously. 7. Points for attention. Flame type; the oxygen should be sufficient but not too large; the time to add solder; if not completed at one time, need to surround the tube, reheat again, and then add solder. quality problems Generally, there are two kinds of problems, one is insufficient heating. The phenomenon is that the added solder only melts on the copper tube, the aluminum tube itself is not contact with solder, and the solder appears as granular on the aluminum tube; the other is over heating, which will cause the collapse of the aluminum tube itself, or even the melting pit of the copper tube. At this time, the welding has basically failed and needs to restart. If you are looking for Metal Machining in China , please visit our website: and contact us.
  21. Introduction Proteomics is the study of proteomics, the study of cellular, histological or biological protein composition and its changing rules. Proteome comes from the combination of protein and genome, which means "the complete set of proteins expressed by a genome", including all proteins expressed by a cell or even a living organism. in essence, proteomics refers to the study of the characteristics of proteins at a large scale, including the expression level of proteins, post-translational modification, interaction between proteins and proteins, etc., so as to obtain an overall and comprehensive understanding of diseases, cell metabolism and other processes at the protein level. As this field is going much more advanced, there are some branches from it: shotgun proteomics; itraq proteomics; aqua proteomics; silac protemics; Research contents Protein Identification posttranslational modification Protein function determination The picture below shows the steps of identification of proteomics: Research background Although the concept of proteomics was first proposed in 1994, relevant studies can be traced back to the mid-1990s or even earlier. Especially in the early 1980s, a similar proteomics plan was proposed before the genome project, then known as the Human Protein Index plan. In the early 1990s, various technologies were quite mature. In this case, the concept of proteomics was proposed after discussion by scientists from various countries. In view of the importance of the development and the advanced technology, major developed countries in the west have shelled out a lot of money to launch the research of proteomics in an all-round way. For example, the national institutes of health of the United States, the department of energy of the United States and the European Community have all initiated and made significant progress in the research of different biological protein groups, and a great number of high-quality research papers have been published in famous international academic journals. Because proteomics research is more practical than genomics research and has a huge market prospect, companies and pharmaceutical companies have also invested heavily in proteomics research. Development trend Basic research: In the past two years, proteomics research technology has been applied to various life sciences, such as cell biology and neurobiology. In the research object, it covers the range of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, plants and animals, and involves various important biological phenomena, such as signal transduction, cell differentiation, protein folding and so on. In the future the field of proteomics research will be more extensive. Applied research: Proteomics will be one of the most effective methods to find molecular markers and drug targets for diseases. Proteomics technology also has a very attractive prospect in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer, alzheimer's disease and other major human diseases. At present, many large international pharmaceutical companies are investing a lot of manpower and material resources in proteomics application research. Research significance With the implementation and advancement of the human genome project, life science research has entered the post-genome era. In this era, the main research objects of life science are functional genomics, including structural genomics and proteomics. Although the genomes of several species have now been sequenced, the function of more than half of these genes is unknown. Protein is the executor of physiological function and the direct embodiment of life phenomena. The development of proteomics technology has become an important support for the rapid development of modern biotechnology, leading to a key breakthrough in biotechnology. Development of proteomics research is not only a milestone of life science research into the post-genome era, but also one of the core contents of life science research in the post-genome era. Correlational research The study of proteomics can provide not only material basis for life activities, but also theoretical basis and solution for the clarification of many disease mechanisms. By comparing the proteome of normal and pathological individuals, we can find some "disease-specific protein molecules" that can be molecular targets for new drug design or provide molecular markers for early diagnosis of disease. In the meanwhile, this method would cooperate with protein de novo sequencing and peptide synthesis effectively. Expectation The most marketable drugs in the world are proteins themselves or their targets are certain protein molecules. Therefore, proteomics research is not only a necessary work to explore the mysteries of life, but also a great benefit to human health. Proteomics is a characteristic of the post-gene era of life science.
  22. Because the energy costs keep rising, you might be looking for ways to be more energy-efficient without causing a hole in your budget this winter. Before throwing yourself on unplanned investments consider getting a quick energy assessment so you can determine how much energy your house uses. This small assessment will include an energy rating that indicates how energy-efficient is your home and what upgrades you could choose. These upgrades might prove essential for your home and family and moreover, you’ll cut from the unexpected energy expenses you encounter every winter. As you know, there is no good investment without a well-planned budget and patience. There are definitely plenty of upgrading options so you can obtain better control over energy-efficient features in your home. Here are a couple of energy-saving must-haves to include in your home this winter. 1. Invest in Proper Insulation One of the most efficient ways to keep your home warm this winter and save money is to make a good investment in proper insulation. It is well-known that a quarter of a home’s heat is lost through the uninsulated spaces in your house such as the floor or certain roof spaces. Insulating your home should be the best investment you’ve made this year because it will offer you great durability and will maintain your home cosy during the whole winter. There are plenty of guides you could use to learn how to properly insulate your home. Make short research and see which material are best for you home. You have a variety of natural materials such as sheep’s wool or why not, loose cellulose which is made from recycled newspaper. Mineral wool is known to be one of the best because it has amazing sound-insulation features and even better, has good fire resistance. 2. Efficient Heating Systems Because when we talk about the most efficient home heating upgrades, we should be talking about efficiency from the perspective of financial costs and even more environmental costs. Plan accordingly and review every heating system in your house. See which one should be replaced or perhaps upgraded. Schedule in time your annual service to ensure your boiler is working properly, but if it’s more than 10 or 11 years you should consider replacing it. A good boiler is easy to find and all you have to do is to take the perfect measurements to see where it can fit best in your house. You can even opt for a steam boiler rental for when you’re using your house just for holidays or you’re planning to move soon. To avoid extra expenses on heat, make sure you check if your radiators and boilers are working effectively and if you see some changes in your energy bill after you’ve made the upgrades. 3. Smart Appliances You already know that upgrading your home for this winter requires patience and good taste in choosing the right appliances that look great and consume less. As DOE says, your appliances account for almost 15% of your house’s energy consumption. A great solution to decrease your consumption level would be to invest, for example, in a smart lighting system. This will offer you long-term durability you’ll avoid plenty of expenses because you won’t have to replace your bulbs every month. Smart bulbs, for example, are amazing in helping users to streamline their lighting system because they can be controlled very easily using just a smartphone. Another great solution for your home would be investing in smart plugs if you wish to have control or monitor your appliances energy usage. 4. Consider Premium Windows This should be another long-term amazing investment that your house would need because as you know a lot of your home’s heat is lost through the old windows. We know that many people would choose old windows style just because they wish to add some charm in their homes, but this is not actually a great idea, especially when you want to avoid extra expenses on your energy bill. When you plan to make accountable upgrades to maintain a stable temperature in your home during this winter you should opt for premium windows. This would help more than you think to both save money on energy and care for the environment. For those who consider some improvements in their home this winter, must know that this requires more than just replacing your fridge or boiler. You should handle everything with care and patience and of course, a well-developed plan. Before throwing yourself on these investments be sure you consult in detail with your family. After all, your family needs are extremely important when you choose to make some major changes in your home. There are plenty of specialized companies, perfect for those who can’t handle home renovations by themselves. Above all, you could use a professional opinion before planning to upgrade your home. Make a list with whatever you consider needs improvements and negotiate with a specialist or someone who already made these changes in his home. This won’t be an easy task and you know it because people often tend to underestimate this process. Be smart and when you start shopping for new energy-saving appliances such as light bulbs and heating systems be sure you have a well-prepared budget. This is not like you’re just buying a new pair of shoes, it’s a long-term investment that may affect your budget if you’re not doing it properly. There is a possibility to make these new small adjustments in your home without undertaking major works, but this often depends on what type of home you have. If your home is an old one, this means you’ll have more things to work at and you’ll need a proper budget to finish your project before winter. In other ways, to save energy this winter would mean to make a big an wise investment and this should be achievable if you’re planning smart.
  23. For years now, people have been taking steps to help save the planet in their everyday lives. But the fault of our dying planet lies not within the average individual, but within massive industries. It is time for factories to take action to lessen their environmental impact. Measure Your Carbon Footprint In order to lessen your carbon footprint, first you need to know the size of your carbon footprint. Measure how much damage your factory is doing by taking a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Assessment. From there, you can develop a plan to shrink that footprint. Use Green Technology Ever since the industrial revolution, factories have been using fossil fuels, like coal. These nonrenewable sources are disposed back into the air in the form of greenhouse gasses. It’s time to ditch these outdated processes and embrace technologies such as solar panels, wind energy and LED light bulbs. Factories can seriously benefit by switching to renewable energy sources. Recycle Materials You probably have pieces of scrap steel laying around from previous equipment or projects. Call a scrap metal collector to come and pick up the pieces. Collectors use your waste metal to recycle them into new projects. One of the best ways to protect the environment is to use what we already have. Steel production admits greenhouse gasses into the air and dangerous pollutants into surrounding water sources. But recycling already-made steel leaves a much smaller carbon footprint. Recycling scrap metal also keeps mining away from wildlife, takes less time than extracting new metal, and keeps waste out of our ever-multiplying landfills. Dispose of Waste Responsibly Factories’ haphazard waste disposal has led to the pollution of the surrounding soil and local water sources. As seen in the Flint Water Crisis, contaminated water can cause serious health problems for humans and animals that rely on that water. Sometimes the contaminated water is absorbed into soil where crops are planted. This further spreads the contamination to large supplies of food. Many strategies to reduce and dispose of manufacturing waste have been developed recently. Being more mindful about where your waste goes can lessen damaging effects. Be Adaptable The companies that have survived the longest are the ones that are most willing to adapt to the current times. And currently, people are concerned about the planet. We have wizened about how we impact the environment. And with the rise of the internet, consumers are more aware of than ever before where their products come from and how they are made. Generation Z, in particular, likes to spend their money on products that are ethically made. Change may not always be easy, but it is extremely necessary. Be open-minded about changes. After all, the changes you are making are beneficial for the whole planet.
  24. Business growth requires a long-term vision… If you decided to start a business, you’re probably a risk taker. You assessed the business industry and when you identified a solution to a problem, you decided to establish a business that delivers that solution. You work hard to deliver top-notch services on the market, but in your haste to identify business opportunities you may forget to establish a long-term vision. You are a well-intentioned business manager, but you may have no idea how to make your company sustainable. You need to transform your vision into a sustainable business model to attract more clients and to withstand the obstacles the business world poses. By creating a sustainable business plan, you can address a wider public, and drive higher success. Building an eco-friendly business isn’t difficult if you count on eco-focused methods from day one. Create a long-term vision that guides the business operation As a leader, you need to cast your vision for your business. When creating a business plan, base it on your vision to decide what’s the purpose of the company, and what activities will take you there. The members of the organisation should follow the guidelines the business plan establishes to navigate the industry. 60% of millennial clients choose sustainable brands. Considering that they make up for your largest group of buyers you should base your business decisions on their buying patterns. 70% of millennials are willing to pay 70% more to buy products from an eco-friendly brand. When you establish what your long-term vision is, you should establish a reputation for environmental protection to attract loyal clients. A sustainably-minded business is successful in winning millennials, who easily become loyal clients when they share the same values with the brand they buy from. Make critical decisions based on the issues that may arise A successful entrepreneur anticipates the problems their business can face, and plans solutions in advance for each of them. You can’t anticipate all the issues you’ll deal with when running your business, but you can foresee the common ones, all companies are dealing with. You need to create strategies to overcome these key problems. Isn’t simple to deliver services that solve your clients’ problems and stay eco-friendly at the same time. Key decisions that determine your business sustainability will arise frequently and they can affect not only your reputation, but also your liability and income. To manage an environmentally friendly business that produces income, you need to consider multiple time frames. Don’t ever make decisions based on a single time frame because it will influence the long-term sustainability of the company. When passionate about green policies, you have great chances to run a successful venture in the future. It all depends on how you anticipate problems and come up with solutions. Allocate the right and necessary resources You can’t run a successful company if you don’t allocate the needed resources, in terms of money, tools, people and time. Before allocating any resource, identify which and how much of each you need to provide. Your project managers can help you determine these aspects. People are the heart of an organisation. Start from identifying how many specialists you need to run the venture and what skills they need. To put in practice sustainable practices, you need to create a sustainability team to supervise and organise operations to meet green practices. The assigned team brings the sustainability plan to fruition and communicates with all employees to ensure they are fully aware of the activities they need to complete. Embed your goals in the corporate culture, so every new employee knows and respects them. The sustainability team should work as an advocate for the role of eco-friendly practices. Build a sustainable supply chain Always source raw materials from sustainable sources and ensure your partners respect green practices. Before buying raw materials check their origin to determine if the entire supply chain is sustainable. Conduct a periodical supply chain audit to identify the areas that require upgrades. Cover in your audit all aspects, from production to packaging and transportation. Your supply chain should rely on environmentally friendly and recyclable materials. When it’s possible to reduce the amount of materials used by recycling old ones, you should choose this option. Reducing the carbon footprint is a priority for green businesses, so you should comprise it in your long-term vision. Ensure you’re working in an eco-friendly environment An essential step in building a sustainable brand is to work in a green building. When constructing a new building it’s easy to ensure you respect green policies. Quality materials are always a good starting point because they last longer and require less maintenance. For example, by installing high-quality windows and doors, you maintain a constant temperature and you save energy. Collaborating with professional industrial pumps service providers allows you to maintain equipment functional and reduce the impact your organisation has on the environment. Expert service can check, repair and replace damaged units that cause extra costs. Use alternative sources like solar or wind energy to power your business. They are renewable resources and can help you reduce the production of greenhouse gases. It’s impossible for a business to become 100% green, but it’s possible to build a sustainable company if you make the right decisions. The sun has a beneficial effect not only on people but only on businesses. It makes people healthier and it provides a practical energy source for organisations world-wide. Solar panels convert solar energy and can easily power your equipment and building. The roof of the building is the most underused area, and by installing solar panels you transform it into a source of energy. But if you want to use the roof for other purposes, you can install the solar panels elsewhere and direct the energy to your premises. All the efforts you make towards a sustainable business are better than none. If you work hard you can run an organisation that makes sustainability its long-term goal.
  25. As biopharmaceutical technology becomes more widely used in the treatment of diseases such as rheumatology, cancer and other chronic diseases, professionals in the pharmaceutical industry predict that half of the newly approved drugs will soon come from biomedicine, which has also boosted a huge interest in developing biosimilars. The possibility of selling biopharmaceuticals that have passed the patent protection period is becoming more and more attractive to many biopharmaceutical companies, especially in the next few years, many biopharmaceuticals will lose patent protection. Biosimilar Biogenerics (also known as biosimilars, follow-on proteins or follow-on biologics) are new copies of original biological products that have been approved by law. Unlike common generic, FDA defines common generics as: A generic drug is a medication created to be the same as an already marketed brand-name drug in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics, and intended use. These similarities help to demonstrate bioequivalence, which means that a generic medicine works in the same way and provides the same clinical benefit as its brand-name version. While biosimilars are macromolecules made from biological organisms and their products, usually macromolecules with high complexity. In addition, the differences between the two include that chemical generics are often very stable, while biosimilars are very sensitive to changes in production processes. Patients and doctors may prefer original brand drugs than biosimilars, or they need sufficient proof to show that they have the same efficacy and safety. As a biosimilar manufacturer, it has no access to the same cell bank, molecular cloning, and the exact fermentation and purification process used in the development of the original drug, and the production process cannot be reproduced. In order to ensure full confidence in biosimilars, regulations are needed to reduce users' concerns about the different performance of biosimilars compared to the original drug. Unlike chemical generics, each biosimilar requires clinical trials because even small differences in product impurities, decomposition materials, or molecular makeup can cause serious health problems in patients. Biosimilar R&D Outsourcing The global biosimilars market is expected to grow rapidly in the next few years, which will also put tremendous pressure on biopharmaceutical companies because they want to gain a corresponding market position in this new and highly competitive field. The production of biosimilars requires professional competence, rigorous planning, highly professional staff and huge investments. Investments in sites, equipment, technology, materials, and manpower can increase company pressure, consume company resources, and reduce overall business success. For this reason, companies that want to produce biosimilars in an efficient way, without having huge investments in expensive high-tech equipment, are increasingly using entrusted contract manufacturing companies (CMOs) or contracts. The way of research organizations (CROs) that provide services and have a well-trained team of professionals and advanced technology to develop relevant analytical methods and processes for bio-manufacturing. To ensure that the biosimilar approval process is more effective and that it can enter the market faster, some pharmaceutical companies are beginning to collaborate with contract research organizations (CRO) that offer a full range of processes from drug development, preclinical testing and clinical trials. This can be combined with preclinical evaluation, research circuit design, clinical trial management, data collection, statistical analysis and product compliance with regulatory requirements. In addition to a wealth of programs, technologies, equipment and personnel, contract research organizations can also provide more comprehensive expertise, especially in the experience of the original biological product development process. One of the biggest advantages of outsourcing is to reduce the pressure on the company, so that pharmaceutical companies can focus on innovative products or develop products with higher profits. In addition, outsourcing is also very beneficial for capital use efficiency because it allows biopharmaceutical companies to invest their R&D most cost-effectively, without the need for biosimilar products to demonstrate regulatory approval and market prospects. Some companies are highly specialized in certain technologies, such as mass spectrometry to analyze biological products. For biosimilars, these companies can also perform comparative analysis with reference products and provide high-quality immunobiological analysis services, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and multiple Meso Scale assays. From a clinical trial perspective, outsourcing companies can provide a more comprehensive set of technologies, including data management systems, electronic data records (EDC), and risk management programs that can be implemented through tracking systems, such as network-based patient registration to identify potential safety hazards. And the risk of immunogenicity that is less pronounced in preclinical and clinical trials. For biopharmaceutical companies, developing biosimilars has great market opportunities and challenges, and outsourcing to contract research organizations can enable companies to implement the fastest and most cost-effective way to introduce new products to the market. The knowledge, expertise, industry understanding and technology, skills and financial controls of a contract research organization are a solution that can benefit many companies. With the development of industry, the development of globalization will be of great significance for pharmaceutical companies to maintain competitiveness and financial health. This is also the only viable way to increase the effectiveness of biopharmaceuticals worldwide and to make them affordable and accessible. The European Generic Drugs Association (EGA) recommends that in order to achieve this goal, a scientific approach should be adopted to achieve globalization, so that regulatory approvals can be obtained in major markets. From this time on, there will not be too many new entrants entering the Western market, only those that can develop high quality formulas more cost-effectively, and meet the approval of the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration. Enterprises can occupy this area. Profacgen laboratories are dedicated to offer comprehensive one-stop services for pre-clinical drug development, including pharmacology/toxicity studies as well as chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) services worldwide, which aim to evaluate and improve the efficacy and safety of new drug candidates. The wide range of services provided by Profacgen aim to deliver an integrated platform for every step of drug development – from early-stage research all the way to commercialization. Its preclinical and CMC teams work closely with the clients to ensure that every project receives the attention it needs. All of its services are designed and executed in compliance with international regulatory requirements to support your clinical development and regulatory plans. Profacgen also provides a one-stop solution for biosimilar testing, including Toxicology, TK and Immunogenicity assessment. The company has developed more than a dozen biologics/ biosimilar for toxicology studies. Ranging from determining the exact sequence, structure and quality attributes of the originator to comparative head-to-head biosimilarity testing of the biosimilar with the originator, its biosimilar testing services provide vital analytics.
  26. As we know, pollution has an enormous impact on our health. The amount of toxic matter in the air we breathe, the organic pollutants and heavy metals we ingest from our daily supply of water and food are damaging for millions of lives every year. There is a reason to be worried. An unhealthy environment causes annually diseases like heart conditions, chronic respiratory disease and stroke. These are all the products of air pollution. There are solutions, and each individual has the power to decrease the amount of pollution that we create. We can start by identifying a specific location or source of pollution, where we as individuals can make an actual difference. Pollution doesn’t appear from anywhere, there are small sources from large land areas that later are concentrated in streams or rivers. People, of any age, can help to reduce these problems by taking actions. If you’ve planned to make some changes and you feel an inclination towards a healthier environment, here are a few aspects you should consider: Use Energy Efficient Products There are many ways to decrease your household’s energy use, starting from simple habit adjustments to considerable home improvements. The main reasons why you should start taking action as soon as possible is to protect the environment and save on utility bills. Here are some simple actions you could include in your routine and house: Adjust Your Daily Routine If you’re avid to make some changes you should purchase only energy-efficient products and start making some adjustments in the way you use energy. Learn to use energy-efficient. Whenever you’re leaving the room, turn off the lights and devices when you don’t need them anymore. You can save plenty of energy by taking care of your household task manually. Why not washing your dishes manually? It simple efficient and your energy bill will unexpectedly decrease. Replace Traditional Light Bulbs It’s well-known that traditional light bulbs must be replaced more often than other energy alternatives and consume an excessive amount of electricity. To avoid this, you should embrace the halogen incandescent bulbs, or light-emitting diode bulbs (LEDs) that last three times longer than your old bulbs and use 25-28% less energy. Even though energy-efficient bulbs are more expensive, their benefits are amazing not only for your wallet but for the environment too. Reduce Emissions of Any Type Huge industries that produce a great number of toxic emissions are one of the main threats to air quality. Big businesses are already acting towards this issue. They advocate for the use of public transportation, waste control and some of them are even using technologies for fume extraction that have expanded considerably in the last few years. The environment must be protected, and everyone can do something. It only needs the right attitude towards it and a strong will for small changes. Consider Public Transportation If you’re willing to help reduce pollution, global warming and your monthly expenses, one of the great things you can do is to say goodbye to your car. By encouraging public transportation, you will significantly reduce the volume of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Public transportation can also be safer and healthier. People who are using public transportation tend to be healthier than those who don’t because they exercise by walking from subway stations, bus stops to their homes and offices. Moreover, you can take into consideration the reduction of costs overall. Use a Bike or Walk Choosing to cycle can be the best decision you’ve made in life. Replacing your car ride by walking or bicycling will not only help reduce traffic but also emissions. It’s an amazing way to stay healthy, save the environment and cut daily expenses on transportation. In particular, cities when some trips tend to be shorter, it will be much easier to choose cycling as an alternative to transportation where you’ll generate zero air pollution. Choose Sustainable Products and Consume Less To start reducing the amount of waste and develop a healthy life you should first imagine all the complex processes necessary to build new items from scratch. Every stage of manufacture is related to the emissions of polluting particles, chemicals and greenhouse gases. It’s clear how our consumption needs are affecting the environment. People should consume less and check twice before buying an item. Whenever you feel the need to buy new products, do some research and find some local companies that are dedicated to sustainable practices and decreasing air pollution. Plants Can Help Some cities suffer from environmental degradation while others preserve and improve their environmental quality. People should take as an alternative to fighting the “urban heat island” effects by taking care of their urban green spaces. The effects of urban heat could be highly dangerous to the environment. How do urban green spaces could fight pollution and reduce heat? By increasing the number of bushes and trees, the heat will be alleviated by the moisture and shade. This is how plants work. Not only do green spaces provide shade in the agglomerated cities but they also produce transpiration. It is the effect of moisture that is carried from the roots to the leaves and later released in the atmosphere. This effect helps reduce the heat and release the necessary moisture in the air. In this day and age is important to develop a strong mindset towards environmental solutions. There are answers to this problem, and everyone can act. Regardless of age and race, people should consider some small changes in their habits if they’re determined to help the environment. Many people are taking a stand, they’re waking up and going green. Simple changes will always make a big difference towards the environmental issues and you already have the know-how. Because life is a circuit of bad and good habits, people who are aware of this fact are more likely to improve their lifestyle. There is a chance for improvement and a better world and all it requires is a strong will to make better changes.
  27. Conventional antibody Conventional antibodies or fully sized antibodies are glycoproteins called immunoglobulins that are produced by the reaction of plasma cells with foreign molecules or antigens. The most basic function of antibodies is to bind specific antigens and stimulate immune responses to protect the body from infection. Antibodies include several subtypes, and here IgG and IgM subtypes are mainly described. Antibodies to IgG and IgM subtypes are widely used in research, diagnosis and treatment. Structure of conventional antibodies The basic structure of an intact antibody consists of four peptide chains, including two heavy chains and two light chains, joined together by disulfide bonds. The antibody is shaped like a letter Y, and the hinge region of the Y structure is elastic. Each peptide chain has a constant region (very conserved across all antibodies) and a variable region (specific in antibody). The symbol of the light chain variable region is VL, and the symbol for the light chain constant region is CL (Fig. 1 left). Similarly, the variable and constant regions of the heavy chain are designated as (VH) and (CH), respectively. Carbohydrates usually bind to the CH2 region of the heavy chain. The Fc segment includes only the constant region (CH) of the heavy chain, but the Fab segment (Fab) that binds to the antigen includes a variable region of the constant region and the heavy chain and a variable region (VH and VL) of the light chain. The Fv region (variable fragment) contains only two variable regions. Fig. 1 The basic structure of a complete conventional antibody (left) and usual antibody fragment (right) Application of conventional antibodies Conventional antibodies have been used in research to detect target proteins by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for decades. Full-size antibodies are also used in clinical tests, such as pregnancy tests and the detection of HIV in the blood by ELISA. In addition, conventional intact antibodies are also used in the treatment of diseases. For example, infliximab is an antibody that recognizes tumor necrosis factor and is used to treat intestinal diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Trastuzumab or Herceptin is an antibody that binds to epithelial growth factor II and is used to treat metastatic breast cancer. In addition, there are many antibodies, including Muromomab, that are used in basic therapies after organ transplantation to prevent graft rejection. Advantages of using conventional antibodies include the ability of the Fc region to activate the body's immune response and bind to the target molecule to destroy it. Disadvantages of using intact antibodies include the inability to penetrate into certain tissues due to their large size. The ability of the Fc segment to activate some immune responses that are harmful to the patient is a disadvantage of clinically applied intact antibody therapy. The Fc region usually causes some non-specific binding and is detrimental to the application of antibody detection. Antibody fragment A fragment of an antibody can be obtained by chemical reagents and genetic engineering methods. The fragments obtained by chemical reagent are achieved by disrupting the disulfide bond in the hinge region or by digesting the antibody with proteases, including pepsin and papain. Genetically engineered fragments provide a large number of fragments, each with specific binding regions and functional traits. Fab, Fab', (Fab') 2, and Fv An antigen-binding fragment (Fab) can be obtained by chemical treatment and protease digestion, which is derived from the variable regions of the IgG and IgM. The antibody portion from which the Fabs fragment is removed is the Fc fragment and consists of the constant region of the heavy chain. Antigen-binding fragments include Fab, Fab', (Fab') 2, and Fv. These fragments are capable of binding antigen, but they lack the Fc segment, which includes constant regions 2 and 3 of the heavy chain. When the antibody was digested with papain, two separate F(ab) fragments were isolated from the Fc region. However, after digestion with pepsin, a F(ab')2 fragment with a small portion of the Fc hinge region was isolated from the antibody. Although the separation of antibody fragments by chemical means can produce many useful diagnostic and therapeutic tools, it is very time consuming and requires a large amount of antibody as a raw material. The monovalent F(ab) fragment has only one antigen-binding region, whereas the multivalent F(ab')2 fragment has two antigen-binding regions that are joined together by disulfide bonds. The F(ab')2 fragment produces two monovalent Fab' fragments and a free thio group that can be used for the binding of other molecules. The Fv fragment is the smallest fragment of the product after enzymatic analysis of IgG and IgM type antibodies. Fv fragment antigen binding region, which consists of VH and VC regions, but they lack the CH1 and CL regions (see Figure 1 right panel). VH and VL are combined in the Fv fragment by non-covalent bonds. ScFv, bispecific antibody, trispecific antibody, tetraspecific antibody, double-scFv, mimi antibody, Fab2, Fab3 The genetic engineering method is capable of producing a single-chain variable region (ScFv), which is an Fv-type fragment that includes VH and VL regions linked together by a flexible polypeptide (see Fig. 1 right panel). If the binding region has a length of at least 12 residues, the ScFv fragment is the monoclonal antibody. Different forms of Fv molecules can be created by manipulating the length of the V-domain and the hinge region. The resulting scFv molecule whose linker is a 3-11 residue cannot be folded into a functional Fv domain. Together with other scFv molecules, these molecules create a bivalent, bispecific antibody. If the length of the linker is less than 3 residues, the scFv molecules can interact to produce a trispecific or tetraspecific antibody. Multivalent scFvs have a stronger affinity for antigen binding than corresponding monovalent antibodies. The Mini antibody is a scFv-CH3 fusion protein that is loaded into a bivalent dimer. Bis-scFv fragments are bispecific. Miniaturized ScFv fragments can be produced by two different variable regions, allowing these Bis-scFv molecules to simultaneously bind two non-existing epitopes. Genetic methods can be used to generate bispecific Fab dimers (Fab2) and trispecific Fab trimers (Fab3). These antibody fragments are capable of binding to 2 (Fab2) or 3 (Fab3) different antibodies at the same time.
  28. There's been a big push in recent years to take a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) approach to energy conservation. Going green and onboarding sustainable practices has a number of tax benefits and can allow your organization to grow by helping you realize operational efficiencies in unexpected places. Energy Audit Industry plant experts say that energy is the number-one cost, so it makes sense to start there when you're talking about making a comprehensive energy audit. The sad part is that Plant Engineering found that fewer than half of industrial plants currently conduct a yearly energy audit. The essential part of a yearly energy audit - beyond conducting one in the first place! - is to determine how much energy you're currently using at each of your industrial plants. From there, you should determine what the source of that energy is so that you can potentially realize greener sources. Doing so might enable you to take advantage of federal subsidies for energy efficiency. Industrial brick refractory coating services can help industrial plants further reduce their fuel consumption. The refractory coating used in this process is ideal for the following applications: kiln, forge, furnace, oven, and metal equipment. Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Reducing hazardous raw materials and donating wood scraps leftover from the manufacturing process, as examples, can drastically reduce your carbon footprint and put your company on the right path towards environmental stewardship. Monitor HVAC and Lighting Where does the energy that comes in to an industrial plant ultimately go? Usually towards heating, cooling, and lighting. A programmable thermostat is probably the easiest way to optimize your heating and cooling processes, but take a look around as well to ensure that your insulation is up to snuff. Poor insulation in an industrial plant could mean that you're allowing your utility bills to skyrocket since so much heat is being allowed to exit the building. On the lighting side of things, many industrial plants waste a ton of money every year by stubbornly resisting the move from incandescent light bulbs to LED bulbs, which can provide as many lumens as incandescent bulbs without producing nearly the heat. Since providing light for a large industrial plant is no easy feat, the potential energy efficiency to be reaped from making the switch to LED bulbs is huge. LED bulbs will actually allow you to use three-fourths the energy and have your LED bulbs last 25 times longer than their incandescent counterparts.
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